The Gospel of Buddha, by Paul Carus

That's French for "the ancient system," as in the ancient system of feudal privileges and the exercise of autocratic power over the peasants. The ancien regime never goes away, like vampires and dinosaur bones they are always hidden in the earth, exercising a mysterious influence. It is not paranoia to believe that the elites scheme against the common man. Inform yourself about their schemes here.

Re: The Gospel of Buddha, by Paul Carus

Postby admin » Mon Jan 27, 2020 8:36 am



All the Buddhas are wonderful and glorious.
There is not their equal upon earth.
They reveal to us the path of life.
And we hail their appearance with pious reverence.1

All the Buddhas teach the same truth.
[Pg 259]They point out the path to those who go astray.
The Truth is our hope and comfort.
We gratefully accept its illimitable light.2

Ah the Buddhas are one in essence,
Which is omnipresent in all modes of being,
Sanctifying the bonds that tie all souls together,
And we rest in its bliss as our final refuge.
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Re: The Gospel of Buddha, by Paul Carus

Postby admin » Mon Jan 27, 2020 8:37 am


[list of abbr. in this table follows here]

Sources: EA
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: Descent from heaven omitted
Sources: LV; rGya, iii-iv
Parallelisms: Klopstock's Messias Gesang I

Gospel: IV
Sources: Fo, vv. 1-147
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: IV, 6
Sources: BSt, p. 64
Parallelisms: Mark vii, 32, 37; Matth. xi, 5

Gospel: IV, 9
Sources: Fo, vv. 22-24
Parallelisms: Matth. ii, 1

Gospel: IV, 12
Sources: Fo, vv. 39-40
Parallelisms: Luke ii, 36

Gospel: IV, 17
Sources: RB 150; RHB 52
Parallelisms: Pseudo Matth. 23

Gospel: IV, 27
Sources: Fo, v. 147
Parallelisms: Luke ii, 52

Gospel: Omitted
Sources: RHB, pp. 103-108
Parallelisms: Matth. ii, 16

Gospel: V
Sources: HM, p. 156; RB, p. 83; rGya, xii
Parallelisms: —

Sources: Fo, vv. 152-156
Parallelisms: Luke ii, 46-47

Gospel: V, 9
Sources: Fo, v. 164
Parallelisms: Matth. iii, 16

Gospel: VI
Sources: Fo, vv. 191-322
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: VI, 19-20
Sources: BSt, pp. 79-80; RB, p. 23
Parallelisms: Luke xi, 27-28

Gospel: VII
Sources: Fo, vv. 335-417
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: VII, 7
Sources: BSt, p. 5-6
[Pg 261]Parallelisms: —

Gospel: VII, 18-19
Sources: BSt, p. 18
Parallelisms: Matt. xxiv, 35; Luke xxi, 33; Luke xvi, 17

Gospel: VII, 23-24
Sources: BSt, p. 84
Parallelisms: Luke iv, 5-8 [see also Matth. iv, 1-7 and Mark i, 13]

Gospel: VIII
Sources: Fo, vv. 778-918
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: VIII, 15
Sources: DP, v. 178
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: IX
Sources: Fo, vv. 919-1035; Cf. "Arāda and Udraka" in Rhys Davids's Dialogue
Parallelisms: Compare the results of modern psychology

Gospel: IX, 6
Sources: MV. 1, 6, Secs. 36-38 [SB, xiii, p. 100]
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: IX, 14
Sources: QKM, pp. 83-86
Parallelisms: Evolution theory

Gospel: IX, 15
Sources: QKM,p. 133
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: IX, 16
Sources: QKM, p. 111
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: X
Sources: Fo, vv. 1000-1023
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: X, 4, 5
Sources: SN, vv. 425, 439; SN, v. 445
Parallelisms: Luke iv, 2-4; John iii, 46

Gospel: X, 11
Sources: Fo, vv. 1024; Fo, vv. 1222-1224
Parallelisms: Luke vii, 19; Matth ii, 3

Gospel: XI [See LXXXIX, 1-6]
Sources: Fo, vv. 1026-1110
Parallelisms: Luke iv, 2; Matth. iv, 1-7; Mark i, 13

Gospel: XII
Sources: Fo, vv. 1111-1199
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XII, 8
Sources: QKM, p. 79; SDP, vii [SB, xxi, p. 172]
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XII, 11-15
Sources: SDP, iii [SB, xxi, p. 90]; MV, i, 6 Secs. 19-28; Cf. OldG, pp. 227-228, OldE, p. 211; RhDB, pp. 106-107
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XII, 16
Sources: BSt, pp. 103-104; Cf. DP, pp. 153-154; Db, p. 12
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XII, 20
Sources: rGya, 355
[Pg 262]Parallelisms: Matth. v, 3-11

Gospel: XIII
Sources: MV, i, 4
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XIV
Sources: MV, i, 5
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XIV, 2
Sources: MV, i, 3, Sec. 4
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XIV, 14
Sources: MPN, iii, 44, 45; Cf. W, p. 87
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XV
Sources: Fo, vv. 1200-1217; MV, i, 6, Secs. 1-9
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XVI
Sources: Fo, vv. 1217-1279; MV, i, 6, Secs. 10-47
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XVI, 5
Sources: SN, v. 248
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XVI, 6
Sources: RhDB p. 131
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XVI, 7
Sources: SN, v. 241
Parallelisms: Matth. xv, 10

Gospel: XVII
Sources: MV, i, 6, Sec. 10-47
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XVII, 10-12
Sources: Saniyuttaka Nikāya, vol. iii, fol. sā, quoted by OldG, p. 364; OldE, p. 339
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XVII, 13-18
Sources: MV, i, 11
Parallelisms: —

Sources: Fo, vv. 1297-1300
Parallelisms: Luke ix, 1-6; Luke x, 1-24

Gospel: XVII, 15
Sources: QKM, p. 264
Parallelisms: Matth. v, 16

Sources: QKM, p. 266
Parallelisms: Matth. vii, 6

Gospel: XVIII
Sources: MV, 1, 7; 8, 9; Fo, vv. 1280-1296
Parallelisms: John iii, 2

Gospel: XVIII, 8
Sources: Fo, vv. 1289-1290
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XVIII, 10
Sources: Fo, v. 1292
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XIX
Sources: Fo, vv. 1300-1334; MV, 1, 20-21
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XX
Sources: Fo, vv. 1335-1379; MV, 1, 22
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XX, 19-20
Sources: SN, v. 148; Metta Sutta. [An often quoted sentence. RhDB, p. 109, Hardy, "Legends and Theories of the Buddhas," p. 212]
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XX, 23
Sources: RhDB, p. 62
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XX, 28
Sources: Fo, v. 1733
[Pg 263]Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XXI
Sources: Fo, vv. 1380-1381; MV, 1, 22, Secs. 15-18
Parallelisms: Matth. xxi, 1-11; Mark. xi, 1-10; Luke xix, 28-38; John xii, 12-15

Gospel: XXII
Sources: Fo, vv. 1382-1433; MV 1, 23-24; W, p. 89
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XXII, 3-5
Sources: MV, 1, 23, Secs. 13-14
Parallelisms: — Matth. xxi, 9; Mark xi, 9; John xii, 13

Gospel: XXIII, 10-20
Sources: EA
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XXIV
Sources: Fo, vv. 1496-1521
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XXV, 4
Sources: Fo, vv. 1516-1517
Parallelisms: Acts xx, 35

Gospel: XXV
Sources: Fo, vv. 1522-1533, 1611-1671
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XXVI, 1-7
Sources: AN, iii, 134.
Parallelisms: Compare the results of modern psychology

Gospel: XXVI, 8-13
Sources: US, p. 112; W, p. xiv
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XXVII
Sources: Fo, vv. 1534-1610; HM, p. 204
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XXVIII
Sources: HM, p. 203 et seqq.; BSt, pp. 125-126
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XXIX
Sources: MV, i, 54; HM, 208-209
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XXX
Sources: MV, viii, 23-36 [SB, xvii, pp. 193-194]
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XXXI
Sources: Fo vv. 1672-1673
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XXXII
Sources: HM, pp. 353-354
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XXXII, 4-6
Sources: W, pp. 443-444
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XXXIII
Sources: S42S; Fo, vv. 1757-1766; Bf, p. 153
Parallelisms: Matth. v, 28

Gospel: XXXIII, 9-11
Sources: Fo vv. 1762-1763
Parallelisms: Eph. vi, 13-17

Sources: Fo, vv. 1763
Parallelisms: Mark ix, 47; Matth. v, 29; Matth. xviii, 9

Gospel: XXXIV[Pg 264]
Sources: MV, viii, 15. [SB, xvii, pp. 219-225.]
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XXXIV, 24 [Last part of the verse.]
Sources: Bgt, p. 211
Parallelisms: Luke viii, 2; Matth. xiii, 24-27

Gospel: XXXV
Sources: MV, ii
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XXXVI
Sources: MV, x, 1, 2, Sec. 1-2; Sec. 20; C, vol iii, p. 139
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XXXVII
Sources: MV, x, 5-6, 2 Sec. 3-20
Parallelisms: —

Sources: MV, v, 4
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XXXVIII, 3
Sources: BSt, p. 311
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XXXVIII, 5
Sources: MV, v, 4, 2 [SB, xvii, p. 18]
Parallelisms: Matth. v, 46-47

Gospel: XXXIX
Sources: Fo, vv. 1713-1734; HM, pp. 337-340
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XXXIX, 4
Sources: BSt, p. 200
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XXXIX, 7
Sources: DP, v. 227; SB, x, p. 58 (cf. ChD, p. 122)
Parallelisms: Matth. xi, 16, 19

Gospel: XL
Sources: V, xviii, xx; W, pp. 184-186
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XLI
Sources: MV, vi, 29 [SB, xvii, pp. 104-105.]
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XLI, 12-13
Sources: Metta Sutta; SN v. 148. [Cf. RhDB, p. 109]
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XLII
Sources: RB, pp. 68-69. [Cf. RhDB, p. 71 and OldG, 376-378.]
Parallelisms: Mark iii, 14; Luke ix, 2

Sources: Bgt, 212
Parallelisms: Matth. xiii, 3 et seq.; Mark iv, 3-20

Gospel: XLIV
Sources: TPN, p. 129
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XLV
Sources: TPN, pp. 22-23 and p. 25
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XLVI
Sources: S42S, 4
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XLVII
Sources: SDP, x, xiii, xxvii
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XLVII, 23
Sources: SDP, xxiv, 22. [SB, xxi, p. 416.]
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XLVIII
Sources: DP in SB, x
[Pg 265]Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XLVIII, 36-37
Sources: DP, v. 5
Parallelisms: Matth. v, 44

Gospel: XLVIII, 46
Sources: SN, vv. 784-785, 885-888, 834 [SB, x, 149, 159, 169.]
Parallelisms: Matth. xi, 29-30

Gospel: XLVIII, 47
Sources: DP, v. 275
Parallelisms: II Cor. vii, 7

Gospel: XLVIII, 55
Sources: DP, v. 387
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XLIX
Sources: SB, xi, pp. 157-203
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XLIX, 17
Sources: SB, xi, pp. 173-174
Parallelisms: Matth. xv, 14

Gospel: L
Sources: SSP, pp. 297-320 [Cf. RhDB, 143.]
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: LI, 1-14; LI, 31-75
Sources: MV, vi, 31. [SB, xvii, pp. 108-113.]
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: LI, 15-30
Sources: EA [cf. QKM, pp. 254-257]
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: LII
Sources: EA [cf. CBS, p. 15 and also MV, v]
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: LIII
Sources: Compiled from HM, pp. 280 et seq.; Fo, v. 1682, 1683; W, p. 219; and QKM, pass.
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: LIII, 18-23a
Sources: QKM, p. 120
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: LIII, 23b
Sources: QKM, p. 148
Parallelisms: John iii, 8

Gospel: LIII, 26-27
Sources: QKM, p. 67
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: LIII, 29-32
Sources: QKM, pp. 73-74
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: LIII, 47-59
Sources: QKM, pp. 63, 83-86
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: LIII, 53
Sources: US and W, motto
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: LIV, 1-2
Sources: Fo, vv. 1208, 1228
Parallelisms: Matth. v, 3-11

Gospel: LIV, 3
Sources: Brahmajāla Sutta, quoted by RhDB, p. 99
Parallelisms: John xvi, 16; Matth. xxiv, 23

Gospel: LIV, 4
Sources: Gospel: QKM, p. 114
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: LIV, 5
Sources: Fo, v. 1231
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: LIV, 6-8
Sources: rGya, p. 372
Parallelisms: Matth. xi, 28

Gospel: LIV, 9
Sources: S42S, 16
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: LIV, 10
Sources: QKM, p. 110
Parallelisms: John xiv, 6; John xviii, 37

Gospel: LV
Sources: SDP, v
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: LVI
Sources: Mahā Rāhula Sutta
[Pg 266]Parallelisms: —

Gospel: LVII
Sources: S42S
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: LVIII
Sources: Buddhist Catena
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: LIX
Sources: SN, pp. 58-62; p, 25; p. 147; p. 54; MV, i, 3, Sec. 4 [cf. OldE, p. 118]; Nidhikanda Sutta, quoted by RhDB, p. 127
Parallelisms: Matth. vi, 20

Gospel: LX, 7-8
Sources: RhDB, p. 156
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: LX, 12
Sources: Beal, Buddhism of China, chap, xii
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: LX, 18-23
Sources: RhDB, p. 170
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: LX, 27-28
Sources: EH
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: LX, 29
Sources: QKM, p. 127
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: LX, 31
Sources: RhDB, pp. 175-176
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: LX, 33
Sources: RhDB,p. 173
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: LXI
Sources: MPN, 111, 22. [SB, xx, p. 48-49.]
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: LXI, 3-5
Sources: Chullavaggaxx, 1-4. [SB, xx, 301-305]
Parallelisms: Matth. v, 13

Gospel: LXI, 6-9
Sources: Sutra Dsauglun [cf. R. Seydel "Das Ev. v. Jesu in s. Verb. z. Buddha-Sage" pp. 184-185]
Parallelisms: Matth. v, 1-2

Gospel: LXII
Sources: EA
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: LXIII
Sources: See OC, xvii, pp. 353-354
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: LXIII, 7-9
Sources: Ug, vii, 14 seq.
Parallelisms: Matth. xxv, 14 et seq.

Gospel: LXIV
Sources: DP, v
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: LXV
Sources: SDP, iv
Parallelisms: Luke xv, 11 et seq.

