BODY OF SECRETS -- ANATOMY OF THE ULTRA-SECRET NATIONAL SECU

"Science," the Greek word for knowledge, when appended to the word "political," creates what seems like an oxymoron. For who could claim to know politics? More complicated than any game, most people who play it become addicts and die without understanding what they were addicted to. The rest of us suffer under their malpractice as our "leaders." A truer case of the blind leading the blind could not be found. Plumb the depths of confusion here.

Re: BODY OF SECRETS -- ANATOMY OF THE ULTRA-SECRET NATIONAL

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Part 1 of 5

NOTES

ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THE NOTES

HSTL: Harry S. Truman Presidential Library
DDEL: Dwight David Eisenhower Presidential Library
JFKL: John Fitzgerald Kennedy Presidential Library
LBJL: Lyndon B. Johnson Presidential Library
NSAN: National Security Agency Newsletter
NSA: Unless otherwise noted, all NSA items came from the National Security Agency.
JCS: Joint Chiefs of Staff
FRDS: U.S. Department of State, Foreign Relations of the U.S. Series
ARRB: Assassinations Records Review Board
TICOM: Army Security Agency, Top Secret/Cream report, "European Axis Signal Intelligence in World War II as Revealed by 'TICOM' Investigations and by Other Prisoner of War Interrogations and Captured Material, Principally German" (May 1, 1946). Nine volumes.
Lemnitzer's Private Summary: Long-hidden, handwritten fifty-two-page private account of the Bay of Pigs affair by General Lyman L. Lemnitzer (undated). Kept in Lemnitzer's private papers at his family home in Pennsylvania.

CHAPTER 1: Memory
Page
1 The Munitions Building was located at the corner of Nineteenth Street and Constitution Avenue in Washington. Friedman walk to the vault: Frank B. Rowlett, The Story if Magic Memoirs of an American Cryptologic Pioneer (Laguna Hills, CA: Aegean Park Press, 1998), p. 34.
2 "Welcome, gentlemen": ibid" p. 35,
2 Rowlett's clothes: ibid., p. 34.
2 Sinkov and Kullback background: James Bamford, The Puzzle Palace: A Report on NSA, America's Most Secret Agency (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1982), p. 30.
2 more than 10, 000 messages: ibid., p. 16.
3 the Chamber's demise: ibid., pp. 16-17.
5 given its cautious approval: Rowlett, op. cit., pp. 37-38.
3 State Department ... never to know: ibid.
3 vault twenty-five feet square: ibid" p. 34.
4 "The NSA Christmas party was a big secret": NSA, Top Secret/Umbra, Oral history of Robert L. Prestel (December 21, 1993), p. 14.
4 "For a long time we didn't tell anybody": Laura Sullivan, "Secret Spy Agency Puts On Human Face, " Baltimore Sun (March 21, 2000).
5 "They picked him up": ibid.
5 NSA leased the entire building: ibid.
5 "I do this with some trepidation": Address by Vice Admiral William O. Studeman to the Baltimore/Washington Corridor Chamber (June 29, 1990).

CHAPTER 2: Sweat
Page
7 "the United States will be": Office of Strategic Services, secret memorandum, William O. Donovan to President Truman, with attached report, "Problems and Objectives of United States Policy" (May 5, 1945), pp. 1, 2 (HSTL, Rose Conway File, OSS Memoranda for the President, Box 15). "
8 TICOM: Army Security Agency, Top Secret/Cream report, "European Axis Signal Intelligence in World War II as Revealed 'by 'TICOM' Investigations and by Other Prisoner of War Interrogations and Captured Material, Principally German, " (May 1, 1946). Nine volumes. (Hereafter referred to as TICOM.)
8 Colonel George A. Bicher: TICOM, vol. 1, p. 2.
8 Marshall message to Eisenhower: War Department message, Marshall to Eisenhower (August 7, 1944), contained in TICOM, vol. 8, p. 55.
9 "the plan contemplated": ibid., p. 3.
9 "a. To learn the extent ... war against Japan": ibid.
10 "was no longer feasible": TICOM, vol. 8, p. 52.
10 "take over and exploit": TICOM, vol. 1, p. 3.
10 suburban location was chosen: Gordon Welchman, The Hut Six Story: Breaking the Enigma Codes (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1982), p. 9.
10 "was brilliantly conceived": TICOM, vol. 2, p. 1.
10 "Allied Comint agencies had been exploiting": NSA, Robert J. Hanyok, "Defining the Limits of Hell: Allied Communications Intelligence and the Holocaust During the Second World War, 1939-1945" (1999). This paper was presented at the Cryptologic History Symposium at NSA on October 27, 1999.
11 "One day we got this frantic call": NSA, Secret/Comint Channels Only, oral history of Paul E. Neff (January 26, 1983).
12 "Apparently they had": ibid., p. 45.
12 At thirty-eight; Background information about Whitaker is drawn from an interview with Dr. Paul K. Whitaker (January 1999); diary of Paul K. Whitaker, copy in author's collection.
13 Selmer S. Norland: Information about his background is drawn from Thomas Parrish, The Ultra Americans: The Us. Role in Breaking the Nazi Codes (Briarcliff Manor, NY: Stein & Day, 1986), p. 102.
13 Arthur Levenson: Background information comes from ibid., pp. 86-87.
13 British policy had forbidden: Signal Security Service, secret report by William F. Friedman, "Report on E Operations of the GC & CS at Bletchley Park" (August 12, 1943), p. 9.
14 "I eventually got my commission": NSA, Secret/Comint Channels Only, Oral History of Dr. Howard Campaigne (June 29, 1983), pp. 2-3.
14 Swordfish: NSA, "The Docent Book" (January 1996). Among the variations of the "Fish" were machines nicknamed by American codebreakers "Tunny" and "Sturgeon." The Tunny (better known in English as the tuna) was the Schlusselzusatz 40 (SZ40). It was manufactured by the German firm Lorenz and was used by the German army for upper-echelon communications. The Sturgeon, actually a Siemens T-52, was developed at the request of the German navy, with the first units manufactured in 1932. The German air force began using it in 1942. Unlike the Enigma, the Sturgeon did not use wired rotors. The rotors have a series of cogs that open and dose on electrical contacts.
Unless otherwise noted, all details of the hunt for the Fish machine are from Paul K. Whitaker's personal diary (unpaginated), a copy of which is in the author's possession.
14 "The impressions were": Whitaker diary.
14 "The roads were lined": ibid.
15 "How are things down there?": ibid.
16 "They were working": ibid.
17 Dustbin: TICOM, Top Secret/Ultra report, "Narrative and Report of the Proceedings of TICOM Team 6, 11 April-6 July 1945" (September 5, 1945).
17 Among those clandestinely brought: ibid.
17 "It is almost certain": TICOM, vol. 3, p. 8.
17 "We found that the Germans": NSA, Secret/Comint Channels Only, Oral History of Dr. Howard Campaigne (June 29, 1983), pp. 2-3.