Gospel: LXVI
Sources: BSt, pp. 211, 299. [See PT, 11, 58.]
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: LXVII
Sources: BSt, pp. 315 et seq.
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: LXVIII
Sources: ChD, pp. 88-89
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: LXVIII, 6
Sources: ChD
Parallelisms: Mark xii, 42-44

Gospel: LXIX
Sources: ChD, p. 46
[Pg 267]Parallelisms: The Story of Diogenes and his Lantern

Gospel: LXX
Sources: ChD, p. 134
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: LXXI
Sources: Bgp, pp. 107 et seq.
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: LXXII
Sources: ChD, p. 77
Parallelisms: Luke xii, 20

Gospel: LXXIII
Sources: BSt, p. 147
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: LXXIII, 15
Sources: BSt
Parallelisms: Exodus xvii, 6

Gospel: LXXIV
Sources: SN, pp. 11-15
Parallelisms: Matth. xiii, 3 et seq.; Mark iv, 14

Gospel: LXXV
Sources: SN, pp. 20 et seq.
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: LXXVI
Sources: Bf, p. 205.
Parallelisms: John v, 5 et seq.

Gospel: LXXVII
Sources: HM, pp. 317-319
Parallelisms: —

Sources: Jātaka Tales
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: LXXX
Sources: Bf, pp. 146 et seq.
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: LXXXI
Sources: Fu-Pen-Hing-tsi-King, tr. by S. Beal
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: LXXXI, 7-10
Sources: EA
Parallelisms: John ii, 1 et seq.

Gospel: LXXXII
Sources: MV, i, 14
Parallelisms: —

Sources: ChD, p. 130 et seq.
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: LXXXIII, 5
Sources: BP, p. 16
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: LXXXIII, 5, 6, 9
Sources: ChD and SS
Parallelisms: Matth. xxii, 30

Gospel: LXXXIV, 1-14
Sources: BP, pp. 98 et seqq.
Parallelisms: Greek versions quoted by Jacob H. Thiessen, LKG.

Gospel: LXXXIV, 15-28
Sources: SB, x, p. 106
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: LXXXV
Sources: ChD, pp. 50-51
Parallelisms: Matth. v. 25, 29

Gospel: LXXXV, 6
Sources: ChD, cf OC No. 470
Parallelisms: Rom. iii, 28

Gospel: LXXXVI
Sources: ChD, pp. 94-98
Parallelisms: —

Sources: C, ii p. 262
Parallelisms: —

Sources: MPN, i [SB, xi, p. 1 et seqq.]
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: LXXXIX
Sources: MPN, i, 19, 22; MV, vi, 28
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XC
Sources: MPN, i, 16
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XCI
Sources: MPN, ii, 9
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XCI, 6
Sources: MPN
Parallelisms: 1 Cor. 15, 55

Gospel: XCII
Sources: MPN, 11, 12-24; Fo, vv. 1749-1753, 1768-1782
[Pg 268]Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XCIII
Sources: MPN, ii, 27-35
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XCIV, 1
Sources: BSt,p. 84
Parallelisms: See Matth. iv, 1 and Mark i, 13

Gospel: XCIV, 2-13
Sources: MPN, iii, 46-63
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XCV
Sources: MPN, iv, 14-57
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XCV, 6
Sources: MPN, iv, 25
Parallelisms: John xix, 28

Gospel: XCV, 14-22
Sources: MPN, iv, 47-52
Parallelisms: Matth. xxvii, 2; Mark ix, 2

Gospel: XCVI
Sources: MPN, v, 1-14, concerning Metteyya see EH s.v. RhDB, pp. 180, 200; OldG, p. 153, etc.
Parallelisms: John xiv, 26

Gospel: XCVII
Sources: MPN, v, 52-69, and vi; Fo, vv. 2303-2310
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XCVII, 19-20; XCVII, 23-24
Sources: Mahātanhāsamkhaya-Sutta, Majjhima Nikāya, vol. 1, p. 263, quoted by OldG, p. 349, E, p. 325.
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: XCVII, 22
Sources: Suttavibbanga, Parājika 1, pp. 1, 4 quoted by OldG, p. 349, E, p. 325
Parallelisms: 1 Cor. xv, 20

Gospel: XCVIII
Sources: EA, embodying later traditions, see EH and almost any other work on Buddhism.
Parallelisms: The Christian Trinity dogma

Gospel: XCIX
Sources: EA
Parallelisms: —

Gospel: C
Sources: EA, in imitation of a formula at present in use among Northern Buddhists
Parallelisms: —
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Re: The Gospel of Buddha, by Paul Carus

Postby admin » Mon Jan 27, 2020 8:39 am


AN.—Añguttara Nikāya in Warren's Buddhism in Translations.

Bf.—Burnouf, Introduction à l'histoire du Bouddhisme Indien, Paris 1844.

Bgt.—The Life or Legend of Gautama, by the R. Rev. P. Bigandet.[Pg 269]

BL.—Buddhist Literature in China by Samuel Beal.

Bf.—Buddhaghosha's Parables. Translated by T. Rogers, London, 1870.

BSt.—Buddhist Birth Stories or Jātaka Tales. Translated by Rhys Davids.

C.—The Jātaka edited by Prof. E.B. Cowell, Cambridge.

CBS.—A Catena of Buddhist Scriptures from the Chinese by Samuel Beal. London, 1871.

ChD.—[Chinese Dhammapada.] Texts from the Buddhist Canon, commonly known as Dhammapada. Translated by S. Beal, London and Boston, 1878.

Dh.—The Dharma, or The Religion of Enlightenment by Paul Carus. 5th ed. Chicago, 1907.

DP.—The Dhammapada. Translated from Pāli by F. Max Müller, Vol. X, Part I, of the Sacred Books of the East. Oxford, 1881.

EA.—Explanatory Addition.

EH.—Handbook of Chinese Buddhism, by Ernest J. Eitel. London, 1888.

Fo.—The Fo-Sho-Hing-Tsan-King. A Life of Buddha by Asvaghosha, translated from Sanskrit into Chinese by Dharmarakhsha, A.D. 420, and from Chinese into English by Samuel Beal. Vol. XIX of the Sacred Books of the East. Oxford, 1883.

G.—Reden Gotamo's by Karl Eugen Neumann.

HF.—Hymns of the Faith (Dhammapada) transl. by Albert J. Edmunds.

HM.—A Manual of Buddhism, by R. Spence Hardy.

LKG.—Die Legende von Kisāgotamī, by Jakob H. Thiessen. Breslau, 1880.

LV.—Lalita Vistara, translated into German by Dr. S. Lefmann. Berlin, 1874.

MPN.—The Mahāparinibbāna Suttanta. The Book of the Great Decease. Vol. XI of the Sacred Books of the East. Oxford 1881.

MP.—The Mahāvagga. I-IV in Vol. XIII; V-X in Vol. XVII of the Sacred Books of the East. Oxford, 1881-1882.

MY.—Outlines of the Mahāyāna as Taught by Buddha, by S. Kuroda. Tokyo, Japan, 1893.

OC.—The Open Court, a monthly magazine, published by the Open Court Publishing Company, Chicago.

OldG.—German Edition, Buddha, sein Leben, seine Lehre und seine Gemeinde, by H. Oldenberg. Second Edition. Berlin, 1890.

OldE.—English translation, Buddha, His Life, His Doctrine, and His Order by H. Oldenberg. London, 1882.

PT.—Pantschatantra, translated into German by Theodor Benfey. Two vols. Leipsic, 1859.

QKM.—The Questions of King Milinda, translated from Pāli by T.W. Rhys Davids, Vol. XXXV of the Sacred Books of the East. Oxford, 1890.

RB.-The Life of the Buddha from Thibetan Works, transl. by W.W. Rockhill. London, 1884.[Pg 270]

rGya.—rGya Tchee Roll Pa, Histoire du Bouddha Sakya Mouni, by Foucaux. Paris, 1868.

RHB.—The Romantic History of Buddha from the Chinese Sanskrit, by S. Beal. London, 1875.

RhDB.—Buddhism, by T.W. Rhys Davids, in the Series of Non-Christian Religious Systems. London, 1890.

S42S.—Sutra of Forty-two Sections. Kyoto, Japan.

SB.-Sacred Books of the East.

SN.—Sutta Nipāta, translated from the Pāli by V. Fausböll. Part II, Vol. X of the Sacred Books of the East. Oxford, 1881.

SS.—A Brief Account of Shin-Shiu by R. Akamatsu. Kyoto, Japan, 1893.

SSP.—Sept Suttas Pālis by M.P. Grimblot. Paris, 1876.

TPN.—Buddhistische Anthologie. Texte aus dem Pāli-Kanon. By Dr. Karl Eugen Neumann. Leyden, 1892.

Ug.—Uttarādhyayana, translated by H. Jacobi. Vol. XLV of the Sacred Books of the East.

US.—The Udāna by Major General D.M. Strong.

V.—Visuddhi-Magga in Warren's Buddhism in Translations.

W.—Buddhism in Translations by Henry Clarke Warren.

The original Pāli texts are published in the Journal of the Pāli Text Society, London, Henry Frowde.
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Re: The Gospel of Buddha, by Paul Carus

Postby admin » Mon Jan 27, 2020 8:40 am


[In the text of the present booklet all unnecessary terms have been avoided. Whenever a good English equivalent could be found, the foreign expression has been dropped. Nevertheless, the introduction not only of many foreign-sounding names, but also of some of the original terms, was unavoidable.

Now we have to state that the Eastern people, at least those of Hindu culture during the golden age of Buddhism in India, adopted the habit of translating not only terms but also names. A German whose name is Schmied is not called Smith in English, but Buddhists, when translating from Pāli into Sanskrit, change Siddhattha into Siddhartha. The reason of this strange custom lies in the fact that Buddhists originally employed the popular speech and did not adopt the use of Sanskrit until about five hundred years after Buddha. Since the most important names and terms, such as Nirvāna, Karma and Dharma, have become familiar to us in their Sanskrit form, while their Pali equivalents, Nibbāna, Kamma and Dhamma, are little used, it appeared advisable to prefer for some terms the Sanskrit forms, but there are instances in which the Pāli, for some reason or other, has been preferred by English authors [e. g. Krishā Gautamī is always called Kisāgotamī], we present here in the Glossary both the Sanskrit and the Pāli forms.

Names which have been Anglicised, such as "Brahmā, Brahman, Benares, Jain, and karma," have been preserved in their accepted form. If we adopt the rule of transferring Sanskrit and Pali words in their stem-form, as we do in most cases (e.g. Nirvāna, ātman), we ought to call[Pg 272] Brahmā "Brahman," and karma "karman." But us us est tyrannus. In a popular book it is not wise to swim against the stream.

Following the common English usage of saying "Christ," not "the Christ," we say in the title "Buddha," not "the Buddha."]

Abni'ññā, p., Abhi'jññā, skt., supernatural talent. There are six abhijññās which Buddha acquired when attaining perfect enlightenment:—(i) the celestial eye, or an intuitive insight of the nature of any object in any universe; (2) the celestial ear, or the ability to understand any sound produced in any universe; (3) the power of assuming any shape or form; (4) knowledge of all forms of pre-existence of one's self and others; (5) intuitive knowledge of the minds of all beings; and (6) knowledge of the finality of the stream of life.—175, 176.

Acira'vatī, p. and skt., a river.—96.

Agni, p. and skt., a god of the Brahmans, the god of fire.—49.

Ajatasa'ttu, p., Ajatasa'tru, skt., the son of king Bimbisāra and his successor to the throne of Magadha.—110-112, 219.

Alā'ra, p., Ārā'da, skt., a prominent Brahman philosopher. His full name is Ālāra Kālāma.—29, 239.

Ambapā'lī, the courtesan, called "Lady Amra" in Fo-Sho-Hing-Tsan-King. It is difficult for us to form a proper conception of the social position of courtesans at Buddha's time in India. This much is sure, that they were not common prostitutes, but ladies of wealth, possessing great influence. Their education was similar to the hetairs in Greece, where Aspasia played so prominent a part. Their rank must sometimes have been like that of Madame Pompadour in France at the court of Louis XIV. They rose to prominence, not by birth, but by beauty, education, refinement, and other purely personal accomplishments, and many of them were installed by royal favor. The first paragraphs of Khandhaka VIII of the Mahāvagga [S. B., Vol. XVII, pp. 171-172] gives a fair idea of the important role of courtesans in those days. They were not necessarily venal daughters of lust, but, often women of distinction and repute, worldly, but not disrespectable.—227, 228, 231, 232.

Amitā'bha, p. and skt., endowed with boundless light, from amita, infinite, immeasurable, and ābbā, ray of light, splendor, the bliss of enlightenment. It is a term of later Buddhism and has been personified as Amitābha Buddha, or Amita. The invocation of the all-saving name of Amitābha Buddha is a favorite tenet of the Lotus or Pure Land sect, so popular in China and Japan. Their poetical conception of a paradise in the West is referred to in Chapter LX. Southern Buddhism knows nothing of a personified Amitābha, and the Chinese travellers[Pg 273] Fa-hien and Hiuen-tsang do not mention it. The oldest allusion to Amita is found in the Amitāyus Sūtra, translated A.D. 148-170. [See Eitel, Handbook, pp. 7-9.]—172, 173, 174, 175.

Āna'nda, p. and skt., Buddha's cousin and his favorite disciple. The Buddhistic St. John (Johannes).—86, 87, 90, 92, 93, 120, 177, 190, 191, 196, 197, 219, 220, 225, 226, 233, 234, 235, 236, 238, 239, 240, 241, 245, 246, 247, 248, 249.

Anāthapi'ndika, p. and skt., (also called Anāthapi'ndada in skt.) literally "One who gives alms (pinda) to the unprotected or needy (anātha)." Eitel's etymology "one who gives without keeping (anātha) a mouthful (pinda) for himself" is not tenable. A wealthy lay devotee famous for his liberality and donor of the Jetavana vihāra.—72, 75, 76, 77, 81, 168.

Annabhā'ra, p. and skt., literally "he who brings food"; name of Sumana's slave.—189, 190.

Aññā'ta, p., Âjñā'ta, skt., literally "knowing", a cognomen of Kondañña, the first disciple of Buddha.—56.

Anuru'ddha, a prominent disciple of Buddha, known as the great master of Buddhist metaphysics. He was a cousin of Buddha, being the second son of Amritodana, a brother of Suddhodana.—86, 249, 253, 254.

A'rahat, p., Ar'hant, skt., a saint. (See also Saint in Index.)—97.

Arati, dislike, hatred. The opposite of rati. The name of one of Māra's daughters, q. v.—36.

A'sita, p. and skt., a prophet.—9, 10.

A'ssaji, p., Aśvajit, skt., one of Buddha's disciples by whose dignified demeanor Sāriputta is converted.—70.

Ā'tman, skt., Atta, p., breath as the principle of life, the soul, self, the ego. To some of the old Brahman schools the ātman constitutes a metaphysical being in man, which is the thinker of his thoughts, the perceiver of his sensations, and the doer of his doings. Buddha denies the existence of an ātman in this sense.—29, 30, 32, 33, 154, 158.