18 "European cryptanalysts were unable": TICOM, vol. 1, p. 6. Other systems solved by Germany included between 10 and 30 percent of intercepted U.S. Army M-209 messages. Except where keys were captured, it was usually read too late to be of tactical value. Almost 100 percent of messages sent by the U.S. Army in Slidex, Codex, bomber code, assault code, aircraft movement code, map coordinate codes, and cipher device M-94 where employed, were read regularly (TICOM, vol. 1, p. 5).
18 SIGABA: NSA, "The Docent Book" (January 1996). The Army SIGABA was designated M134C and the Navy SIGABA was the CSP 888.
18 It was finally taken out of service: ibid.
18 "practically 100% readable": TICOM, vol. 1, Appendix: "Results of European Axis Cryptanalysis as Learned from TICOM Sources" (88 pages, unpaginated).
19 "cryptanalytic attack had been": ibid. See also Army Security Agency, Top Secret/ Ultra report, "The Achievements of the Signal Security Agency in World War II" (February 20, 1946), p. 31.
19 more than 1 million decrypted messages: NSA, Top Secret/Umbra, "On Watch" (September 1986), p. 1lo
19 "Overnight, the targets that occupied": ibid., p. 13.
19 Gone were the army intercept stations: Prior to the war, intercept stations were located at Fort Hancock, New Jersey; the Presidio, San Francisco, California; Fort Sam Houston, Texas; Corozal, Panama Canal Zone; Fort Shafter, Territory of Hawaii; Fort McKinley, Philippine Islands; and Fort Hunt, Virginia. During the war additional intercept stations were added at Indian Creek Station, Miami Beach, Florida; Asmara, Eritrea; Amchitka, Aleutian Islands; Fairbanks, Alaska; New Delhi, India; Bellmore, New York; Tarzana, California; and Guam (Army Security Agency, Top Secret/Ultra report, "The Achievements of the Signal Security Agency in World War II" (February 20, 1946), pp. 11-12).
19 Vint Hill Farms Station: In 1999 the station was taken over by the Federal Aviation Administration as the new home of a consolidated radar operations center for the Washington-Baltimore area's four major airports-Dulles, Reagan National, Baltimore-Washington, and Andrews Air Force Base. The system is known as TRACON (Terminal Radar Approach Control).
20 At war's end: By V-J Day 7, 848 people were working at Arlington Hall (Army Security Agency, "The Achievements of the Signal Security Agency in World War II" (February 20, 1946), p. 3. (National Archives and Records Administration, RG 457, Box 107, SRH-349.)
20 "They intercepted printers at Vint Hill": NSA, Top Secret/Comint Channels Only, Oral History of Colonel Russell H. Horton (March 24, 1982), p. 64.
20 "For a few months in early 1942": NSA/CIA, Cecil James Phillips, "What Made Venona Possible?" in "Venona: Soviet Espionage and the American Response, 1939-1957" (1996), p. xv.
21 Phillips estimated that between 1942 and 1948: David Martin, "The Code War, " Washington Post Magazine (May 10, 1998), p. 16.
21 Long black limousines: The description of the UN's founding conference draws on Linda Melvern, The Ultimate Crime: Who Betrayed the UN and Why? (London: Allison & Busby, 1995), p. 23.
22 the French delegation: Details on breaking French codes and ciphers come from TICOM, vol. 1, Appendix: "Results of European Axis Cryptanalysis as Learned from TICOM Sources."
22 "Our inclusion among the sponsoring": War Department, Top Secret/Ultra report, "Magic" Diplomatic Summary (May 2, 1945), p. 8.
22 "Pressure of work": Signal Security Agency, Top Secret report, Rowlett to Commanding Officer, SSA, "Semimonthly Branch Activity Report, 1-15 June 1945."
23 "Russia's prejudice": War Department, Top Secret/Ultra report, "Magic" Diplomatic Summary (April 30, 1945), pp. 7- 12.
23 Spanish decrypts: ibid.
23 Czechoslovakian message: ibid.
23 "a situation that compared": NSA, David A. Hatch with Robert Louis Benson,
"The Korean War: The Sigint Background" (June 2000), p. 4.
23 "a remarkably complete picture": ibid.
23 "perhaps the most significant": ibid., p. 5.
23 Black Friday: ibid., p. 4.
24 a gregarious Russian linguist: Details concerning William Weisband are drawn from NSA/CIA, "Venona; Soviet Espionage and the American Response, 1939-1957" (1996), p. xxviii.
24 "three-headed monster"; NSA, Top Secret/Codeword, Oral History of Herbert J. Conley (March 5, 1984), pp. 58, 59.
24 "He couldn't control": ibid.
24 Korea barely registered: Unless otherwise noted, details on Sigint in Korea are from NSA, David A. Hatch with Robert Louis Benson, "The Korean War: The Sigint Background" (June 2000), p. 4.
25 "AFSA had no Korean linguists": NSA, Top Secret/Umbra/Handle via Talent and Keyhole Comint Control Systems Jointly, Dr. Thomas R. Johnson, American Cryptology During the Cold war (1995), p. 36.
25 Buried in stacks of intercepted Soviet traffic: ibid., pp. 39-40.
25 Joseph Darrigo, a U.S. Army captain: ibid., p. 40.
25 "AFSA (along with everyone else) was looking": ibid., p. 54.
25 arriving ten to twelve hours after intercept: NSA, Jill Frahm, "So Power Can Be Brought into Play: Sigint and the Pusan Perimeter" (2000), p. 6; see also NSA, Patrick D. Weadon, "Sigint and Comsec Help Save the Day at Pusan, " pp. 1-2.
26 Father Harold Henry had spent a number of years: NSA, "Korea, " pp. 42-43.
26 "When we got into the ... Perimeter": Donald Knox, The Korean War: An Oral History (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1985), p. 77.
26 provided him with such vital information as the exact locations: NSA, "So Power Can Be Brought into Play: Sigint and the Pusan Perimeter, " p. 10.
26 "ground-return intercept": NSA, "The Korean 'War: The Sigint Background, " p. 12.
27 "One of our problems in Korea": NSA, Top Secret/Comint Channels Only, Oral History of Paul Odonovich (August 5, 1983), p. 33.
27 low-level voice intercept (LLVI): NSA, "Korea, " pp. 47-48.
27 A team set up in Nanjing ... "poor hearability": NSA, 10p Secret/Umbra, "Comint and the PRC Intervention in the Korean War, " Cryptologic Quarterly (Summer 1996), p. 4.
27 the British had been secretly listening: ibid., p. 6.
28 "clear and convincing evidence": NSA, "Korea, " p. 44.
28 Sigint reports noted that some 70;000 Chinese troops; NSA, "Comint and the PRC Intervention in the Korean War, " p. 11.
28 "Very little"; ibid., p. 15.
28 twenty troop trains were heading: ibid., p. 14.
28 "We are already at war here": NSA, "Korea, " p. 44.
28 intercepts during the first three weeks: NSA, "Comint and the PRC Intervention in the Korean War, " p. 18.
29 AFSA reports demonstrated clearly: ibid., p. 17.
29 "No one who received Comint product": ibid., p. 1.
29 "During the Second World War, MacArthur had disregarded''; ibid., p. 21.
29 NSA later attributed this caution: NSA, "Korea, " p. 55.
30 "The ... last three major": ibid., p. 36.
30 "It has become apparent": NSA, "The Korean War: The Sigint Background"
(June 2000), p. 15.
30 A year later NSA director Ralph Canine: NSA, "So Power Can Be Brought into Play: Sigint and the Pusan Perimeter, " p. 15.
30 "gravely concerned": CIA, Top Secret/Codeword memorandum, "Proposed Survey of Communications Intelligence Activities" (December 10, 1951) (HSTL, President's Secretary's File, Intelligence, Box 250).
30 Truman ordered the investigation: National Security Council, Top Secret/Codeword memorandum, "Proposed Survey of Intelligence Activities" (December 13, 1951) (HSTL, President's Secretary's File, Intelligence, Box 250).
31 put it together again: For the Brownell Report, see Committee Appointed to Survey Communications Intelligence Activities of the Government, Top Secret/ Comint Channels Only, "Report to the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Defense" (June 13, 1952) (National Archives, Record Group 457, Special Research History 123).
31 "step backward": ibid.
31 meeting with the president: White House, President's Appointment Schedule for Friday, October 24, 1952 (HSTL, Files of Mathew 1. Connelly). Secretary of State Dean Acheson was giving a speech on Korea at the UN General Assembly at the time of the meeting (HSTL, Secretary of State Dean Acheson Appointment Book, Box 46).
31 leaving a voting booth: White House, President's Appointment Schedule for Tuesday, November 4, 1952 (HSTL, Files of Mathew 1. Connelly).
31 "The 'smart money'": NSA, Tom Johnson, "The Plan to Save NSA, " in "In Memoriam: Dr. Louis W Tordella" (undated), p. 6. In fact, only four days before NSA opened its doors, the FBI's 1. Edgar Hoover sent a snippy letter to the National Security Council complaining about the new agency: "I am concerned about the authority granted to the Director of the National Security Agency" (FBI, Personal and Confidential letter, Hoover to James S. Lay, Jr., Executive Secretary of the NSC [October 31, 1952]) (DDEL, Ann Whitman File, NSC Series, Box 194).

CHAPTER 3: Nerves
Page
33 "With all the electrical gear": Bruce Bailey, "From the Craw's Nest, " Air & Space (September 1994), p. 33.
34 "an ugly, overweight": ibid.
35 Nicknamed Project Homerun: Details of the project are drawn from R. Cargill Hall, "The Truth About Overflights, " MHQ: The Quarterly Journal of Military History, vol. 9, no. 3 (Spring 1997), pp. 36-39.
37 "The stringent security measures imposed": CIA, Secret Noforn report, "The CIA and the U-2 Program, 1954--1974" (1992), p. 2.
38 "The weather was gorgeous": Paul Lashmar, Spy Flights of the Cold War (Gloucestershire, England: Sutton Publishing Ltd., 1996), p. 84.
38 "The guns won't work": ibid., p. 85.
39 "the first major test": NSA, Top Secret/Umbra/Noforn report, "The Suez Crisis: A Brief Comint History" (1988) (Special Series, Crisis Collection, vol. 2), p. 1. 39 his long experience with pack mules: "Ralph J. Canine, " The Phoenician (Fall 1992), p. 12.
39 "People were scared of him": NSA, Secret Comint Channels Only, "Oral History of Colonel Frank L. Herrelko" (November 8, 1982), pp. 31, 42.
40 agreed to by Israeli prime minister David Ben-Gurion, defense minister Shimon Peres, and armed forces chief of staff Moshe Dayan: Donald Neff, Warriors at Suez (Brattleboro, Vt.: Amana Books, 1998), pp. 342-44.
40 intercepts from Spain and Syria: White House, Top Secret/Eyes Only memorandum for the record (August 6, 1956), p. 3.
40 "communications between Paris and Tel Aviv": NSA, Top Secret/Umbra/Noforn report, "The Suez Crisis: A Brief Comint History" (1988) (Special Series Crisis Collection, vol. 2), p. 19.
41 To make matters worse: NSA, Top Secret/Umbra/Talent/Keyhole/Noforn report, "American Cryptology During the Cold War, 1945-1989. Book 1: The Struggle for Centralization 1945-1989" (1995), p. 236.
41 "1956 was a bad time": ibid.
41 "about as crude and brutal": Department of State, memorandum of telephone call to the president (October 30, 1956) (DDEL, Papers of John Foster Dulles, Telephone Calls, Box 11).
41 "It was the gravest": Department of State, memorandum of telephone call from Allen Dulles (October 30, 1956) (DDEL, Papers of John Foster Dulles, Box 5).
41 "It would be a complete mistake": White House Top Secret memorandum, Discussion at the 302nd Meeting of the National Security Council (November 1, 1956), pp. 6-13. (DDEL, Ann Whitman File, NSC Series, Box 8).
41 Harold Stassen objected: ibid.
41 "One thing at least was clear"; ibid.
41 "As for crisis response": NSA, Top Secret Umbra/Talent/Keyhole/ Noforn report, "American Cryptology During the Cold War, 1945-1989. Book 1: The Struggle for Centralization· 1945-1989" (1995), p. 239.
42 consultants from McKinsey and Company: ibid.
42 "modified geographical concept": NSA, Top Secret/Umbra/Talent/Key hole/Noforn report, "American Cryptology During the Cold War, 19405-1989. Book 1: The Struggle for Centralization 1945-1989" (1995), p. 239.
42 Internal organization: See James Bamford, The Puzzle Palace: A Report on America's Most Secret Agency (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1982), pp. 90-91.
42 "Canine ... stands out": NSA, Secret/Comint Channels Only, Oral History of Dr. Howard Campaigne (June 29, 1983), p. 125.
43 Details of Powers's wait on the airstrip come from Francis Gary Powers with Curt Gentry, Operation Overflight: The U-2 Spy Pilot Tells His Story for the First Time (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1970), p. 76.
43 "He would sometimes cut out": Richard M. Bissell, Jr., Oral History (November 9, 1976), p. 11 (DDEL).
44 "the System-V unit worked well": CIA, Top Secret/Codeword mission folder 4019 (December 22, 1956) (contained in CIA/U2P, p. 126).
44 "We usually flew from Turkey": Powers with Gentry, Operation Overflight, pp. 46-47.
44 "The equipment we carried on such occasions": ibid.
45 Powers locked his canopy: His preparations for the U-2 flight are described in Powers with Gentry, Operation Overflight, p. 78.
45 "Minister of Defense Marshal Malinovsky reporting": Strobe Talbott, ed., Khrushchev Remembers (Boston: Little, Brown, 1974), pp. 443, 444.
45 "Shoot down the plane": ibid.
45 "We were sick and tired": ibid.
45 A missile launch was considered: CIA, Colonel Alexander Orlov, "A 'Hot' Front in the Cold War, " Studies in Intelligence (Winter 1998-1999), web pages.
45 ''An uncomfortable situation": ibid.
46 "Shame!": ibid.
46 "If I could become a missile": ibid.
46 "I was sure": Powers with Gentry, Operation Overflight, p. 80.