Balā'ni, or pañca-balāni, p. and skt., (the singular is bala, power), the five moral powers (also called panca-indriyani), which are: Faith, energy, memory or recollection, meditation or contemplation, and wisdom or intuition.

Beluva, a village near Vesālī.—232.

Benares, the well-known city in India; Anglicised form of Vārānasī, skt., and Bārānasī, p. (See Kāsī.)—47, 48, 49, 58, 61, 104-106, 215.

Bha'gavat, p., Bha'gavant, skt., the man of merit, worshipful, the Blessed One. A title of honor given to Buddha.—21, 170, 195.[Pg 274]

Bha'llika, p. and skt., a merchant.—42.

Bhāradvā'ja, p. and skt., name of a Brahman.—139, 141, 194.

Bhā'vanā, p. and skt., meditation. There are five principal meditations: metta-bhavana, on love; karunā-bhāvanā, on pity; mudita-bhavana, on joy; asubha-bhāvanā, on impurity; and upekhā-bhāvanā, on serenity. [See Rhys Davids's Buddhism, pp. 170-171.]—174, 175.

Bhi'kkhu, p., bhi'kshu, skt., mendicant, monk, friar; the five bhikkhus, 34, 35, 47, 49, 55, 56, 88, 90, 91, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 108, 120, 170, 171, 172, 177, 183, 209, 234; bhikkhus doffed their robes, 95; bhikkhus rebuked, 109; bhikkhus prospered, 221; the sick bhikkhu, 213.

Bhi'kkhunī, p., bhi'kshunī, skt., nun.—93, 95, 96.

Bimbisā'ra, p. and skt., the king of Magadha; often honored with the cognomen "Sai'nya," skt., or "Se'niya," i.e. "the warlike or military."—25, 26, 65, 69, 90, 98, 110, 111, 219.

Bo'dhi, p. and skt., knowledge, wisdom, enlightenment.—151.

Bodhi-a'nga or Bojjha'nga, or Sa'tta Bojjha'nga, meditation on the seven kinds of wisdom, which are:—energy, recollection, contemplation, investigation of scripture, joy, repose, and serenity.—97.

Bodhisa'tta, p., Bodhisa'ttva, skt., he whose essence (sattva) is becoming enlightenment (bodhi). The term denotes (1) one who is about to become a Buddha, but has not as yet attained Nirvāna; (2) a class of saints who have only once more to be born again to enter into Nirvāna; (3) in later Buddhism any preacher or religious teacher.—9, 21, 25, 86, 118, 192, 194, 214-216; appearance of, 25; Bodhisattas, 130.

Bodhi-tree, the tree at Buddha-Gaya, species ficus religiosa.—36.

Bra'hmā, Anglicised form of skt. stem-form Brahman (nom. s. Brahmā). The chief God of Brahmanism, the world-soul. See also Sahampati.—43, 44, 45, 87, 141; Brahmā, a union with, 139; Brahmā, face to face, 140; Brahmā's mind, 141.

Brahmada'tta, p. and skt., (etym. given by Brahmā) name of a mythical king of Kâshî, skt., or Kāsī, p.—104-108, 192, 199, 200, 215.

Bra'hman, the priestly caste of the Indians. Anglicised form of Brahmana (p. and skt.). Priests were selected from the Brahman caste, but Brahmans were not necessarily priests; they were farmers, merchants, and often high officials in the service of kings. Brahmans, the two—139.

Buddha, p. and skt., the Awakened One, the Enlightened One—. Buddha is also called Sakyamuni (the Sakya sage), Sakyasimha (the Sakya Lion), Sugata (the Happy One), Satthar, nom. Satthâ, p.; Shāstar, skt., (the Teacher), Jina (the Conqueror), Bhagavat (the Blessed One), Lokanātha (the Lord of the World), Sarvajña (the Omniscient One), Dharmarāja[Pg 275] (the King of Truth), Tathāgata, etc. [See Rh. Davids's B. p. 28.] B., faith in the, 226; B., I am not the first, 245; B. not Gotama, 160; B., refuge in the, 42, 60, 61, 68, 71, 150, 160, 168, 202, 206, 211, 247, 257; B. remains, Gotama is gone, 247; B. replies to the deva, 168; B., the sower, 194; B., the teacher, 177; B., the three personalities of, 252; B., the truth, 2, 161, 254; B., truly thou art, 45, 150; B. will arise, another, 245; B.'s birth, 8; B.'s death, 249; B.'s farewell address, 249; consolidation of B.'s religion, 89; Buddhas, the praise of all the, 258; Buddhas, the religion of all the, 68; Buddhas, the words of immutable, 20, 22.

Cha'nna, p. and skt., prince Siddhattha's driver.—15, 25. Chu'nda, p. and skt., the smith of Pāvā.—237, 240, 241.

Dāgo'ba, modernised form of skt. Dhātu-ga'rbha, "relic shrine," (also called Stūpa in Northern Buddhism) a mausoleum, tower containing relics, a kenotaph.—250, 253.

Dā'namatī, and skt., name of a village. The word means "having a mind to give."—152.

De'va, p. and skt., any celestial spirit, a god especially of intermediate rank, angel.—Deva, questions of the, 168; Buddha replies to the deva, 168; Devas, 29, 55, 69, 92.

Devada'tta (etym. god-given) brother of Yasodharā and Buddha's brother-in-law. He tried to found a sect of his own with severer rules than those prescribed by Buddha. He is described undoubtedly with great injustice in the Buddhist canon and treated as a traitor. [About his sect see Rh. Davids's B. p. 181-182.]—86, 88, 110-112, 214.

Devapu'tta, p., Devapu'tra, skt., (etym. Son of a God) one of Buddha's disciples.—250.

Dhammapa'da, p., Dharmapa'da, skt.—131.

Dha'rma, skt., Dha'mma, p., originally the natural condition of things or beings, the law of their existence, truth, then religious truth, the law, the ethical code of righteousness, the whole body of religious doctrines as a system, religion.—40, 41, 42, 44, 57, 61, 64, 68, 71, 74, 84, 98-101, 138, 145, 146, 147, 150, 160, 168, 170, 171, 178, 179, 214, 246, 248, 250, 252, 253; let a man take pleasure in the dharma, 171; the goodness of the dharma, 134.

Dharmakā'ya, skt., the body of the law.—254.

Dharmarā'ja, skt., Dhammarā'ja, p., the king of truth.—21, 78, 130.

Dīghā'vu, Dīrghā'yu, skt., the etymology of the word is "livelong." Name of a mythical prince, son of king Dīghīti.—104-108.[Pg 276]

Dīghī'ti, p., Dīrghe'ti, skt., literally "suffer-long," Name of a mythical king, father of prince Dīghā'vu.—104-108.

Ganges, the well known river of India.—14, 21, 224.

Gava'mpati, p., Gavā'mpati, skt., literally "lord of cows," a friend of Yasa.—61.

Ga'yā Kassapa, brother of the great Kassapa of Uruvelā.—64.

Go'tama, p., Gau'tama, skt., Buddha's family name.—7, 48, 49, 62, 65, 71, 140, 141, 142, 144, 145, 151, 160, 195; Gotama denies the existence of the soul, 151; Gotama is gone, Buddha remains, 247; Buddha not Gotama, 160; Gotama the samana, 146; Gotama Siddhattha, 110, 165, 253.

Gotamī, name of any woman belonging to the Gotama family. Kisā Gotamī, 16, 209, 210, 211.

Hinayā'na, skt., the small vehicle, viz., of salvation. A name invented by Northern Buddhists, in contradistinction to Mahāyāna, to designate the spirit of Southern Buddhism. The term is not used among Southern Buddhists.—Pp. ix-x.

Hira'ññavatī, p., Hiran'yavatī, skt., a river.—241.

I'ddhi, p., Ri'ddhi, skt., defined by Eitel as "the dominion of spirit over matter." It is the adjusting power to one's purpose and the adaptation to conditions. In popular belief it implies exemption from the law of gravitation and the power of assuming any shape at will. (See Iddhipāda.)

Iddhipā'da, p., Riddhipā'da, skt., the mode of attaining the power of mind over matter, four steps being needed: (1) the will to acquire it, (2) the necessary exertion, (3) the indispensable preparation of the heart, and (4) a diligent investigation of the truth.—177.

Indra, one of the principal Brahman gods.—141, 198.

Indriyā'ni or panc'-indriyāni, the five organs of the spiritual sense. (See Balāni.)

I'si, p., Ri'shi, skt., a prophet or seer, an inspired poet, a hermit having acquired wisdom in saintly retirement, a recluse or anchorite.

Iś'vara, skt., I'ssara, (lit. independent existence) Lord, Creator, personal God, a title given to Shiva and other great deities. In Buddhistic scriptures as well as in Brahman the skt. Is'vara (not the p. Issara) means always a transcendent or extramundane God, a personal God, a deity distinct from, and independent of nature, who is supposed to have created the world out of nothing.—72, 73.[Pg 277]

Jain, modernised form of skt. Jaina; an adherent of the Jain-sect which reveres Vardhamāna (Nātaputta) as Buddha. (See Jainism.)—48.

Jainism, a sect, founded by Vardhamāna, older than Buddhism and still extant in India. It is in many respects similar to Buddhism. Buddha's main objection to the Jains was the habit of their ascetics of going naked. The Jains lay great stress upon ascetic exercises and self-mortification which the Buddhists declare to be injurious.

Ja'mbu, p. and skt., a tree.—19, 35.

Jambū'nada, p., Jāmbū'nada, skt., a town of unknown site. (Also the name of a mountain and of a lake.)—202.

Ja'tila, p., "wearing matted hair." The Jatilas were Brahman ascetics. Buddha converted a tribe of them, and Kassapa, their chief, became one of his most prominent disciples.—62, 63, 64, 65.

Je'ta, the heir apparent to the kingdom of Sāvatthī.—76.

Je'tavana, a vihāra.—76, 77, 81, 168, 191, 195, 208, 215.

Jhā'na, p., Dhyā'na, skt., intuition, beatic vision, ecstasy, rapture, the result of samādhi. Buddha did not recommend trances as means of religious devotion, urging that deliverance can be obtained only by the recognition of the four noble truths and walking on the noble eightfold path, but he did not disturb those who took delight in ecstasies and beatific visions. Buddha's interpretation of the Dhyāna is not losing consciousness but a self-possessed and purposive eradication of egotism. There are four Dhyānas, the first being a state of joy and gladness born of seclusion full of investigation and reflexion; the second one, born of deep tranquillity without reflexion or investigation, the third one brings the destruction of passion, while the fourth one consists in pure equanimity, making an end of sorrow. [See Rhys Davids's B. pp. 175-176.] In the Fo-Sho-hing-tsang-king, the Dhyāna is mentioned twice only: first, III, 12, vv. 960-978, where Ārāda sets forth the doctrine of the four Dhyānas which is not approved of by Buddha, and secondly, at Buddha's death; when his mind is said to have passed through all the Dhyānas.—176, 249.

Ji'na, p. and skt., the Conqueror, an honorary title of Buddha. The Jains use the term with preference as an appellative of Vardhamāna whom they revere as their Buddha.—48.

Jī'vaka, p. and skt., physician to king Bimbisāra. According to tradition he was the son of king Bimbisāra and the courtesan Salavatī. We read in Mahāvagga VIII that after his birth he was exposed but saved; then he became a most famous physician and cured Buddha of a troublesome disease contracted by wearing cast off rags. He was an ardent[Pg 278] disciple of Buddha and prevailed upon him to allow the Bhikkhus to wear lay robes.—89, 90, 91.

Jo'tikkha, p., name of a householder, son of Subhadda.—119.

Kālā'ma, p. and skt., (see Alāra).

Ka'nthaka, prince Siddhattha's horse.—25.

Kapilava'tthu, p., Kapilava'stu, skt., the capital of the Sakyas, the birthplace of Buddha.—7, 13, 77, 82, 86, 87.

Ka'rma, anglicised form of skt. stem-form ka'rman (nom. s. karma), the p. of which is ka'mmam. Action, work, the law of action, retribution, results of deeds previously done and the destiny resulting therefrom. Eitel defines karma as "that moral kernel [of any being] which alone survives death and continues in transmigration." Karma is a well-defined and scientifically exact term. Professor Huxley says, "In the theory of evolution, the tendency of a germ to develop according to a certain specific type, e.g., of the kidney bean seed to grow into a plant having all the characters of Phaseolus vulgaris is its 'karma.' It is 'the last inheritor and the last result' of all the conditions that have affected a line of ancestry which goes back for many millions of years to the time when life first appeared on earth." We read in the Anguttara Nikāya, Pancaka Nipāta: "My action (karma) is my possession, my action is my inheritance, my action is the womb which bears me, my action is the race to which I am akin [as the kidney-bean to its species], my action is my refuge." [See the article "Karma and Nirvāna" in Buddhism and Its Christian Critics, p. 131 ff.]— 29, 31, 32, 33, 86, 110, 115, 117, 118, 157, 172, 223, 225, 240.

Kā'sī, p., Ka's'i, skt., the old and holy name of Benares.—104 et seq., 192.

Ka'ssapa, p., Kā's'yapa, skt. (the etymology "He who swallowed fire," is now rejected), a name of three brothers, chiefs of the Jatilas, called after their residences, Uruvelā, Nadī, and Gayā. The name Kassapa applies mainly to Kāssapa of Uruvelā, one of the great pillars of the Buddhistic brotherhood, who took at once, after his conversion, a most prominent rank among Buddha's disciples. [Kassapa of Uruvelā is frequently identified with Mahā-Kassapa, the same who was president of the council at Rājagaha, but H. Dharmapala states, on the authority of the Anguttara Nikāya, that the two were altogether different persons.]—62-65, 119, 120, 163, 164, 254.

Kha'ndha, p., Ska'ndha, skt., elements; attributes of being, which are form, sensation, perception, discrimination, and consciousness.—30.

Kile'sa, p., Kle'śa, skt., error.[Pg 279]

Ki'sā Go'tamī, p., Kri'sha Gau'tamī, skt., the slim or thin Gotamī. Name (i) of a cousin of Buddha, mentioned in Chap. VI, p. 16, (2) of the heroine in the parable of the mustard seed.—209, 210, 211.

Ko'lī, a little kingdom in the neighborhood of Kapilavatthu, the home of Yasodharā.—13.

Kond'añña, p., Kaundi'nya, skt., name of Buddha's first disciple, afterwards called Ājñā'ta Kaundi'nya in skt. and Aññā'ta Konda'ñña in p.—55, 56.

Ko'sala, p. and skt., name of a country.—75, 76, 77, 94, 104, 105, 139.

Kosa'mbī, p., Kausā'mbī, skt., a city.—100, 103, 187.

Kusinā'rā, p., Kusina'gara, skt., a town.—238, 239, 241, 249, 250.