46 "In view of the improving": CIA, Top Secret/Talent report, "Annex to the report of DCI Ad hoc Panel on Status of the Soviet ICBM Program, " August 25, 1959 (DDEL, Office of Staff Secretary, Intelligence, Box 15).
47 "Evidence indicates": White House, Top Secret memorandum, "Discussion at the 442nd Meeting of the National Security Council, April 28, 1960" (April 28, 1960), p. 8. (DDEL, Ann Whitman File, National Security Council series, Box 12).
47 "Destroy target": Orlov, ''A 'Hot' Front, " web pages.
47 "My God, I've had it now!": Powers with Gentry, Operation Overflight, p. 82.
47 "Instinctively I grasped the throttle": ibid.
48 "I reached for the destruct switches": ibid., p. 83. Powers was killed on August 1, 1977, at the age of forty-seven, in the crash of a helicopter he was flying for a Los Angeles television station. He was buried with honors in Arlington National Cemetery. A decade later the U.S. Air Force awarded him posthumously the Distinguished Flying Cross.
48 "The plane was still spinning": ibid., p. 84.
48 "It was a pleasant": ibid.
49 "He's turning left!": Jack Anderson, "US. Heard Russians Chasing U-2, " Washington Post, May 12, 1960.
50 "the hideout"; White House, Top Secret memorandum, "Notes for Use in Talking to the Secretary of State about the U-2 and the NSC" (June 14, 1960) (DDEL, White House Office, Box 18).
51 "Following cover plan" Top Secret memorandum (No addressee; May 2, 1960) (DDEL, White House, Office of Staff Secretary, Box 15).
52 the president huddled: This and other details of the events following the U-2 , shootdown are from White House, Top Secret/Limited Distribution, "Chronological Account of Handling of U-2 Incident" (June 14, 1960) (DDEL, White House Office, Box 18).
52 "we had an understanding": Colonel William D. Johnson and Lieutenant Colonel James C. Ferguson, Andrew J. Goodpaster Oral History (January 9, 1976), p. 45 (U.S. Army Center for Military History).
52 Walter Bonney was forced: Michael R. Beschloss, Mayday: Eisenhower, Khrushchev and the U-2 Affair (New York: Harper & Row, 1986), pp. 51-52; David Wise and Thomas B. Ross, The U-2 Affair (New York: Random House, 1962), p. 83.
53 "Almost instantly": Richard Strout, "T.R.B., " New Republic, May 16, 1960.
53 "While the President": Department of State, telephone calls, May 9, 1960 (DDEL, Papers of Christian A. Herter, Telephone Calls, Box 10).
53 "I would like to resign": Ann Whitman diary, May 9, 1960 (DDEL).
53 Dulles, Eisenhower said: The account in this paragraph is from Department of State, telephone calls, May 9, 1960 (DDEL, Papers of Christian A. Herter, Telephone Calls, Box 10).
54 "Our reconnaissance was discovered": White House, Top Secret memorandum, "Discussion at the 444th Meeting of the National Security Council, May 9, 1960" (May 13, 1960), p. 2 (DDEL, Ann Whitman File, National Security Council series, Box 12).
54 "extensive aerial surveillance": Department of State, Press Announcement, May 9, 1960 (DDEL).
54 "Call off": The quotations in this paragraph come from Department of State, memorandum of telephone conversation with General Goodpaster, June 1, 1960 (DDEL, Christian A. Herter Papers, Telephone Calls, Box to).
54 "It was as though": Talbott, ed., Khrushchev Remembers, p. 451.
55 "We couldn't possibly"; ibid., p. 452.
56 "It appeared": White House, Top Secret memorandum, Gordon Gray meeting with the president, May 24, 1960 (DDEL, Office of the Special Assistant for National Security Affairs, Box 4).
56 "The President": This and the preceding description of a typical NSC meeting draw on Robert Cutler, No Time for Rest (Boston: Little, Brown, 1965), p. 302.
56 The description of the NSC meeting draws on photos from DDEL.
56 "to play up the U-2 incident": White House, Top Secret memorandum, "Discussion at the 445th Meeting of the National Security Council, May 24, 1960, " p. 3 (DDEL, Ann Whitman File, National Security Council Series, Box 12).
57 "It was clear": ibid" p. 5.
57 "Administration officials": ibid., p. 5.
57 "Some investigators": ibid., p. 17.
57 "No information": ibid" p. 8.
57 "What's more ... that's under oath": Thomas Gates Oral History, Columbia University Oral History Project.
57 "The investigation, once started": White House, Top Secret memorandum, "Discussion at the 445th Meeting of the National Security Council, May 24, 1960, " p. 8 (DDEL, Ann Whitman File, National Security Council Series, Box 12).
58 "Accordingly ... the investigation": ibid., p. 8.
58 "Mr. Dulles": ibid.
58 "The speech": ibid., p. 9.
58 "Congress could be told": ibid., p. 5.
58 "The impression": ibid.
59 "We handed Khrushchev": David Wise and Thomas B. Ross, The U-2 Affair (New York: Random House, 1962), p. 172.
60 "trace the chain": Michael R. Beschloss, Mayday; Eisenhower, Khrushchev and the U-2 Affair (New York: Harper & Row, 1986), p. 313.
60 "What the CIA": ibid.
60 "heartily approved of the inquiry": White House, memorandum of Congressional breakfast meeting, May 26, 1960 (DDEL, Ann Whitman File, Eisenhower diaries).
60 "just gobbledy-gook": Beschloss, Mayday, p. 314.
61 Dillon's boss went much further: U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, Events Incident to the Summit Conference: Hearings Before the Committee on Foreign Relations, 86th Cong., 2d sess., May 27, 31, June 1, 2, 1960, p. 103.
61 "They were all sworn": Beschloss, Mayday, p. 314.
61 "You now stand'?: Thomas Powers, The Man W1w Kept the Secrets: Richard Helms and the CIA (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1979), pp. 304-305.
62 "very disturbed": Department of State, memorandum of telephone conversation, June 1, 1960 (DDEL, Christian A. Herter Papers, Telephone Calls, Box 10).
62 "At the present time": White House, Clark Clifford memorandum for the record, January 24, 1961 (FRUS, Vol. X, #22).
63 "In the long run": Department of Defense, Robert S. McNamara memorandum to President Kennedy, January 24, 1961 (FRUS, Vol. X, #22).
63 The only answer: Lemnitzer's private summary; p. 6.

CHAPTER 4: Fists
Page
64 By daybreak: Details of the preparation for the Inauguration are drawn from Department of Defense, General Order No.1, Inaugural Parade (January 20, 1961), pp. 1-84; JCS, Memorandum for General Lemnitzer, "Summary of Inaugural Activities, 20 January 1961" (January 17, 1961) (Lemnitzer Papers, National Defense University).
65 Quarters 1: What was then Quarters 1 is today Quarters 6.
65 "The presence of a benign and popular General of the Army": Donald Janson and Bernard Eismann, The Far Right (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1963), p. 6.
66 Warren should be hanged: ibid., p. 138.
66 One of those was Major General Edwin A. Walker ... The Overseas Weekly, charged that Walker: "President Kennedy and the Ultra Right Extremists, " web site http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/4035/disunity.htm.
67 "It seems in this Administration": Drew Pearson, "Another Admiral's Speech Censored, " San Francisco Chronicle, February 21, 1961.
67 "Studious, handsome, thoughtful-looking": Bill Henry, "Doughboy Will Have His Day, " Los Angeles Times, August 19, 1960.
67 "The most important military job": "Who Envies Gen. Lemnitzer?" Los Angeles Times, October 2, 1960.
67 "He thoroughly enjoyed himself": personal letter, Lemnitzer to Lois and Henry Simpson, January 14, 1961 (Lemnitzer Papers, National Defense University).
67 "bordered on reverence": L. James Binder, Lemnitzer: A Soldier for His Time (Washington, D.C.: Brassey's, 1997), p. 239.
68 he ordered his Joint Chiefs Chairman: ibid., p. 242.
68 find a way to secretly torpedo: ibid., p. 252.
68 "I have been involved in some very rugged": personal letter, Lemnitzer to Ernest Lemnitzer, March 3, 1960 (Lemnitzer Papers, National Defense University)
69 "The Certain Trumpet": Binder, Lemnitzer, p. 236.
69 "Here was a president with no military experience": General Lyman L. Lemnitzer Oral History (March 3, 1982) (LBJL).
69 "Nearly all of these people were ardent": Admiral Arleigh A. Burke Oral History (November 1972-January 1973) (US. Naval Institute, Annapolis).
70 "I would offer the suggestion"; Letter, Lemnitzer to Victor Henderson Ashe II, August 22, 1961 (Lemnitzer Papers, National Defense University).
70 Lemnitzer and the Chiefs knew; JCS, Top Secret report, "Evaluation of Possible Military Courses of Action in Cuba, " January 16, 1961 (FRUS Vol. X, #19).
71 passed the Secret Service booth: Frank M. Matthews, "Private Citizen Ike at His Farm, " Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 21, 1961.
72 "This is the first known"; NSA, Secret/Kimbo intercept, February" '1, lY61.
72 "What is required is a basic expansion of plans": White House, Top Secret memorandum of conference with the president, January 25, 1961 (JFKL, National Security Files, Chester V. Clifton Series, JCS Conferences with the President, Vol. I, drafted on January 27 by Goodpaster) (FRUS 1961-1963, Vol. X, #26).
72 "I'm not going to risk": Michael R. Beschloss, The Crisis Years: Kennedy and Khrushchev, 1960-1963 (New York: HarperCollins, 1991), p. 114.
73 "We can confidently assert"; CIA, Top Secret report, "Inspector General's Survey of the Cuban Operation, " October 1961, p. 60.
73 "the Agency was driving forward": ibid., p. 50.
73 elaborate instructions: Drew Pearson, "Merry-Ga.-Round, " San Francisco Chronicle, February 21, 1961.
73 eight-page biography: Lemnitzer biography, prepared as part of his testimony before the House of Representatives, Committee on Science and Astronautics, March 23, 1961.
73 "Planners are a funny lot": Lemnitzer Papers, National Defense University.
74 "In view of the rapid buildup": Lemnitzer's private summary, p. 8.
74 "Evaluation of the current plan": ibid., pp. 10-11.
74 twenty-minute discussion: ibid., p. 36.
75 insisted that the choice of Zapata for a landing site: ibid., pp. 22-23.
76 "The [NSA] effort was very small": NSA, Secret/Comint Channels Only, Oral History of Harold L. Parish (October 12, 1982).
77 "possibly arrived at a Cuban port": NSA, Secret/Sabre intercept, April 10, 1961.
77 U-2s were crisscrossing: CIA, Secret/Noforn report, "The CIA and the U-2 Program, 1954-1974" (1992), p. 198.
77 NSA voice-intercept operators: CIA, Top Secret report, "An Analysis of the Cuban Operation by the Deputy Director (Plans), " January 18, 1962, Section V, "The Assessment of the Adequacy of the Plan, " p. 3.
77 "Arms urgent": This and the other quotations in this paragraph come from CIA, Top Secret report, "Inspector General's Survey of the Cuban Operation, " October 1961, p. 109.
77 "It wasn't much that was done": NSA, Secret/Comint Channels Only, Oral History of Harold L. Parish (October 12, 1982), p. 29.
78 "We are out of ammo": CIA, Top Secret report, "Inspector General's Survey of the Cuban Operation" (October 1961) pp. 32-33.
78 "In water. Out of ammo": ibid.
78 scores of their comrades: A total of 114 brigade members were killed and 1, 189 were wounded.
78 "Am destroying all equipment"; convoy heading for the beach reversed course: CIA, Top Secret report, "Inspector General's Survey of the Cuban Operation" (October 1961), pp. 32-33.
79 "those employees on it": CIA, Secret, Richard Bissell memorandum for the record, November 5, 1961 (FRUS, Vol. X, #272).
79 "The traditional civilian control of the military": Janson and Eismann, The Far Right, p. 184. On April 10, 1963, Lee Harvey Oswald, who seven months later would assassinate President Kennedy, attempted to assassinate Walker as he sat at his desk in his Dallas home. Using the same rifle with which he killed Kennedy, Oswald shot at Walker through a window but missed by inches. Walker died in relative obscurity in Dallas on October 31, 1993.
79 "extreme right-wing, witch-hunting": ibid., p. 194.
80 Foreign Relations Committee ... warned: David Burnham, United Press International wire report, July 20, 1961.
80 "thesis of the nature of the Communist threat": ibid.
80 "an example of the ultimate danger": ibid.
80 "Concern had grown that a belligerent": Janson and Eismann, The Far Right, p. 197.
81 "I had considered sending this information": Letter, Personal/Confidential/Eyes Only, Lemnitzer to Norstad, February 28, 1961 (Lemnitzer Papers, National Defense University).
81 "You and Charlie are probably wondering what": ibid.
81 "civilian hierarchy was crippled": Walter S. Poole, JCS, General Lyman L. Lemnitzer Oral History (February 12, 1976) (US. Army Center of Military History, Washington, D.C.).
82 "The Bay of Pigs fiasco broke the dike": Janson and Eismann, The Far Right, pp. 6-7.
83 "could think of manufacturing something": White House, Top Secret, memorandum of meeting with the president, on January 3, 1961 (January 9, 1961).
83 Lansdale was ordered: Department of State, Top Secret/Sensitive memorandum, "The Cuba Project, " March 2, 1962 (FRDS, Vol. X, #309).
83 "World opinion": Joint Chiefs of Staff, Top Secret/Special Handling/Noforn report, "Report by the Department of Defense and Joint Chiefs of Staff Representative on the Caribbean Survey Group to the Joint Chiefs of Staff on Cuba Project, " March 9, 1962 (ARRB).
84 "the objective is": Joint Chiefs of Staff, Top Secret/Special Handling memorandum, Craig to Lansdale, February 2, 1962 (ARRB).
84 "a series of well coordinated": ibid.
84 "We could blow up a US. ship": JCS, Top Secret/Special Handling/Noforn, Note by the Secretaries to the Joint Chiefs of Staff on Northwoods, Annex to Appendix to Enclosure A, "Pretexts to Justify US. Military Intervention in Cuba" (March 12, 1962), p. 8 (ARRB).