Kūtada'nta, p. and skt., a Brahman chief in the village Dānamatī, also called Khānumat; is mentioned in Sp. Hardy's M.B., p. 289 and in S.B.E., Vol. XIX., p. 242 [Fo, v. 1682].—152-160. Cf. Rhys Davids's Dialogues, pp. 173-179.

Li'cchavi, p. and skt., the name of a princely family.—228, 231.

Lu'mbinī, skt., a grove named after a princess, its owner.—8.

Ma'gadha, p. and skt., name of a country.—65, 68, 70, 71, 90, 98, 111, 219, 223, 224.

Ma'gga, Mā'rga, skt., path; especially used in the Pāli phrase "Ariyo atthangiko maggo," the noble eightfold path, which consists of: right views, high aims, right speech, upright conduct, a harmless livelihood, perseverance in well-doing, intellectual activity, and earnest thought. [See S.B.E, Vol. XI, pp. 63 and 147.]

Mahārā'ja, the great king.—78.

Mahāse'tu, the great bridge. A name invented by the author of the present book to designate the importance of Christianity compared to the Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna of Buddhism.—ix, x.

Mahāyā'na, the great vehicle, viz., of salvation. Name of the Northern conception of Buddhism, comparing religion to a great ship in which men can cross the stream of Samsāra to reach the shore of Nirvāna.—ix, x.

Ma'lla, p. and skt., name of a tribe.—239, 241, 245, 246, 249, 250, 251.

Manasā'kata, p., Manasā'krita, skt., a village in Kosala.—139, 140, 142.

Mandā'ra, p. and skt., a flower of great beauty.—9.

Mā'ra, p. and skt., the Evil One, the tempter, the destroyer, the god of lust, sin, and death.—5, 9, 25, 34, 36, 39, 42, 43, 44, 79, 116, 117, 130, 131, 133, 171, 173, 205, 235.

Māra's daughters are always three in number but their names are variously given as Tanhā, Arati, Rati (Dh. 164), and Tanhā, Arati, Ragā (Ab. 44 etc.).—36, 258.

Mā'tali, p. and skt., name of a demon in the retinue of Yama.—198.[Pg 280]

Māta'nga, p. and skt., literally, of low birth; the Matanga caste comprises mongrels of the lowest with higher castes.—196, 197.

Mā'thura, and skt., name of a place.—200.

Mā'yā, p. and skt., Buddha's mother. (See Māyā-devī.) The term "veil of Māyā," viz., the illusion of self, popularly known through Schopenhauer, does not refer to Buddha's mother, but to the Vedantic conception of māyā. The word means "charm, magic enhancement."—7, 91. The similarity of sound in the names Māyā and Maria is curious.

Māyā-de'vī, also called Mahā-Māyā, or simply Māyā, p. and skt., the wife of Suddhodana and mother of Buddha. She died in childbed, and Buddha ascends to heaven to preach to her the good law and the gospel of salvation.—7, 91.

Mette'yya, Maitre'ya, skt., etymology, "full of kindness"; the name of the Buddha to come.—241, 245.

Moggallā'na, p., Maudgalyā'yana, skt., one of the most prominent disciples of Buddha, a friend of Sāriputta.—70, 71, 85.

Mu'ni, skt. and p., a thinker, a sage; especially a religious thinker. Sakyamu'ni, the sage of the Sakyas, is Buddha.—26, 62, 103, 170, 171, 172.

Nadī'-Ka'ssapa, p., Nadī-Kā's'yapa, skt., brother of the great Kassapa of Uruvelā.—64.

Nā'dika, p. and skt., name of a village.—225.

Nā'ga, p. and skt., literally serpent. The serpent being regarded as a superior being, the word denotes a special kind of spiritual beings; a sage, a man of spiritual insight; any superior personality. Nāga kings, 9.

Nalagiri, name of an elephant.—111.

Nāla'ndā, p. and skt., a village near Rājagaha.—221, 223.

Nanda, p., Siddhattha's halfbrother, son of Pajāpatī.—86, 88.

Na'ndā, daughter of a chief of shepherds, also called Sujātā.—35.

Nātapu'tta, Jain Prakrit, Jñātapu'tra, skt., the son of Jñāta. Patronym of Vardhamāna, the founder of Jainism.—145, 146.

Nerañjarā, Naira'ñjanā, skt., name of a river identified by some with the Nilajan, by others with the Phalgu.—35, 43, 235.

Nidā'na, p. and skt., cause. The twelve nidānas, forming the chain of causation which brings about the misery in the world. [See Oldenberg, Buddha, Engl. tr., pp 224-252].—40.

Nigga'ntha, p., Nirgra'ntha, skt., literally "liberated from bonds"; a name adopted by the adherents of the Jaina sect.—145, 146; Nigganthas, give also to the, 150.

Nigro'dha, p., Nyagro'dha, skt., a tree, ficus indica well known for its air roots.—43, 235.[Pg 281]

Nirmā'na Kā'ya, skt., the body of transformation.—254.

Nirvā'na, skt., Nibbā'na, p., extinction, viz., the extinction of self; according to the Hīnayāna it is defined as "extinction of illusion," according to the Mayāyāna as "attainment of truth." Nirvāna means, according to the latter, enlightenment, the state of mind in which upādāna, kilesa, and tanhā are extinct, the happy condition of enlightenment, peace of mind, bliss, the glory of righteousness in this life and beyond, the eternal rest of Buddha after death. Buddha himself has refused to decide the problem whether or not Nirvāna is a final extinction of personality. When questioned, he indicated by his silence that the solution is not one of those subjects a knowledge of which is indispensable for salvation.—2, 4, 6, 16, 20, 41, 43, 44, 48, 50, 51, 55, 64, 65, 67, 70, 71, 74, 76, 81, 83, 91, 97, 118, 122, 123, 130, 143, 153, 154, 160, 164, 170, 171, 188, 195, 235, 236, 237, 245, 249, 250, 252, 253; where is Nirvāna? 154; Nirvāna not a locality, 154; the city of Nirvāna, 130; the harvest, Nirvāna, 195; the one aim, Nirvāna, 164; Samsāra and Nirvāna, 2, 6, 225.

Okkā'ka, p., Ikshvā'ku, skt., the name of a mythological family from which the chiefs of the Sakyas claim descent.—7.

Pabba'jjā, p., pravra'jyā, skt., the act of leaving the world for receiving admittance to the Order. The first step of the Buddhist ordination. (See Upasa'mpadā.)

Pajā'patī, p., Prajā'patī or Mahā-Prajā'patī, skt., the sister of Māyā-devī, second wife of Suddhodana, aunt and fostermother of Buddha. She is also called by her husband's family name Gotamī (feminine form of Gotama).—10, 13, 86, 92, 93, 103.

Pajjo'ta, p., Pradyo'ta, skt., name of a king of Ujjenī.—90, 91.

(Pakati, p.) Pra'kriti, skt., name of a girl of low caste.—196, 197.

Pāramitā', p. and skt., perfection, or virtue. The six pāramitās are: almsgiving, morality, patience, zeal or energy, meditation, and wisdom.

Paribbā'jaka, p., Parivrā'jaka, skt., a sect belonging to the Tīrthika school.—98.

Pase'nadi, p., (Prase'najit, skt., also called Pasenit) king of Kosala, residing at Sāvatthī.—75, 77.

Pātalipu'tra, skt., Pātalipu'tta, p., also called Pātaligāma, a city on the Ganges north of Rājagaha and belonging to the kingdom of Magadha, the frontier station against the Vriji (Vajji), the present Patna. Buddha is reported to have predicted the future greatness of the place, which is an important passage for determining the time in which the account of Buddha's sojourn in Pātaliputra was written. It is still[Pg 282] uncertain, however, when Patna became the important centre which it is now. It was the capital of the country when Megasthenes, the ambassador of Seleucus Nicator, at the end of the third century B.C., visited India. He gave in his book a detailed description of the city.—223, 224; Pātaliputra, three dangers hang over, 224.

Pātimo'kkha, p., Pratimo'ksha, skt., (usually spelt Prātimoksha in Buddhistic Sanskrit,) literally "disburdenment." It is the Buddhist confession. Rhys Davids says "that it almost certainly dates from the fifth century B.C. Since that time—during a period that is of nearly two thousand and three hundred years—it has been regularly repeated, twice in each month, in formal meetings of the stricter members of the Order. It occupies, therefore, a unique position in the literary history of the world; and no rules for moral conduct have been for so long a time as these in constant practical use, except only those laid down in the Old Testament and in the works of Confucius" (p. 163).—98, 99.

Pā'vā, p. and skt., a village where Buddha took his last meal.—237, 239.

Pokkharasā'ti, p., Paushkarasā'ti, skt., a Brahman philosopher.—139.

Pubbārā'ma, p., Pūrvārā'ma, skt., the Eastern garden.—94.

Pu'kkusa, p., Pu'kkasha or Pu'kkasa, skt., name of a low caste.—239.

Puññ'aji, p., Pu'nyajit, skt., a friend of Yasa.—61.

Ragā, pleasure, desire or lust; a synonym of rati. The name of one of Māra's daughters, q. v.—36.

Rāhula, p. and skt., the son of Buddha, was admitted to the fraternity while still a boy. Buddha gave him a lesson in truthfulness [see Chapter LVI]. He is always named among the prominent disciples of Buddha and is revered as the patron saint of novices.—14, 85, 86, 87, 88, 165, 166, 167.

Rainy season (see Vassa).—58, 232.

Rā'jā, p. and skt., nominative form of the stem rājan, a king (in composition rāja).

Rājaga'ha, p., Rājagri'ha, skt., the capital of Magadha and residence of king Bimbisāra.—26, 65, 69, 71, 72, 80, 91, 98, 110, 119, 144, 219, 220, 255.

Ra'tana, p., ra'tna, skt., "jewel."

Rati, love, liking; a synonym of ragā. The name of one of Māra's daughters, q. v.—36.

Saha'mpati, occurs only in the phrase "Brahmā Sahampati," a name frequently used in Buddhist scriptures the meaning of which is obscure.[Pg 283] Burnouf renders it Seigneur des êtres patients; Eitel, Lord of the inhabitable parts of all universes; H. Kern [in S.B., XXI, p. 5] maintains that it is synonymous with Sikhin, which is a common term for Agni.

Sa'kka, p., Śa'kra, skt., Lord; a cognomen of Indra.—69.

Sa'kya, Śākya, skt., the name of a royal race in the northern frontiers of Magadha.—7, 14, 26.

Sakyamuni, p., Śakyamuni, skt., the Sākya sage; a cognomen of Buddha.—27, 28, 33, 34, 36, 62, 63, 64, 65, 71, 83, 120, 121, 142, 144, 178, 196, 198, 210, 254.

Sā'la, p., Śā'la, skt., a tree, vatica robusta; sāla-grove, 241, 245; sāla-trees, 241.

Samā'dhi, p. and skt., trance, abstraction, self-control. Rhys Davids says (B. p. 177): "Buddhism has not been able to escape from the natural results of the wonder with which abnormal nervous states have always been regarded during the infancy of science.... But it must be added, to its credit, that the most ancient Buddhism despises dreams and visions; and that the doctrine of Samādhi is of small practical importance compared with the doctrine of the noble eightfold Path." Eitel says (Handbook, p. 140): "The term Samādhi is sometimes used ethically, when it designates moral self-deliverance from passion and vice."

Sa'mana, p., Śrā'mana, skt., an ascetic; one who lives under the vow, 26, 36, 42, 59, 70, 87, 93, 119, 152, 165, 188, 189, 194, 195, 207, 223; the Samana Gotama, 151, the vision of a samana, 20.

Sambho'ga-Kā'ya, skt., the body of Bliss.—254.

Sammappadhā'na, p., Samyakpradhā'na, skt., right effort, exertion, struggle. There are four great efforts to overcome sin, which are: (1) Mastery over the passions so as to prevent bad qualities from rising; (2) suppression of sinful thoughts to put away bad qualities which have arisen; (3) meditation on the seven kinds of wisdom (Bojjhañga) in order to produce goodness not previously existing, and (4) fixed attention or the exertion of preventing the mind from wandering, so as to increase the goodness which exists. [See the Mahāpadhāna-Sutta in the Dīgha-Nikāya. Compare B.B. St., p. 89, and Rh. Davids's Buddhism, pp. 172-173.]

Samsā'ra, p. and skt., the ocean of birth and death, transiency, worldliness, the restlessness of a worldly life, the agitation of selfishness, the vanity fair of life.—2, 5, 172, 225.

Sa'ngha, p. and skt., the brotherhood of Buddha's disciples, the Buddhist church. An assembly of at least four has the power to hear confession, to grant absolution, to admit persons to the priesthood, etc. The sangha forms the third constituent of the Tiratana or three jewels in[Pg 284] which refuge is taken (the S. B. of the E. spell Sawgha).—56, 61, 64, 68, 69, 71, 86, 92, 95, 96, 98, 99, 100, 102, 103, 104, 108, 145, 150, 168, 178, 250, 253, 254; sangha maybe expected to prosper, 221.

Sa'ñjaya, p. and skt., a wandering ascetic and chief of that sect to which Sāriputta and Moggallāna belonged before their conversion.—70.

Sankhā'ra, p., Samskā'ra, skt., confection, conformation, disposition. It is the formative element in the karma as it has taken shape in bodily existence.—155, 157, 158.

Sāripu'tta, p., Sāripu'tra, skt., one of the principal disciples of Buddha; the Buddhistic St. Peter.—70, 71, 76, 77, 85, 87, 103, 112, 120, 212, 213, 222; Sāriputta's faith, 213, 221.

Sā'vaka, p., Srā'vaka, skt., he who has heard the voice (viz. of Buddha), a pupil, a beginner. The name is used to designate (1) all personal disciples of Buddha, the foremost among whom are called Mahā-sāvakas, and (2) an elementary degree of saintship. A sāvaka is he who is superficial yet in practice and comprehension, being compared to a hare crossing the stream of Samsāra by swimming on the surface. [See Eitel Handbook, p. 157.]—172, 173, 174.

Sati-patthā'na, p., Smrityupasthā'na, skt., meditation; explained as "fixing the attention." The four objects of earnest meditation are: (1) the impurity of the body, (2) the evils arising from sensation, (3) ideas or the impermanence of existence, and (4) reason and character, or the permanency of the dharma. (Rh. D.B., p. 172.) The term is different from "bhāvanā," although translated by the same English word. (S.B. of the E. XI, p. 62.—211).

Sāva'tthi, p., Srāva'sti, skt., capital of Northern Kosala. It has been identified by General Cunningham with the ruins of Sāhet-Māhet in Oudh and was situated on the river Rapri, northwest of Magadha.—75, 77, 81, 94, 96, 97, 103, 188, 195, 212, 215.

Se'niya, p., Sai'nya, skt., military, warlike, an honorary title given to Bimbisāra the king of Magadha.—65, 69, 90, 98.