84 "We could develop a Communist Cuban terror campaign": ibid., pp. 8-9.
85 "Exploding a few plastic bombs": ibid., pp. 9-10.
85 "create an incident which will": The plan is in ibid., pp. 9-11.
86 "It is recommended": JCS, Top Secret/Special Handling/Noforn memorandum, Lemnitzer to McNamara, March 13, 1962 (ARRB).
86 At 2:30 on the afternoon of ... March 13: Lemnitzer's official diary for March 13, 1962 (Lemnitzer Papers, National Defense University).
87 Kennedy told Lemnitzer: Department of State, Secret memorandum, written by U. Alexis Johnson and dated March 16; attached to "Guidelines for Operation Mongoose" (March 14, 1962) (FRUS, Vol. X, #314). Ironically, President Gerald Ford in 1975 appointed Lemnitzer to a blue-ribbon panel to investigate domestic activities of the CIA.
87 "The Joint Chiefs of Staff believe that the Cuban problem must be solved"; JCS, Top Secret/Special Handling/Noforn memorandum, Lemnitzer to McNamara, April 10, 1962, pp. 1-2 (ARRB).
87 "The Joint Chiefs of Staff believe that the United States": ibid.
87 "[T]he Joint Chiefs of Staff recommend": ibid.
87 "I am the senior military officer"; Binder, Lemnitzer, p. 279,
88 Lemnitzer ordered Gray to destroy all his notes: ibid., p. 273.
89 "A contrived 'Cuban' attack on an GAS": Office of the Secretary of Defense, Top Secret/Sensitive policy paper, "War Between Cuba and Another LA State" (1963), p, 1 (ARRB).
89 "Any of the contrived situations described above": ibid., p. 3.
89 "The only area remaining for consideration": ibid.
89 "a possible scenario": Department of Defense, Top Secret/Sensitive memorandum, Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs Paul Nitze to Bundy, May to, 1963 (JFKL, National Security Files, Meetings and Memoranda Series, Standing Group Meeting) (FRUS, Vol. XI, #337).
90 "If the US. did institute": ibid.
90 About a month later: Department of State, Top Secret/Eyes Only, Acting Secretary of State George Ball to the president, June 25, 1963 (JFKL, National Security Files, Countries Series, Cuba) (FRUS, Vol. XI, #352).
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Re: BODY OF SECRETS -- ANATOMY OF THE ULTRA-SECRET NATIONAL

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Part 2 of 5

CHAPTER 5: Eyes
Page
93 ADVA and GENS were combined; new organizational structure: James Bamford, The Puzzle Palace: A Report on NSA, America's Most Secret Agency (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1982), pp. 90-91.
93 US. intelligence budget reached $2 billion: White House, Top Secret/Eyes Only memorandum, "Discussion at the 473rd Meeting of the National Security Council, January 5, 1961, " p. 3.
93 $1.4 billion: ibid., p. 2.
93 proclaimed that NSA was a ship: "An Old Timer Is One Who ..., " NSA, Cryptolog (November 1982), p. 17.
93 Soviets had used a fleet: Joint Chiefs of Staff, Joint Reconnaissance Center, Top Secret, The Pueblo Incident (January 24, 1968), p. 3.
93 "The Soviets had a vast intelligence program": interview with Oleg Kalugin, CBS News transcript (undated), p. 35.
94 President Eisenhower authorized: U.S. Navy, Confidential memorandum, CNO to Secretary of the Navy, April 26, 1960 (Naval Operational Archives, U.S.S. Oxford File).
94 "Oxford" was chosen: US. Navy, memorandum, C.O., US.S. Oxford, to CNO, February 5, 1962 (Naval Operational Archives, U.S.S. Oxford File).
94 "Signaling another first in communications": ibid.
94 first operational cruise: U.S. Navy, memorandum, C.O., U.S.S. Oxford, to CNO, January 25, 1963 (Naval Operational Archives, U.S.S. Oxford File).
94 the moon-bounce antenna: For details, see NSA, Top Secret/Umbra/Noforn, "In The Shadow of War" (June 1969), p. 108.
95 another four-month surveillance mission: US. Navy, memorandum, C.O., U.S.S. Oxford, to CNO, January 25, 1963 (Naval Operational Archives, U.S.S. Oxford File).
95 "in response to highest priority": U.S. Navy, Top Secret/Dinar, "Memorandum for the Secretary of the Navy, " July 16, 1962.
95 "at least four, and possibly five": NSA, Secret/Kimbo intercept, "Unusual Number of Soviet Passenger Ships En Route Cuba, " July 24, 1962, p. 1.
95 fifty-seven Soviet merchant ships: NSA, Top Secret/Dinar report, "Status of Soviet Merchant Shipping to Cuba, " August 23, 1962, p. 1.
95 "In addition to the shipping increase": Oral History of Admiral Robert Lee Dennison (August 1975), p. 407 (US. Naval Institute, Annapolis).
96 "It is therefore believed": NSA, Secret/Sabre report, "New Soviet Cargo Ship En Route Cuba with Possible Military Cargo, " June 5, 1962, p. 1.
96 first telltale sounds: NSA, Secret intercept, "First ELINT Evidence of Scan Odd Radar in Cuban Area" (June 6, 1962), p. 1.
96 "Comint sources reveal Russian": NSA, Secret/Kimbo intercept, "Reflection of Soviet Bloc Pilots/Technicians in Cuban Air Force Training (1 May-4 August '62), " August 24, 1962, p. 1.
96 "I thought Frost was one of the": NSA, Secret/Comint Channels Only, Oral History of Dr. Howard Campaigne (June 29, 1983), p. 126.
96 "I saw him chew out Frank Raven": Farley quoted in ibid.
96 "I hadn't been north of Minneapolis": NSA, Top Secret/Comint Channels Drily, Oral History of Lieutenant General Gordon A. Blake (April 19, 1984), p. 5.
97 "So all of a sudden": ibid., pp. 17-19.
97 "Jack Frost was under some nebulous": ibid., pp. 57-58.
99 "I left that one to Lou": ibid., p. 71.
99 "NSA has been directed": NSA, Top Secret/Comint Channels Only message, DIRNSA to CNO (July 19, 1962).
99 "From the ship we could look up": NSA, Secret/Sensitive, Oral History of Harold L. Parish (October 12, 1982), p. 20.
100 an Elint operator on the Oxford· NSA, Secret intercept, "Whiff Radar in Cuba" (August 17, 1962).
100 "We were called down and told": NSA, Secret/Comint Channels Only, Oral History of Harold L. Parish (October 12, 1982), p. 3.
100 told one high-level group: CIA, "Chronology of John McCone's Suspicions on the Military Build-up in Cuba Prior to Kennedy's October 22 Speech, " August 17, 1962.
100 "It was for most of us our initial": ibid., pp. 36-37.
101 "We would recess for a few hours": NSA, Top Secret/Comint Channels Only, Oral History of Lieutenant General Gordon A. Blake (April 19, 1984), p. 52.