Siddha'ttha, p., Siddhā'rtha, skt., Buddha's proper name. Etymology, "He who has reached his goal."—10-26, 48, 82-86, 88, 110, 165.

Sigā'la, p., Srigā'la, skt., literally, "jackal"; name of a Brahman converted by Buddha.—144, 145.

Si'mha, skt., Sī'ha, p., literally, "lion." Name of a general, an adherent of the Niggantha sect, converted by Buddha, 145-151; Simha, a soldier, 147; Simha's question concerning annihilation, 146.

So'ma, p. and skt., derived from the root su, to press in a winepress; not as, according to Eitel, Chinese scholars propose from "exhilarate[Pg 285] (su) and mind (mana)." Name of a plant and of its juice, which is intoxicating and is used at Brahmanical festivals; the Soma drink is identified with the moon and personified as a deity.—141.

Subā'hu, p. and skt., a friend of Yasa.—61.

Subha'dda, p., Subha'dra, skt., name of a samana. Subha'dda, Buddha's last convert, must not be confounded with another man of the same name who caused dissension soon after Buddha's death.—119, 246, 247.

Suddho'dana, p., Śuddho'dana, skt., Buddha's father. The word means "possessing pure rice." Buddhists always represent him as a king, but Oldenberg declares that this does not appear in the oldest records, and speaks of him as "a great and wealthy land-owner." (See his Buddha, English version, pp. 99 and 416-417).—7, 8, 13, 14, 25, 82, 83, 85, 91.

Su'mana, p. and skt., name of a householder.—189, 190.

Suprabuddha, father of Devadatta.—110.

Su'tta, p., Sū'tra, skt., literally" thread," any essay, or guide of a religious character.

Tanhā, p., Tr'ishna, skt., thirst; the word denotes generally all intense desire, cleaving and clinging with passion. The name of one of Māra's daughters, q.v.—36, 138.

Tapu'ssa, p. and skt., a merchant.—42.

Tāru'kkha, p., Tāru'kshya, skt., name of a Brahman philosopher.—139.

Tathā'gata, p. and skt., generally explained as "the Perfect One." The highest attribute of Buddha, 21, 32, 34, 44, 49, 50, 55, 58, 59, 63, 65, 68, 69, 71, 73, 74, 80, 82, 85, 86, 87, 90, 92, 93, 95, 96, 111, 121, 124, 127, 128, 129, 130, 138, 142, 143, 144, 147, 148, 150, 151, 152, 154, 156, 157, 158, 163, 164, 165, 171, 172, 174, 175, 176, 177, 181, 188, 195, 197, 198, 199, 201, 202, 213, 214, 217, 225, 233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 239, 240, 242, 246, 247, 248, 249, 253; robe of the Tathāgata, 127; soldiers of the Tathāgata, 130; the law the body of the Tathāgata, 253; Tathāgatas are only preachers, 131.

Tiratana, p., Trira'tna, skt., the three jewels or the holy trinity of the Buddha, the Dharma, and the Sangha, a doctrine peculiar to Northern Buddhism. (See Trikāya.)

Ti'tthiya, p., Tī'rthika, skt., a religious school of India in Buddha's time.—98.

Trikā'ya, the three bodies or personalities of Buddha, the Dharmakāya, the Sambhoga-kāya, and the Nirmāna-kāya.—254.

Uddaka, p., U'draka, skt., a Brahman philosopher.—29, 31.

Ujje'nī, p., Ujja'yinī, skt., name of a city.—90.[Pg 286]

Upādā'na, p. and skt., desire, a grasping state of mind. One of the nidānas.

(Upagutta, p.), Upagu'pta, skt., name of a Buddhist monk.—200, 201.

U'paka, p. and skt., name of a man, a Jain, who met Buddha, but was not converted by him.—47, 48.

Upā'li, p. and skt., a prominent disciple of Buddha. Before his conversion he was, according to the Buddhistic tradition, court-barber to the king of the Sakyas.—86, 104, 252.

Upasa'mpadā, p. and skt., admittance to the Buddhist brotherhood, ordination. (See Pabbajā.)

Upava'ttana, Upava'rtana, skt., a grove in Kusinagara. The word means a rambling-place, a gymnasium.—241, 245.

Upo'satha, p., Upava'satha, skt., the Buddhist sabbath. Rhys Davids says (pp. 140-141): "The Uposatha days are the four days in the lunar month when the moon is full, or new, or half way between the two. It is the fourteenth day from the new moon (in short months) and the fifteenth day from the full moon (in the long months), and the eighth day from each of these. The corresponding Sanskrit word is Upavasatha, the fast-day previous to the offering of the intoxicating soma, connected with the worship of the moon. Instead of worshipping the moon, the Buddhists were to keep the fast-day by special observance of the moral precepts; one of many instances in which Gotama spiritualised existing words and customs."—98, 99, 101, 102; observe the Uposatha or Sabbath, 99.

Uruve'lā, p., Urubi'lvā, skt., a place south of Patna on the banks of the Nerañjara river, now Buddha Gayā. The residence of Kassapa, the chief of the Jatilas.—34, 62, 64, 65, 206.

Va'jji, p., Vri'ji, skt., name of a people living in the neighborhood of Magadha, 120, 219, 220; assemblies of the Vajji, 220.

Va'rana, p. and skt., a tree; Crataeva Roxburghii.—184, 185.

Vardhamā'na, skt., Vaddhamā'na, Jaina Prākrit, proper name of the founder of Jainism. Also called Jñātapu'tra in skt. and Nātapu'tta in Jaina Prākrit.

Va'runa, p. and skt., a Brahman deity, the god of heaven and regent of the sea; one of the guardians of the world.—141.

Vāsavada'ttā, p. and skt., a courtesan of Mathurā.—200, 201, 202.

Vāse'ttha, p., Vāsi'shtha, skt., name of a Brahman.—139, 142.

Va'ssa, p., Va'rsha, skt., rain, rainy season. During the rainy season of Northern India, which falls in the months from June to October, the samanas could not wander about, but had to stay in one place. It[Pg 287] was the time in which the disciples gathered round their master, listening to his instructions. Thus it became the festive time of the year. In Ceylon, where these same months are the fairest season of the year, Buddhists come together and live in temporary huts, holding religious meetings in the open air, reading the Pitakas and enjoying the Jātakas, legends, and parables of Buddhism. [See Rhys Davids's B., p. 57.]

Vassakāra, p., Varshakā'ra, skt., lit. "rain-maker." Name of a Brahman, the prime minister of the king of Magadha.—219, 220.

Ve'das, 50, 140, 141, 187; I know all the Vedas, 159.

Veluva'na, p., Venuva'na, skt., a bamboo-grove at Rājagaha, 70, 80; Veluvana vihāra, 110.

Vesā'lī, p., Vaiśā'līī, skt., a great city of India, north of Patna.—150, 220, 227, 228, 232, 236.

Vihā'ra, p. and skt., residence of Buddhist monks or priests; a Buddhist convent or monastery; a Buddhist temple.—67, 75, 76, 95, 99, 110, 111, 165, 213, 214, 242.

Vi'mala, p. and skt. (etym., the spotless), name of a friend of Yasa.—61.

Vi'naya, 57.

Visā'khā, p., Viśā'khā, skt., a wealthy matron of Sāvatthi, one of Buddha's most distinguished woman lay-disciples. Says Oldenberg, Buddha, English translation, p. 167: "Every one invites Visākhā to sacrificial ceremonies and banquets, and has the dishes offered to her first; a guest like her brings luck to the house."—94, 95, 96, 97; eight boons of Visākhā, 95; gladness of Visākhā, 97.

Ya'ma, p. and skt., also called Yama-rā'ja, death, the god of death.—206, 207.

Ya'sa, Ya'śas, skt., the noble youth of Benares, son of a wealthy man and one of Buddha's earliest converts.—58-61.

Yaso'dharā, p., Ya'śodharā, skt., wife of Prince Gotama Siddhattha before he became Buddha. She became one of the first of Buddhist nuns. [See Jātaka, 87-90; Commentary on Dhammapada, vv. 168, 169: Bigandet, 156-168; Spence Hardy's Manual, 198-204; Beal, pp. 360-364: B. Birth Stories, 127.]—13, 84-87, 92, 110, 165.
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Re: The Gospel of Buddha, by Paul Carus

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Abstain from impurity, 126.
Abstinence, 49.
Abode in me, truth has taken its, 163.
Abodes of truth, 75.
Abolish all the lesser, 247.
Abolished, omens, 173.
About to pass away, 242.
Absolution, 99.
Abuse, the sermon on, 167.
According to their deeds, 212.
Address, Buddha's farewell, 232.
Adoration be to thee, 171.
Aim, one, one essence, one law, 163.
Aim, the one, Nirvāna, 164.
Aim, the preacher's sole, 128.
All creatures received the message in their own language, 55.
Alone, let a man walk, 102 (see also Solitary).
Altercations, 100.
Always in danger of death, 211.
Ambrosia, lake of, 118.
Angels rejoice, 8.
Anger, by love overcome, 137.
Annihilation, 145, 146.
Annihilation of egotism, 147.
Annihilation, Simha's question concerning, 145.
Another Buddha will arise, 245.
Anxious to learn, must be, 234.
Anxious to learn the truth, be, 126.
Apoplexy, struck by, 191.
Appearance of Bodhisatta, 25.
Appearance, the glory of his, 212.
Appeared, the saviour, 256.
Appeased not by hatred, hatred, 102.
Are all paths saving paths? 139.
Artisans, the chief of the, 201
Asceticism, 225.
Ascetics, naked, 89.
Ashes, 209.
Assemblies of the Vajji, 220.
Assemblies, various kinds of, 177.
Assured of final salvation, 248.
[Pg 289]Astrology and forecasting by signs forbidden, 236.
Ātman and the I, 32.
Atone for your evil deeds, you will have to, 200.
Atonement by blood, 152.
Audience, like unto the color of my, 177.
Avoid dying, not any means to, 211.

Bad deeds easy to do, 132.
Bamboo grove, 144.
Bathing in the Ganges, 14.
Battle of life, 149.
Battle, the elephant no longer fit for, 166.
Battles, fight your, 149.
Be married unto the truth, 205.
Be ye lamps unto yourselves, 234.
Beauty, to restore to you a nobler, 202.
Becoming, gradual, 138.
Bee collects nectar, the, 137.
Being, the purpose of, 255.
Beings, preach to all, 129.
Beneath, water gurgling, 193.
Best, truth is, 55.
Better bore out both eyes, 94.
Blessed One, has to suffer, the, 233;
Blessed One, refuge in the, 150, 151, 160, 247;
Blessed One swooned, the, 35;
Blessed One walked unshod, the, 109,
Blessed One, wearisome to the, 226.
Blind man, 27.
Blind men, 141.
Blind received sight, 8.
Blind, the man born, 181.
Blind, truth is hidden to the, 253.
Blind, your eyes are, 187.
Bliss be diffused, let the, 190.
Bliss, the communication of, 189.
Bliss where suffering is, 20.
Blood, atonement by, 152.
Blood has no cleansing power, 152.
Blood, shedding of, 33.
Blow, give the rock a good, 194.
Blow off the impurities, 137.
Body of flesh? Why preserve this, 242.
Body of the law, 160;
the body of the law will endure, 242.
Body, the worldling nourishes his, 189.
Bonds that tie all souls together; 259.
Boons of Visākhā, eight, 95.
Brahmā, 87, 139.
Brahman, 65, 139, 140, 141, 142, 152, 153, 154, 156, 157, 168, 186,
187, 188, 190, 194, 195, 196, 206, 207, 208, 219, 220, 224.
Brahman lore, the substance of, 141.
Bridler of men's hearts, 226.
Bright, the sun is, 139.
Bright, thinkers are, 139;
warriors are bright, 139.
Bubble, 39.
Buddhahood, omens of 8, 9;
signs of Buddhahood, 8.
Burning, every thing is, 64.
Butterfly, like the, 237.
By deeds one becomes an outcast, 196.

Calamities, ten great, 215.
Carp not, 126, 127.
Cart, as a worn out, 233.
Cast-off rags, 89, 91.
Caste, I ask not for, 196.
Cause of further migrations, 119.
Cause of selfhood, the, Found! 41.
[Pg 290]Cease by hatred, hatred does not, 137.
Ceremony, 144, 225.
Chance, 73.
Change, grief at, 15; self is change, 158.
Charity, rich in returns, 27;
the sermon on, 75.
Charms are treacherous, 202.
Chastity, 126.
Cherish no hatred, 126.
Chickens should break the eggshell, 143.
Chief of the artisans, the, 201.
Children, I am your father, ye are, 163.
City of Nirvāna, the, 130.
Cleanses from error, the truth, 250.
Cleansing power, blood has no, 152.
Cleaving to self, 158.
Cloth of gold, robes of, 239.
Cloud, like a, 164.
Cloud of good qualities, 129.
Coil, the, 39.
Color of my audience, like unto the, 177.
Combination, individuality a, 32;
combination subject to separation, 32.
Come forth into the light, 143.
Come into the world to befriend, 214.
Come to teach life, 153.
Commandments, see the ten evils, 126.
Communication of bliss, the, 189.
Complete surrender of self, 148.
Compounds will be dissolved, 158, 242.
Comprehension of things, truth the correct, 41.
Concord, two ways of re-establishing, 104;
meeting in concord, 220;
re-establishment of concord, 103.
Conditions of welfare, eight, 220.
Confer the ordination, 58.
Confession of trespasses, 99.
Conquerors, the greatest of, 132.
Conquest of self, 149.
Consolidation of Buddha's religion, 89.
Contact of the object and senses, 66.
Continuity, sameness and, 157.
Coop, the fowl in the, 122.
Correct comprehension of things, truth the, 41.
Correlatives, 20.
Courtesan, 96, 200, 227-231.
Covet not, 126.
Crane, the wild, 122;
the cruel crane, 184.
Creatures, all, received the message in their own language, 55.
Criminal, punishment of the, 148.
Criminal's act, punishment the fruit of the, 148.
Crossed the river, 225.
Crossed the stream, he had, 213.
Cultivate good-will, 67.
Culture of the mind, 87.

Danger of death, always in, 211.
Dangers hang over Pātaliputta, three, 224.
Dark, do not call the world, 187.
Dart of lust, the, 183.
Dead are many, the, 210.
Dead not saved by lamentation, 211.
[Pg 291]Deaf and dumb speak, the, 8.
Death, always in danger of, 211;
Buddha's death, 249;
fate after death, 212;
death is near, 235;
no escape from, 16;
in the domain of death, 123;
self is death, 153, 158, 160;
thoughtlessness, the path of death 132.
Deeds, according to their, 212;
bad deeds easy to do, 132;
by deeds one becomes an outcast, 196;
passed away according to his deeds, 194.
Deeper, dig, 129.
Delusion and truth, 42.
Delusions, 49.
Denies the existence of the soul, Gotama, 151.
Desert, a waterless, 142;
rescue in the desert, 191;
a sandy desert, 192.
Desire, the extinction of evil, 138.
Desolation, a hopeless, 142.
Despot, the, 199.
Destiny of warriors, 149.
Destroyed, hell is, 226.
Devadatta, sect of, 110.
Die until, etc., I shall not, 44, 235;
truth cannot die, 245.
Died in the faith, he, 207.
Diffused, let the bliss be, 190.
Dig deeper, 129.
Disciple, the first woman lay-, 61.
Disciple, a, flagged, 191.
Dissatisfied, the people, 71.
Dissolution, necessity of, 249.
Dissolved, compounds will be, 242.
Distinction, without, 164.
Doctrine, preach the, glorious in the beginning, the middle, and end 58;
my doctrine is like the great ocean, 177;
doctrine like unto fire, 178;
doctrine like unto water, 178.
Doffed their robes, the bhikkhus, 95.
Dog, the hungry, 198.
Domain of death, in the, 123.
Do not call the world dark, 187.
Do not rely on external help, 234.
Do not scold, 103.
Door of immortality, 44.
Draught-ox, exertion is a, 195.
Drink, the refreshing, perception of truth, 118.
Drinking? Is the water not fit for, 165.
Dumb, the deaf and, speak, 8.
Dust, like one who flings, 168.
Dust of worldliness, 44.
Dwelling-place, wisdom has no, 154.
Dying, not any means to avoid, 211.

Each day one hemp-grain, 34.
Earnestness is the goad, 195;
earnestness is the path of immortality, 132.
Earth, peace on, 9.
Earthquake, 249.
East, face towards the, 223.
Eating of flesh, the, 49.
Ecstasy, the song of, 221.

Eddies of transmigration, 166.
Efficacy, rituals have no, 33.
Egg-shell, chickens should break the, 143;
I have first broken the eggshell, 248.
Eggs, hen brooding over, 143.
Ego, the, 30;
ego, an illusion, 33;
the instability of the ego, 31.
[Pg 292]Egotism, the annihilation of, 148.
Eight boons of Visākhā, 95.
Eight conditions of welfare, 220.
Eight wonderful qualities, 178.
Eightfold path, the, 41, 143, 237.
Eightfold, the best way is the 138.
Eldest, I am the, 248.
Elephant, powerful, 166;
the elephant no longer fit for battle, 166.
Elevate the mind, 80.
Emaciated from fasts, 35.
Embrace of truth, the, 205.
Emptiness and immaterial life, 30.
Enabled me to do so, faith, 213.
Endure, thoughts will, 132.
Enemy, his greatest, 134.
Enlightened Teacher, refuge in the, 145.
Entities, souls not separate and self-existent, 153.
Envy not, 126.
Epidemic, 121.
Eradication of self, 148.
Error, self an, 67;
error be thou my guide, 258.
Error, truth cleanses from, 250.
Errors, 126.
Escape from death, no, 16.
Essence of life, truth is the, 258;
one in essence, 259;
one essence, one law, one aim, 163.
Eternal, truth the image of the, 3.
Everlasting life, 149, 205.
Evil actions, thou canst not escape the fruit of, 159.
Everything is burning, 64.
Evil by good, overcome, 137;
evil deeds, you will have to atone for your, 200;
ignorance the root of evil, 40;
pain is the outcome of evil, 133;
evil powers no surrender, 148;
evil of lust, avoid, 183.
Evolution, 158;
in the course of evolution, 255.
Exertion is a draught-ox, 195.
Existence is spiritual, all, 151;
thirst for existence and selfhood, 39.
Expulsion, sentence of, 100.
External help, do not rely on, 234.
Extinction of self, the, salvation, 4;
the extinction of sinful desire, 138;
the extinction of thirst, 138.
Eye, the, ātman and, 29;
eye of truth, 59;
mental eye, 209;
spiritual eye, 254.
Eyes, better bore out both, 94.

Face to face, Brahmā, 140;
the universe face to face, 142;
face to face with him, 248.
Face towards the east, 223.
Facing towards the west, 223.
Faith alone can save, 213;
faith enabled me to do so, 213;
hast thou faith, 235;
he died in the faith, 207;
faith is the seed, 195;
faith in the Buddha, 226;
Sāriputta's faith, 212.
Falter not, wise people, 133.
Famine, 120.
Farewell address, Buddha's, 232.
Fashion themselves, wise people, 133.
Fashioned, truth cannot be, 257.
Fasts, emaciated from, 35.
Fate after death, 212, 226.
Father and son, 207;
father I reverence my father, 144;
ye are my children, I am your father, 163.
[Pg 293]Faults of others, the, 134, 137.
Fell upon him, sickness, 232, 237.
Fetch me some water, 238.
Few, the living are, 210.
Fight your battles, 149.
Fire, doctrine like unto, 178.
Fire, sermon on, 64.
First broken the egg-shell, I have, 248.
First Buddha, I am not the, 245.
First lay-member, the, 60.
First women lay-disciples, the, 61.
Fish, the giddy, 183.
Fit for battle, the elephant no longer, 166.
Fit for drinking? Is the water now, 165.
Fit to live, more, 149.
Five meditations, 174.
Five roots of mind, the, 29.
Five wishes of Bimbisāra, 68.
Fivefold gain, 223;
fivefold loss, 223.
Flagged, a disciple, 191.
Flagging, religious zeal, 35.
Flame, sameness of the, 155.
Flesh, the eating of, 49;
thorn in the, 138;
let the flesh waste away, 34;
why preserve this body of flesh? 242.
Flings dust, like one who, 168.
Flowers out of season, 241;
lotus flowers, 39;
mandara flowers, 9.
Following the Master over the stream, 212.
Fool, 133;
the listless fool, 190.
Foolish, pleasures destroy the, 134;
foolish talk, 140.
Forbidden, miracles, 119-121.
Forecasting by signs forbidden, astrology and, 236.
Found! the cause of selfhood 40;
found the truth, 55.
Foundation of the Kingdom of Righteousness, 47.
Four kinds of offering, 186;
four kinds of merit, 186;
four simples, 181;
the four quarters, 143;
the four noble truths, 41, 181;
the four signs, 15;
where four roads cross, 140.
Fowl in the coop, the, 122.
Fragrant like the lotus, 201.
Free your mind of ignorance, 126.
Fruit of evil actions, thou canst not escape the, 159;
the fruit of immortality, 195;
the fruit of the criminal's act punishment, 148.
Fruits, ripe, 211.

Ganges, bathing in the, 14.
Giddy fish, the, 183.
Gift of religion, the, 138.
Gift, the king's, 69.
Give also to the Nigganthas, 150;
give, if thou art asked, 137;
give the rock a good blow, 194.
Gives away, he who, etc., 241.
Giving away, 75.
Glad tidings, 1.
Gladness of Visākhā, 97.
Glorious in the beginning, middle, and end, preach the doctrine 58;
the truth is glorious, 60, 61, 68.
Glory of his appearance, the, 212;
the truth in all its glory, 256.
Goad, earnestness is the, 195.
Goal, the, 118, 138.
Gods and men, teacher of, 226.
Goes out to wage war, 130.
Gold, robes of cloth of, 239.
Gone into the yoke, 138.
[Pg 294]Good qualities, cloud of, 129;
happiness is the outcome of good, 133;
overcome evil by good, 137;
good tidings, 21;
cultivate goodwill, 67;
good works are rain, 195.
Gotama Gate, 224.
Governs all things, karma, 111.
Grace, the time of, 183, 192.
Gradual becoming, 158.
Grant me my life, 107, 186.
Great is thy faith, 222.
Great understanding, muni of, 170.
Greatest enemy, his, 134;
the greatest of conquerors, 132.
Greedy tailor, the, 184.
Grief at change, 19;
overcome grief, 234;
selfish in my grief, 210.
Grounded, that it be well, 222.
Grove, bamboo, 144.
Guide, error be thou my, 258.
Guiding-rein, mind is the, 195.

Happily, let us live, 139.
Happiness is the outcome of good, 133;
vanity of worldly happiness, 3.
Happy, he is altogether, 143;
make thyself happy, 235.
Hard times teach a lesson, 122.
Harvest Nirvāna, the, 195;
thou wilt reap the harvest sown in the past, 159.
Hast thou faith? 235.
Hatred appeased not by hatred, 102;
cherish no hatred, 126;
hatred ceases by love, 137;
hatred does not cease by hatred, 137.
He promoted him higher, 182.
He who gives away, etc., 241.
He who walks righteously is ever near me, 246.
Hearts, bridler of men's 226.
Heaven, hope of, a mirage, 122;
like one who spits at heaven, 167;
pleasures of self in heaven, 153.
Heavenly songs, 241.
Hell is destroyed, 226.
Helmet of right thought, 93.
Help, do not rely on external 234;
now my lot to help, 214.
Hemp-grain, each day one, 34.
Hen brooding over egg, 143.
Hereafter, the, 159.
Heresies, 73.
Hermit, layman and, 59.
Higher, he promoted him, 182.
Hold fast to the truth, 234.
Holiness better than sovereignty, 27.
Homage, worthiest, 241.
Honor, so great an, 228.
Honored be his name, 69.
Hope of heaven a mirage, 122.
Hopeless desolation, a, 142.
Hungry dog, parable of the, 198.

I am not the first Buddha, 245;
I am the eldest, 248;
I am the truth, 163;
I am thirsty, 238;
I ask not for caste, 196;
I have first broken the egg-shell, 248;
no room for the I, 65;
I reverence my father, 144;
I shall not die until, etc., 44;
such faith have I, 221;
the I perishable, 66;
the I, the soul, 29;
the thought of I, 31;
the transmission of the soul and the I, 32.
Idea of self, the, 242.
Identity, 156;
identity and non-identity, 152, 156;
[Pg 295]identity of self, 157;
where is the identity of my self? 155.
Idle talk, invocations are, 159.
If thou art asked, give, 137.
Ignorance, free your mind of, 126;
ignorance the root of evil, 40.
Illimitable light, 259.
Illusion, self an, 42, 149;
the ego an illusion, 33.
Illustration by a lamp, 155;
illustration by a letter, 155.
Image of the eternal, truth the, 3.
Immaterial life, emptiness and, 30.
Immeasurable light, 118.
Immolation, 152.
Immortal, life, 119;
the immortal path 76.
Immortality, 72, 84, 210;
door of immortality, 44;
earnestness is the path of immortality, 132;
immortality in transiency, 3;
immortality in truth, 153, 160;
the fruit of immortality, 195;
the water of immortality, 149;
truth and immortality, 6.
Immutable, the words of Buddha, 20.
Impure is nakedness, 95, 96.
Impurity, abstain from, 126;
purity and impurity belong to oneself, 131.
Impurities, blow off the, 137.
In the course of evolution, 255.
Incantations, 144;
incantations have no saving power, 33.
Incarnation of the truth, 253.
Individuality a combination, 32;
the wheel of individuality, 65.
Inexhaustible life, 174.
Instability of the ego, the, 66.
Instruction, words of, 170.
Instruments, 64.
Invocations, 141;
invocations are idle talk, 159.
Is it wrong to go to war? 147.

Jewel, a, 252;
precious crown jewel, 130.
Jewels and worldliness, 59.
Jungle, a pathless, 142.

Karma governs all things, 121.
Keep my hold on life, 232.
Kill not, 126.
King Bimbisāra, 25, 65, 69, 90, 110.
King of kings, 250;
king of truth, 130, 163;
powerful king, 130.
Kingdom of Righteousness, Foundation of the, 47, 55.
Kingdom of truth, 48.
King's gift, the, 69.
Kings, Nāga, 9.
Knew me not, they, 178.
Knowledge remains, 154.
Kusa-grass, 193.

Lake of Ambrosia, 118.
Lake, still, like a, 133.
Lame walk, the, 8.
Lamentation, dead not saved by, 211.
Lamp, illustration by a, 155.
Lamps unto yourselves, be ye, 234.
Land, pure, 173.
Language, all creatures received the message in their own, 55.
Last word, 249.
Law, body of the, 160;
one aim, one essence, one law, 163;
the law the body of the Tathāgata, 253;
[Pg 296]the body of the law will endure, 242.
Laws are temporary, many, 253.
Laws of righteousness, obediene to the, 152.
Lay disciples, the first women, 61.
Lay member, the first, 60.
Lay robes, 91.
Layman and hermit, 59.
Layman, priest and, alike, 74.
Leaning against the doorpost, 242.
Learn, must be anxious to, 234.
Learning, availeth not, 169.
Lesser, abolish all the, 247.
Lesson given to Rāhula, 165.
Lesson, hard times teach a, 122.
Let a man walk alone, 102.
Let the bliss be diffused, 190.
Let the flesh waste away, 34.
Let us go into the world, 250.
Let us live happily, 139.
Let us obey the truth, 254.
Let your light shine forth, 109.
Letter, illustration by a, 155.
Letter, in the, 104.
Lie not, 126.
Life, battle of, 149;
come to teach, 153;
life everlasting, 149, 205;
grant me my life, 107, 186;
keep my hold on life, 232;
life immortal, 119;
inexhaustible life, 174;
reason in the struggle for life, 255;
seek thou the life that is of the mind, 153;
truth is life, 153;
life yearns for the truth, 258.
Light, come forth into the, 143;
illimitable light, 259;
immeasurable light, 118;
let your light shine forth, 109.
Like a still lake, 133.
Like unto the color of my audience, 177.
Lily, the, on a heap of rubbish, 138.
Lineage of the faith, 222.
Lintel, leaning against the, 242.
Listen to both parties, 103.
Listless fool, the, 190.
Little by little, 182.
Live happily, let us, 139.
Live, more fit to, 149.
Lives of men, 198.
Living are few, the, 210.
Living, luxurious, 188.
Living in paradise, 207.
Lobster, 184.
Locality? is wisdom a, 154.
Locality, Nirvāna not a, 154.
Logic holds universally, 156.
Lord, glorious, 150, 247.
Lord, pass away, 235.
Loss, fivefold, 223.
Lost, a treasure that can never be, 171.
Lost son, the, 182.
Lot to help, now my, 214.
Lotus-flower in water, the, 51, 75, 118.
Lotus-flowers, 39, 93.
Lotus, fragrant like the, 201.
Love, hatred ceases by, 137;
love of truth, 149;
overcome anger by love, 137;
the world filled with love, 143.
Lust, the dart of 183.
Luxurious living, 188.