101 "One collection facility ... against x-hundred emitters"; NSA, Secret/Comint Channels Only, Oral History of Harold L. Parish (October 12, 1982), pp. 87-89.
101 "Concentrated efforts have been made": NSA, Secret/Kimbo intercept, "Reflection of Soviet Bloc Pilots/Technicians in Cuban Air Force Training, " August 24, 1962.
101 nighttime jet gunnery exercises: NSA, Secret/Kimbo intercept, "Night Aerial Gunnery Exercises by Cuban Jet Aircraft, " August 28, 1962.
101 NSA issued a dramatic report: NSA, Top Secret/Dinar report, "Further Information on Soviet/Cuban Trade, " August 31, 1962.
102 "Sigint evidence of Cuban acquisition": NSA, Top Secret/Dinar/Noforn/Limited Distribution, Funnel Handling, September 11, 1962.
102 "This [equipment] is now operating": White House, Top Secret/Sensitive memorandum, Carl Raysen, Deputy Special Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, to President Kennedy, September 1, 1962 (FRUS, Vol. X, #405).
102 "I feel that our first priority": NSA, Top Secret/Cumint Channels Only, DIRNSA to Klocko, October 10, 1962.
102 "shipborne collection platform"; "NSA is therefore commencing": NSA, Top Secret message, DIRNSA to .JCS, September 17, 1962.
103 "It was very difficult": NSA, Top Secret/Comint Channels Only, Oral History of Lieutenant General Gordon A. Blake (April 19, 1984), pp. 58-59.
103 326th ASA Company: The Army Security Agency's detachment at Homestead eventually became permanent. In August 1967 the field station's activities were consolidated with similar Air Force and Navy operations in a newly constructed operations building on Card Sound Road, about fifteen miles south of Homestead Air Base. The operations building was known as Site Alpha. U.S. Army Intelligence and Security Command, "INSCOM and Its Heritage: An Organizational History of the Command and its Units" (1985), pp. 98-100.
103 "What had been sort of a lazy tempo": Owen Englander, ''A Closer Look at the Early Days of NSG at Key West, " NCVA Cryptolog (Winter 1997), pp. 3, 5.
104 World War I bunker: ibid. The original listening post was set up in Key West in July 1961. In 1981 the Naval Security Group Detachment, Key West, moved to the Naval Air Base at Truman Annex, where it occupied a 40, 000- square-foot building that once housed the Navy Sonar School. It employed over 250 officers, enlisted and civilian personnel. The station was closed in 1996. See Commander Thomas P. Herlihy and CTR 1 Gerard A. Bradman, "NSGA Key West, Florida, " NCVA Cryptolog (Spring 1996), p. 7.
104 "Collection at thirteen miles was pretty good": This and other remarks are drawn from the author's interview with John Arnold, July 2000.
106 "Spoon Rest": NSA, Secret intercept, "New Radar Deployment in Cuba, " September 19, 1962.
107 "By smoothly varying the length": Details of Palladium are drawn from Gene Poteat, "Elint and Stealth, " The Intelligencer (December 1999), pp. 12-13. The Intelligencer is published by the Association of Former Intelligence Officers.
108 At the meeting: CIA, memorandum for the executive director (prepared on February 28, 1963) (FRUS, Vol. X, #421)
108 Cuban air defense system: NSA, Secret/Kimbo intercept (DTG: 1649), October 10, 1962.
109 "Communications security has been": NSA, Secret/Sabre intercept, "Cuban Air Force VHF Communications Procedure, " May 17, 1962, p. 2. 109 Instead, NSA depended mostly on: NSA also depended to some extent on "traffic analysis" -- examination of the "externals" of encrypted messages. These externals could give indications of the cargo's importance because of the frequency or precedence of the messages sent. Unable to read encrypted messages sent to the Soviet cargo ships Khabarovsk and Mikhail Uritski]; for example, NSA nevertheless could conclude that they were on important missions because of the "high precedence" of the messages sent to it. Such intelligence, NSA noted, "may indicate these two ships are engaged in other than routine activities." NSA, Secret/Kimbo intercept, "Unusual Number of Soviet Passenger Ships En Route Cuba, " July 24, 1962, p. 2.
109 "electronic intelligence led to the photographic intelligence": Department of the Navy, John Keppler, A Bumpy Road.· The United States Navy and Cuba 1959-1963 (Summer 1991), p. 37 (The Naval Historical Center, Naval Operational Archives).
109 "They would send vessels out": NSA, Secret/Comint Channels Only, Oral History of Harold L. Parish (October 12, 1982), p. 21.
109 "We were all listening for Russian communications": interview with Aubrey Brown (January 2000).
109 "Jesus Christ": interview with Max Buscher, May 2000.
110 McCone brought up: ibid.
110 "You kind of know": Aubrey Brown interview.
110 "The codebreakers were having a tough time": Buscher interview.
111 "We had constructed": NSA, Secret/Comint Channels Only, Oral History of Harold L. Parish (October 12, 1982), p. 5.
111 plotting board: information from former NSA official Vera Ruth Filby, NSA Symposium (October 27, 1999).
112 "One of our T Branchers": Buscher interview.
112 McCone discussed the Terek: White House, Top Secret, Minutes of the 507th Meeting of the National Security Council (October 22, 1962) (JFKL, National Security Files, Meetings and Memoranda Series, NSC Meetings) (FRUS, Vol. XI, #41); CIA, Top Secret/Eyes Only, "DCI Notes for DCI Briefing, " October 22, 1962 (CIA, Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962, pp. 271-73).
112 At 1:00 P.M. the Strategic Air Command: JCS, Top Secret report, "Chronology of the JCS Decisions Concerning the Cuban Crisis, " January 4, 1963, pp. 2, 28 (Lemnitzer Papers, National Defense University).
113 Kennedy addressed: text of President Kennedy's radio/television address to the nation, October 22, 1962 (JFKL).
113 "I had the first watch": NSA, Secret/Comint Channels Only, Oral History of Harold L. Parish (October 12, 1982), p. 64.
113 "I was thinking": interview with Keith Taylor, May 2000.
113 "After the president's announcement": Brown interview.
114 listening post intercepted: NSA, Secret/Sabre intercept (DTG: 0516Z), October 23, 1962.
114 Kura: NSA, Secret/Sabre intercept (DTG: 0636Z), October 23, 1962.
114 Nikolaevsk: NSA, Secret/Sabre intercept (DTG: 1326Z), October 23, 1962.
114 more than half spoke Russian: NSA, Secret/Kimbo intercept (DTG: 2115Z), October 23, 1962.
115 "A Flash precedence message": Pete Azzole, "Afterthoughts, " NCVA Cryptolog (Summer 1993), p. 13.
115 A Pentagon official told him: CIA, Top Secret/Eyes Only, Memorandum for the Files, "John McCone meeting with the President, " October 23, 1962 (FRUS, Vol. XI, #51).
115 Details on the Urgench: NSA, Secret/Sabre intercept (DTG: 163BZ), October 24, 1962.
115 Harry Eisenbeiss: Dina A. Brugioni, Eyeball to Eyeball (New York: Random House, 1991), p. 391.
116 "has altered course and is probably": NSA, Secret/Sabre intercept (DTG: 1917Z), October 24, 1962.