Macarisms, 41, 42, 171.
Made up of thoughts, 131.
Magic power, 119.
Main, rivers reach the, 225.
Make thyself happy, 235.
Maker, Issara, the, 72.
Maker, the, self, 73.
[Pg 297]Man, a blind, 27.
Man born blind, the, 181.
Man, who is the strong? 125.
Mango-grove, 139, 221, 237.
Many, the dead are, 210.
Married unto the truth, be, 205.
Master, out of reverence for the, 248.
Master over the stream, following the, 212.
May be expected to prosper, Sangha, 221.
Me, this is done by, 132.
Meats remained undiminished, 205.
Medicines, 90, 210, 246.
Meditation (see bhāvana and sati-patthāna in the Glossary), 39,
174, 137.
Meeting in concord, 220.
Men, blind, 141;
teacher of gods and men, 226;
the lives of men, 198.
Men's hearts, bridler of, 226.
Mental eye, 209.
Merit, four kinds of, 186.
Merit, the order (sangha) the sowing ground of, 226.
Message in their own language, all creatures received the, 55.
Migrations, cause of further, 118.
Mind, Brahmā's, 142;
culture of the, 87;
elevate the mind, 80;
mind is the guiding rein, 195;
seek thou the life that is of the mind, 153;
the five roots of mind, 29;
there is mind, 151.
Mind, we the result of, 131.
Miracle-mongers, 173.
Miracles, 172.
Miracles forbidden, 119-121.
Mirage, hope of heaven a, 122.
Mirage, the cause of self a, 32.
Mirror of truth, the, 225.
Mission, the preachers, 127.
Moon, the, shines by night, 139.
Moral powers, 97.
Moral sense, 97.
More fit to live, 149.
More, sin no, 183.
Mortification not the right path 35.
Mortification profitless, 49.
Mortification vain, 50.
Mother, a, 67.
Muni of great understanding, 170.
Mustard seed, the, 209.

Naked ascetics, 89.
Nakedness, impure is, 95, 96.
Name, honored be his, 69.
Nature of religion consists in worship and sacrifice, the, 152.
Nature of the rope, the 67.
Nature of self, the, 66.
Near me, he who walks, righteously is ever, 246.
Necessity of dissolution, 249.
Nectar, the bee collects, 137.
Needed, the one thing that is, 153.
Noble, eightfold path, the, 41, 237, 258.
Noble truths, the four, 41, 181.
Non-action, 145, 146.
Non-existence of the soul, 153.
Non-identity, identity and, 152, 158.
Not any means to avoid dying, 211.
Not worthy of yellow robes, 103.
Nothing remains, 160.
Nothing will remain, 225.
Nothingness stares me in the face, 153.
[Pg 298]Nourishes his mind, the wise man, 189.
Novices, precepts for the, 124.
Now is the time to seek religion, 21.
Now my lot to help, 214.

Obedience to the laws of righteousness, 152.
Obey the truth, let us, 254.
Object and senses, contact of, 66.
Observe the Uposatha or Sabbath, 98.
Ocean, 226;
rivers in the ocean, 214;
my doctrine is like the great ocean, 177.
Offering, four kinds of, 186.
Omens abolished, 173.
Omens of Buddhahood, 10.
One hemp-grain each day, 34.
One in essence, 259.
One, the truth is but, 138, 164, 157.
One thing that is needed, the, 153.
Oneself, purity and impurity belong to, 131.
Order, rules for the, 233.
Order, the, (sangha) the sowing-ground of merit, 226.
Ordination, 58, 59, 88, [see also Pabbajjā and Upasampadā
in the Glossary].
Others art thou thyself, 157.
Others, the faults of, 134, 137.
Our water is all gone, 193.
Outcast, the, 195;
by deeds one becomes an outcast, 196;
who is an outcast? 195.
Outcome of evil, pain is the, 133.
Outcome of good, happiness is the, 133.
Outwitted, 184.
Overcome anger by love, 137.
Overcome evil by good, 137.
Overcome grief, 234.
Ox led to slaughter, 211.

Pain is the outcome of evil, 133.
Parable, 165, 179 &c.
Parable of the hungry dog, 198.
Paradise in the West, the, 173;
living in paradise, 207;
the paradise of the pure land, 173.
Parties, listen to both, 103.
Party in search of a thief, a, 206.
Pass away, about to, 242;
people pass away, 212;
the truth will never pass away, 152.
Passed away according to his deeds, 194.
Passion, rain and, 132.
Past, thou wilt reap the harvest sown in the, 159.
Path of transmigration, weary, 237;
sign of the right, 143;
the eightfold, 41;
the immortal path, 76;
the noble eightfold path, 143, 237, 258;
mortification not the path, 35;
walk in the noble path, 160;
a pathless jungle, 142;
are all paths saving? 139. [See also Maggo in the Glossary.]
Peace on earth, 9.
Peacemaker, the, 197.
People dissatisfied, the, 71;
people pass away, 212;
wise people falter not, 133;
wise people fashion themselves, 133.
Perception of truth, the refreshing drink, 118.
Perishable, the I, 66.
Personalities of Buddha, the three, 232.
[Pg 299]Pestilence, 121.
Physician, 20, 181, 210;
the best physician, 169;
without beholding the physician, 246.
Pit, treasure laid up in a deep, 171.
Pity me not, 28.
Plantain-tree, 39.
Pleasure, he who lives for, 133;
let a man take pleasure in the dharma, 171.
Pleasures destroy the foolish, 134;
pleasures of self in heaven, 153;
why do we give up the pleasures of the world, 172;
religious wisdom lifts above pleasures, 209.
Potter, 163;
potter, vessels made by the, 211.
Power, incantations have no, 33;
magic power, 119.
Powerful elephant, 166.
Powerful king, 130.
Powers, moral, 97.
Practise the truth, 160.
Praise of all the Buddhas, the, 258.
Prayers, 141;
prayers vain repetitions, 33.
Preach the doctrine, glorious in the beginning, middle, and end, 58;
preach to all beings, 129.
Preacher's mission, the, 127;
the preacher's sole aim, 128.
Preachers, Tathāgatas are only, 131.
Precepts, 247;
precepts for the novices, 124;
ten precepts, 124;
walk according to the precepts, 241.
Precious crown jewel, 130.
Precious jewel, a, 252.
Priceless, the lives of men are, 198.
Priest and layman alike, 74.
Prince, test of the, 13.
Problem of the soul, the, 29.
Profitless, mortification, 49.
Prohibitions, 120.
Promoted him higher, he, 182.
Propound the truth, 127.
Prosper, sangha may be expected to 221.
Prospered, bhikkhus, 120.
Punishment of the criminal, 147.
Punishment, the fruit of the criminal's act, 148.
Puppets on a string, 123.
Pure land, the paradise of the, 173.
Purity and impurity belong to oneself, 131.
Purpose of being, the, 155.
Purpose, speak to the, 126.

Qualities, cloud of good, 129;
eight wonderful qualities, 178.
Quality, the thing and its, 30.
Quarrels, 100.
Quarters, the four, 143;
the six quarters, 144.
Question concerning annihilation, 145.
Questioned, the sages, 13.
Questions of the deva, 168.

Rabbit rescued from the serpent, 27.
Rags, cast-off, 89, 91, 110.
Rāhula, lessons given to, 165.
Rain and passion, 132.
Rain fell, 94.
Rain, good works are, 195.
Rare in the world, 228.
Reap the harvest sown in the past, thou wilt, 159.
Reap what we sow, we, 153, 200.
[Pg 300]Reason,as the helpmate of self. 256.
Reason in the struggle for life, 255.
Reason, no truth is attainable without, 256.
Reasoning ceases, 154.
Rebirth without transmigration of self, 33.
Rebuked, the bhikkhus, 109.
Received the message in their own language, all creatures, 55.
Re-establishing concord, two ways of, 104.
Re-establishment of concord, 103.
Reform to-day, 123.
Refreshing drink, the, perception of truth, 118.
Refuge in the Blessed One, 150, 151, 160, 247.
Refuge in the Buddha, 60, 61, 64, 68, 168, 206, 251, 257.
Refuge in the Enlightened Teacher, 145.
Refuge is his name, 213.
Rejoice, angels, 8.
Religion, Buddha's, consolidation of, 89;
now is the time to seek religion, 21;
seeing the highest religion, 138;
the gift of all religion, 138;
worship and sacrifice the nature of religion, 152;
thou tearest down religion, 152.
Religious man, the, and truth, 125;
religious wisdom lifts above pleasures, 209;
religious zeal flagging, 35.
Rely on yourselves, 234.
Remain in thy station, 74;
nothing will remain, 225;
the truth will remain, 242, 249.
Repetitions, prayers vain, 33.
Reprove, do not, 103.
Rescue in the desert, 191.
Restore to you a nobler beauty, to, 201.
Revere the traditions, 254.
Reverence for the Master, out of 248.
Reverence my father, I, 144.
Rice-milk, 95.
Rich in returns, charity, 27.
Righteous cause, war in a, 149.
Righteousness, foundation of the kingdom of, 47;
source of all righteousness, 118;
the kingdom of righteousness, 55;
the throne of truth is righteousness, 257.
Right path, mortification not the, 35.
Right path, sign of the, 143.
Right thought, helmet of, 93.
Ripe fruits, 211.
Rituals have no efficacy, 33.
River, crossed the, 225.
Rivers in the ocean, 214.
Rivers reach the main, 225.
Roads cross, where four, 140.
Robe of the Tathāgata, 127.
Robes, lay, 91;
robes of cloth of gold, 239;
the bhikkhus doffed their robes, 95.
Rock a good blow, give the, 194.
Room for the I, no, 65.
Root of evil, ignorance the, 40.
Roots of mind, the five, 29.
Rope, the nature of the, 67.
Rubbish, the lily on a heap of, 138.
Rules for the order, 233.

Sabbath, 98;
observe the Uposatha or Sabbath, 98.
Sacrifice, 33;
sacrifice of self, 152;
[Pg 301]the nature of religion, worship and sacrifice, 152.
Sacrifices, 33;
sacrifices cannot save, 159.
Sages questioned, the, 13.
Saint, a sinner can become a, 172.
Salvation alone in the truth 234;
assured of final, 248;
salvation the extinction of self, 4;
work out your salvation, 237, 249.
Sameness and continuity, 157.
Sandy desert, a, 192.
Save, faith alone can, 213.
Saving paths? Are all paths, 139.
Saving power, incantations have no, 33.
Saviour of others, a, 163.
Saviour appeared, the, 256.
Saviour, truth the, 5.
Scepticism, 126.
Schism, the, 100.
Search of a thief, a party in, 206.
Season, flowers out of, 241.
Season, rainy, 58, 232.
Sect of Devadatta, 110.
Seed, faith is the, 195.
Seeing the highest religion, 138.
Seek thou the life that is of the mind, 153.
Self, 72;
self an error, 67;
self an illusion, 41, 67;
self and the cause of troubles, 67;
self and truth, 4, 41, 148; self begets selfishness, 5;
cleaving to self, 158;
complete surrender of self, 148;
eradication of self, 147;
self-extinction, 152,
identity of self, 158;
illusion of self, 67;
pleasures of self in heaven, 153;
self is change, 158;
self is death, 153, 160;
self-mortification, 89;
my self has become the truth, 163;
reason as the helpmate of self, 256;
rebirth without the transmigration of self, 33, 153;
sacrifice of self, 152;
the conquest of self, 149;
the extinction of self, salvation, 4;
the idea of self, 242;
self, the maker, 73;
the nature of self, 65;
self, the veil of Māyā, 6;
truth and self, 153;
truth guards him who guards his self, 132;
thou clingest to self, 122;
where is the identity of my self, 155;
compounds lack a self, 158.
Selfhood, the cause of, found, 40.
Selfhood, thirst for existence and, 39.
Selfish is my grief, 210.
Selfishness, self begets, 5.
Selfishness, surrender, 67.
Sense, moral, 97.
Senses and object, contact of, 66.
Sentence of expulsion, 100, 101.
Sentiency, truth vibrated through, 255.
Separation, combination subject to, 31.
Sermon on abuse, the, 167;
the sermon on charity, 75;
sermon on fire, 64.
Serpent, rabbit rescued from the, 27.
Seven kinds of wisdom, 97.
Sevenfold higher wisdom, 222.
Shaveling, 195.
Shedding of blood, 33.
Shine forth, let your light, 109.
Shines by night, the moon, 139.
Sick bhikkhu, the, 213.
Sickness fell upon him, 232, 237.
Sight, blind received, 8.
Sign of the right path, 143.
[Pg 302]Signs forbidden, astrology and forecasting by, 236;
signs of Buddhahood, 10;
the four signs, 15.
Sin, struggle against, 237.
Sinner can become a saint, a, 172.
Six quarters, the, 144.
Slaughter, 33.
Slaughter, ox led to, 211.
Smith, Chunda, the, 237, 240.
Snake, no rope, 67.
So great an honor, 228.
Soldier, a, Simha, 147.
Soldier of truth, a, 149.
Soldiers of the Tathāgata, 130.
Solitary, 137.
Son, the lost, 182.
Son, father and, 107.
Song of ecstasy, 221.
Songs, heavenly, 241.
Sorcerers, 173.
Sorrow compared with a sword, 19.
Soul, Gotama denies the existence
of the, 151;
non-existence of the soul, 153;
the I the soul, 29;
the problem of the soul, 29;
the Buddhist conception of soul, viii.
Souls not separate and self-existent entities, 153.
Soup, a spoon tastes not the flavor of the, 191.
Source of all righteousness, 118.
Sovereignty, holiness better than, 27.
Sow that you will reap, what you, 200.
Sow, we reap what we, 153.
Sower, the, 194.
Sowest, others will reap what thou, 159.
Sowing-ground of merit, the order (sangha) the, 226.
Speak, the deaf and dumb, 8.
Speak to the purpose, 126.
Speaking untruths, 166.
Speculations, 138.
Spells forbidden, 121.
Spirit, in the, 104.
Spiritual, all existence is, 151.
Spiritual eye, 254.
Spits at heaven, like one who, 167.
Spoon, a, tastes not the flavor of the soup, 191.
Spread the truth, 56.
Staircase, a, 140.
Stares me in the face, nothingness, 153.
Station, remain in thy, 74.
Steal not, 126.
Stream, following the Master over the, 212.
Stream, he had crossed the, 213.
String, puppets on a, 123.
Strong man, who is the? 125.
Struck by apoplexy, 191.
Struggle against sin, 237.
Struggle for life, reason in the, 255.
Struggle must be, 148.
Subject to separation, combination, 31.
Substance, the, of Brahman lore, 141.
Such a one will wander rightly in the world, 170.
Such faith have I, 222.
Suffer, the Blessed One had to, 233.
Suffering, bliss where there is 20.
Sun is bright, the, 139.
Sun of the mind, the, 188.
Superstition, 144.
[Pg 303]Supplications forbidden, 121.
Supplications have no effect, 172.
Suprabuddha, 110.
Surrender, 148.
Surrender selfishness, 67.
Surrender to evil powers, no, 148.
Swear not, 126.
Sweet, wrong, appears, 133.
Swooned, the Blessed One, 35.
Sword, sorrow compared with, 19.

Tailor, the greedy, 184.
Talents. [See Abhīññā in the Glossary.]
Talk, foolish, 140.
Tastes not the flavor of the soup, a spoon, 191.
Teach the same truth, 258.
Teacher, the, 131;
teacher of gods and men, 226;
the teacher unknown, 177;
we have no teacher more, 247.
Temporary, many laws are, 253.
Ten commandments, the, 126.
Ten great calamities, 215.
Ten precepts, 124.
Terms of the world, such are the, 211.
Test of the prince, 13.
That it be well grounded, 222.
There is mind, 151.
They knew me not, 178.
Thief, a party in search of a, 206.
Thinkers are bright, 139.
Thing and its quality, the, 30.
Things as they are, 67.
Thirst for existence and selfhood, 39.
Thirst, the extinction of, 138.
Thirsty, I am, 238;
water for the thirsty, 1.
This is done by me, 132.
Thorn in the flesh, 138.
Thou art the Buddha, 150;
thou canst not escape the fruit of evil actions, 159;
thou clingest to self, 122;
thou tearest down religion, 152;
thou wilt reap what thou sowest, 159.
Thought, helmet of right, 93;
the thought of I, 31.
Thoughtlessness the path of death, 132.
Thoughts continue, 154;
made up of thoughts, 131,
thoughts of love, 143;
thoughts will endure, 132.
Three dangers hang over Pātaliputta, 224.
Three personalities of Buddha, the, 252.
Three vows, 56.
Three woes, the, 14.
Thyself, others art thou, 157.
Tidings, glad, 1; good tidings, 21.
Tie all souls together, bonds that, 259.
Time of grace, the, 183, 192.
Time to seek religion, now is the, 21.
Times, hard, teach a lesson, 122.
To-day, reform, 123.
Together, bonds that tie all souls, 259.
Traditions, revere the, 254.
Transiency, immortality in, 3.
Transmigration, eddies of, 166;
rebirth without the transmigration of self, 33;
weary path of transmigration, 237.
Transmission of the soul and the I, 32.
[Pg 304]Treacherous, charms are, 202.
Treasure laid up in a deep pit, 171.
Treasure that can never be lost, a, 171.
Trespasses, confession of, 99.
Troubles, the cause of, and self, 67.
Truly thou art Buddha, 145.
Trumpeter, 143.
Trust in truth, 2.
Truth, a soldier of, 149;
abodes of truth, 75;
be anxious to learn the truth, 126;
be married unto the truth, 205;
Buddha the truth, 2, 245, 254;
delusion and truth, 42;
eye of truth, 59;
glorious is the truth, 60, 61, 68;
hold fast to the truth, 234;
I am the truth, 163;
immortality in truth, 153, 160, 205;
incarnation of the truth, 253;
kingdom of truth, 48;
let us obey the truth, 254;
life yearns for the truth, 258;
love of truth, 149;
my self has become the truth, 163;
no truth is attainable without reason, 256;
perception of truth, the refreshing drink, 118;
practise the truth 160;
propound the truth, 127;
salvation alone in the truth, 234;
spread the truth, 56;
teach the same truth, 258;
the embrace of truth, 205;
the king of truth, 130, 163;
the mirror of truth, 225;
the throne of truth is righteousness, 257;
the religious man and truth, 125;
the truth cleanses from error, 250;
the truth found, 55;
the truth has been made known to me, 247;
the truth will never pass away, 152;
the truth will remain, 242, 249;
the world is built for truth, 257;
there is but one truth, 138, 164;
trust in truth, 2;
truth and immortality, 6;
truth and self, 4, 41, 148, 153;
truth cannot be fashioned, 257;
truth cannot die, 245;
truth dawns upon me, 159;
truth guards him who guards his self, 132;
truth has taken its abode in me, 163;
truth in all its glory, 256;
truth is best, 55;
truth is hidden to the blind, 253;
truth is life, 153;
truth is one, 257;
truth is the essence of life, 258;
truth the correct comprehension of all things, 41;
truth the image of the eternal, 3;
truth the saviour, 5;
truth vibrated through sentiency, 255.
Truthful, be, 126.
Truths, the four noble, 41, 181.
Twelve nidānas, the, 40.
Two ways of re-establishing concord, 104.
Tyrant, 198.
Unclean, the vessel has become, 165.
Undiminished, meats remained, 205.
Unguents, 90.
Union of what we know not, 141.
Union with Brahmā, 141.
Universally, logic holds, 156.
Universe, face to face, 142.
Unknown teacher, the, 177.
Unshod, the Blessed One walked, 109.
Untruths, speaking, 165.

Vain, mortification, 50.
[Pg 305]Vain repetitions, prayers, 33.
Vanities, 59.
Vanity, 31, 122, 132, 134, 173;
vanity of worldliness, 121;
vanity of worldly happiness, 3.
Various kinds of assemblies, 177.
Veil of self-delusion, the, 200.
Vessel has become unclean, the, 165.
Vessels, 163;
vessels made by the potter, 211.
Vibrated through sentiency, truth, 225.
Victor, the greater, 149.
Vision a samana, the, 20.
Vows, three, 56.

Walk according to the precepts, 241;
let a man walk alone, 102;
the lame walk, 8;
walk in the right path, 68.
Wander rightly in the world, such a one will, 170.
War, goes out to wage, 130;
is it wrong to go to war? 147;
war in a righteous cause, 148.
Warriors are bright, 139.
Warriors, destiny of, 149.
Water, doctrine like unto, 178;
fetch me some water, 238;
is the water now fit for drinking? 165;
our water is all gone, 193;
the lotus-flower in water, 51, 75, 118;
water gurgling beneath, 193;
water for the thirsty, 1;
the water of immortality, 149.
Waterless desert, a, 142.
Ways, the best of, is eightfold, 138.
We have no teacher more, 247.
Wearisome to the Blessed One, 226.
Weary path of transmigration, 237.
Welfare, eight conditions of, 220.
Well, the woman at the, 196.
West, facing towards the, 223;
the paradise in the West, 173.
What we know not, a union of, 141;
what you sow that you will reap, 200.
Wheel, the, 51;
the wheel of individuality, 65.
Where does the wind dwell? 154;
where four roads cross, 140;
where is Nirvāna? 154;
where is the identity of my self? 155.
Which is the true self? 158.
Who is an outcast? 195;
who is the strong man? 125.
Why do we give up the pleasures of the world? 172.
Why preserve this body of flesh? 242.
Wild crane, the, 122.
Wind, as a great, 154.
Wind dwell? where does the, 154.
Wisdom has no dwelling-place, 154;
is wisdom a locality? 154;
religious wisdom lifts above pleasure, 209;
seven kinds of wisdom, 97;
sevenfold higher wisdom, 222.
Wise man nourishes his mind, the, 189;
wise people falter not, 133;
wise people fashion themselves, 133.
Wishes, five, of Bimbisāra, 68.
Without beholding the physician, 246.
Woes, the three, 14.
Woman, a worldly, 213;
if you see a woman, 93;
the woman at the well, 196.
Women as a rule are, etc., 228;
the first women lay-disciples, 61.
Word, last, 249;
[Pg 306]word of the Buddhas, 22.
Words of Buddhas immutable, the, 20.
Work out your salvation, 237, 249.
World dark, do not call the, 187;
world filled with love, 143;
let us go into the world, 250;
rare in the world, 228;
such a one will wander rightly in the world, 170;
such are the terms of the world, 211;
the world is built for truth, 257;
come into the world to befriend, 214;
why do we give up the pleasures of the world? 172.
Worldliness, dust of, 44;
jewels and worldliness, 59;
vanity of worldliness, 121.
Worldling nourishes his body, the, 189.
Worldly happiness, vanity of, 3;
a worldly woman, 213.
Worn-out cart, as a, 233.
Worship, 33.
Worship and sacrifice, the nature of religion, 152.
Worthiest homage, 241.
Worthy of yellow robes, not, 103.
Wrong appears sweet, 133.

Yasa, 58-61.
Yellow robes, not worthy of, 103.
Yoke, gone into the, 138.
Your eyes are blind, 187.
Yourselves, be ye lamps unto, 234;
rely on yourselves, 234;
yourselves have known, 248.

Zeal flagging, religious, 35.
[Names and terms must be looked up in the Glossary, where references to pages of the present book are separated by a dash from the explanation.]
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Re: The Gospel of Buddha, by Paul Carus

Postby admin » Mon Jan 27, 2020 8:42 am


Upon the task of illustrating The Gospel of Buddha, I have spent three years, the first of which was entirely devoted to preparation. By the kind assistance of Dr. Hans Schnorr von Carolsfeld, Director of the Royal Court and State Library at Munich, I was enabled to make very extensive use of the treasures of this institution, and I am under great obligations to him for the courtesies extended to me. Above all I endeavored to obtain a solid foundation for my work by acquiring a clear conception of the personality of the Buddha from religious, historical and artistic standpoints and by familiarizing myself with all the Buddhist dogmas, symbols and religious observances.

Detailed studies of Indian costume, armor, decoration, architecture and the arrangement of dwellings and gardens, as well as the fauna and flora of the country, were likewise indispensable. Not only modern documents, explorers' reports and photographs of ancient ruins provided me with available material, but also some old Dutch works of the seventeenth century.[Pg 308]

The two main sources of our knowledge of ancient Buddhist art will always remain the monuments of Gandhāra, and the cave dwellings of Buddhist monks in Ajantā and other places. The former bear witness to the extraordinary influence of Greek art on Buddhism; and the latter are rich in wonderful fresco paintings of the classical period of Buddhist art. A description of all the caves as well as a selection of the best mural paintings in colored pictures are to be found in Griffith's elegant work The Paintings in the Buddhist Cave Temples of Ajanta[1] and some reproductions from it have been made further accessible in Dr. Carus's Portfolio of Buddhist Art.[2] The two great expositions in Munich, "Japan and Eastern Asia in Art" and "Expositions of the Masterpieces of Mohammedan Art," 1910, were very instructive to me from the point of view of art history, containing invaluable material conveniently arranged from the great museums, royal treasures and private collections from London, Paris, Berlin, Vienna, St. Petersburg, Moscow, and Cairo. In the former the great wave of the marvelous Buddhist faith which had been flowing towards China for two millenniums and which had brought new life from China to Japan was evidenced in many rare pieces. Yet almost more fruitful for my purpose was the exposition of Mohammedan art. It displayed wonderful Persian and Indian book-making and lacquer work, tapestries, ceramics, fabrics, armor and metal work. To be sure these were exclusively of Mohammedan manufacture, but many large museums and institutions (native and foreign), collectors[Pg 309] and explorers had sent also chests of Buddhist works, which, not falling within its compass, had been excluded from the exhibition, but were placed at my disposal in the so-called Library Department reserved for students.

Indian art has been greatly neglected by archeologists and connoisseurs at the expense of the so-called classic style, and explorers seem to be more interested in the geographical and political conditions of the country, or even look down with contempt and lack of understanding on the early artistic monuments of India, although they have enriched our European middle ages. Thus there are great gaps in the history of Indian art which I was obliged to fill up for myself, and certainly a very different kind of study was needed to illustrate a Gospel of Buddha than for a pictorial construction of the life of a Plato or a Jesus.

Fräulein Emily von Kerckhoff, an artistic and highly cultured lady of Laren in Northern Holland, sailed on November 9, 1909, to join her family in Java where she remained for some time. Her journey occurring just at this time was of great help to me, for she complied with all my wishes in the most accommodating manner and filled up many gaps in my knowledge of India.

In Colombo she became acquainted with the Dias Bandaranaike and other refined Singhalese families, who were very friendly in answering my questions. Further she met Sister Sudham Machari of Upasikarama, Peradeniya Road, Kandy, a prominent Singhalese nun, who with the assistance of Lady Blake, the wife of a former governor, had founded the first modern Buddhist nunnery in Ceylon where she now lives as lady superior. She is well posted on Buddhism, for she has studied Pāli, Sanskrit, and Burmese for nine years in Burma, and has received ordination. Through her, Fräulein von Kerckhoff had an opportunity to [Pg 310]visit the temple in Kandy where the strange relic of the "Sacred Tooth of Buddha" is preserved, and on this occasion was able to obtain some leaves from the sacred Bodhi tree which I wished to possess. She also became acquainted in Kandy with Dr. Kobekaduwe Tikiri Banda, a Singhalese physician who belonged to a Buddhist family and is the son of a Kandian chief. He had studied in England for a long time and possesses a remarkable knowledge of the country and people of India and Ceylon, by which I thus had an opportunity to profit.

Fräulein von Kerckhoff gathered further material for my purposes in Gampola, a place in the mountains about an hour's ride from Kandy, on the occasion of a visit to the family of the district judge, Mr. De Livera, and by the acquaintance with Mr. J.B. Yatawara Rata-Mahatmaya, Governor of the District and a zealous Buddhist, who has translated into English part of the Jātakas (stories of the various rebirths of Buddha) in collaboration with the late Prof. Max Müller, of Oxford.

Later, in December, 1910, she sent me leaves from the Bodhi tree at Anuradhapura, the sacred city of the Buddhists, where there are ruins of ancient palaces and temples, and where stands that Bodhi tree which Mahinda, the first Buddhist apostle in Ceylon, is said to have planted from a branch of the sacred Bodhi tree in Buddhagaya under which Buddha attained enlightenment.

With regard to customs, habits and usages at princely courts I received information, though to be sure referring mainly to Java, through Prince Paku Alam, his uncle Prince Noto, his sisters and other relatives, all of whom talked Dutch fluently with Fräulein von Kerckhoff. She was also kind enough to send me all the interesting photographs she could find of famous Indian temples and ruins, views of native life, types and landscapes, pictures of the newly excavated temple ruins of Sarnath, where Buddha first preached after attaining enlightenment, and particularly also of the[Pg 311] splendid temple of Boro-Budur. (She also went to Japan in search of traces of Buddhism for me).

By means of the Hagenbeck Indian ethnological exposition (Oct. 1911, in Munich) I was able to study types of the different Indian races and castes from nature, and this in addition to a personal observation of the features of Indians in the harbors of Genoa and Venice enabled me to draw my figures according to nature from genuine Indian models.

However, all these studies slightly influenced the externalities only of the whole series of pictures, for the knowledge obtained by detailed study had been covered to a remarkable extent at the beginning when I made my first sketches on the first inspiration. Still they have proved of great value to me since they gave me the assurance that historical fidelity has been preserved in my work.

Munich, Bavaria.


[1]Two volumes, 1896, Published by order of the Secretary of State for India in Council.

[2]Chicago, Open Court Publishing Company.

During the time of printing "The Gospel of Buddha" the following valuable works on Indian art have come under my notice:

Ānanda K. Coomaraswamy: The Arts and Crafts of India and Ceylon.
E.B. Havell: The Ideals of Indian Art; Indian Sculpture and Painting.
Dr. Curt Glaser: Die Kunst Ost-Asiens (Leipzig, Insel-Verlag).
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