116 "HFDF ... fix on the Soviet cargo ship": NSA, Secret/Sabre intercept (DTG: 1533Z), October 24, 1962.
116 passed the note to McCone: White House, Top Secret/Sensitive, Third Meeting of the Executive Committee of the NSC, October 24, 1962 (JFKL, National Security Files, Meetings and Memorandum Series, Executive Committee, Vol. I).
116 "Mr. President, we have a preliminary report": Robert F. Kennedy, Thirteen Days (New York: Norton, 1969), p. 71.
116 "no ships ... be stopped": ibid., pp. 71-72.
116 "Have you got the word": Department of State, Memorandum of Telephone Conversation, Bundy to Ball, October 24, 1962 (FRUS, Vol. XI, #5B).
116 "desperate signals": U.S. Mission to the UN, Confidential/Limited Distribution memorandum, Schlesinger to Stevenson, October 25, 1962 (JFKL, National Security Files, Countries Series, Cuba, General).
117 "In view of these signals": ibid.
117 "Although no additional missiles": JCS, Top Secret report, "Chronology of the JCS Decisions Concerning the Cuban Crisis, " January 4, 1963, p. 36 (Lemnitzer Papers, National Defense University).
118 "DF line bearings indicate": NSA, Secret/Sabre intercept (DTG: 0645Z), October 27, 1962.
118 "One mission aborted for mechanical": White House, Top Secret/Sensitive, "Summary Record of the Eighth Meeting of the Executive Committee of the NSC, " October 27, 1962 (JFKL, National Security Files, Meetings and Memoranda Series, Executive Committee, Vol. I, Meetings 6-10).
118 "If our planes are fired on": ibid.
118 "The wreckage of the U-2 was on the ground": ibid.
119 "Any time the Cubans scrambled": NSA, Secret/Comint Channels Only, Oral History of Harold L. Parish (October 12, 1982), pp. 40-41.
119 "You'd debrief in the airplane": ibid.
119 "The plan was to lure"; Bruce Bailey, "The RB-47 & RB-135 in Vietnam, " web posting at <http://www.55srwa.org/55_vietnam.html> (May 1, 2000).
120 "In the last two hours": Department of Justice, Top Secret memorandum, Robert Kennedy to Rusk, October 30, 1962 (JFKL, President's Office Files, Cuba Missile Crisis, Khrushchev Correspondence) (FRUS, Vol. XI, #96).
120 "I said that he had better understand": ibid.
120 "I said a letter had just been transmitted": ibid.
121 "Any steps toward easing tensions": ibid.
121 "'Because of the plane' ": Dobrynin's cable to the Soviet Foreign Ministry, October 27, 1962.
121 "The most important thing": ibid.
122 "then we should take out the SAM sites": White House, Top Secret/Sensitive, "Summary Record of the Ninth Meeting of the Executive Committee of the National Security Council, " October 27, 1962 (JFKL, National Security Files, Meetings and Memoranda Series, Executive Committee, Vol. I, Meetings 6-10) (FRUS, Vol. XI, #97).
122 "unless irrefutable evidence of the dismantling": JCS, Top Secret report, "Chronology of the JCS Decisions Concerning the Cuban Crisis, " January 4, 1963, p. 39 (Lemnitzer Papers, National Defense University).
122 "When I reported in": NSA, Secret/Comint Channels Only, Oral History of Harold L. Parish (October 12, 1982), pp. 6-8.
122 "The Soviet government": message from Chairman Khrushchev to President Kennedy, October 28, 1962 (JFKL, National Security Files, Countries Series, USSR, Khrushchev Correspondence) (FRUS, Vol. XI, #102).
122 "I remember during the period": NSA, Secret/Comint Channels Only, Oral History of Harold L. Parish (October 12, 1982), p. 60.
123 "All the communications that we had": NSA, Secret/Comint Channels Only, Oral History of Harold L. Parish (October 12, 1982), p. 6.
123 "After the offensive weapons were removed": ibid, pp. 15-16.
123 "very, very bad things": ibid., pp. 17-18.
123 "During the crisis": ibid., p. 22.
123 "There were times": Robert D. Farley, quoted in ibid.
124 "We had photographs of missile launchers": Robert McNamara, interviewed on CNN Worldview, June 18, 1998.
124 Lourdes: According to the CIA, the exact location of the listening post is 22 59 15N and 84 27 50W.
125 vast area of twenty-eight square miles: President Ronald Reagan, quoted in "President's Speech on Military Spending and a New Defense, " New York Times, March 24, 1983.
125 "the general dissatisfaction of the President": CIA, Secret/Eyes Only, Helms Memorandum for the Record, October 16, 1962 (FRUS, Vol. Xl, #19).
125 "I stated that we were prepared": ibid.
125 "We suggested to them": NSA, Secret/Comint Channels Only, Oral History of Harold L. Parish (October 12, 1982), pp. 38-39.
126 "The tubes would burn out": ibid.
126 "NSA will continue an intensive program": CIA, 1bp Secret memorandum, McCone to Bundy (December 15, 1962) (JFKL, National Security Files, Meetings and Memoranda Series, NSAM 208) (FRUS, Vol. XI, #248).
126 "Duty station for the Muller": Bill Baer, "USNS Joseph E. Muller, TAG-i71, " web site http://www.asa.npoint.net/baer0l.htm (January 3, 2000).
127 "We only had": ibid.
127 "Since they used microwave"; Mike Sannes, "USNS Muller and the ASA, " at web site http://www.asa.npoint.net/sannes01.htm (January 3, 2000).
127 "Often they sent": ibid.
127 "It would be a good idea to assassinate": NSA, Secret/Kimbo intercept (DTG: 1551Z), January 16, 1963.
128 "Mr. McCone cabled me this morning": CIA, Secret letter, Carter to Bundy, May 2, 1963 (JFKL, National Security Files, Countries Series, Cuba, Intelligence Material) (FRUS, Vol. XI, #332).
129 "Lechuga hinted that Castro": Department of State, Secret memorandUD1, Attwood to Gordon Chase of the NSC, November 8, 1963 (LBJL, National Security File, Country File, Cuba, Contact with Cuban Leaders) (FRUS, Vol. XI, #374).
129 Major Rene Vallejo: ibid.
129 "Castro would go along": Department of State, 'lop Secret/Eyes Only memorandum, Attwood to Gordon Chase of the NSC (November 22, 1963) (LBJL, National Security File, Country File, Cuba, Contact with Cuban Leaders) (FRUS, Vol. XI, #379).
130 "At the President's instruction": White House, Secret/Sensitive, Bundy Memorandum for the Record, November 12, 1963 (LBJL, National Security File, Country File, Cuba, Contact with Cuban Leaders) (FRUS, Vol. XI, #377).
130 "Vallejo's manner": Department of State, Top Secret/Eyes Only memorandum,
Attwood to Gordon Chase of the NSC, November 22, 1963 (LBJL, National
Security File, Country File, Cuba, Contact with Cuban Leaders) (FRUS,
Vol. XI, #379).
130 "I believe that the approaching": NSA, Top Secret/Dinar, Report on Cuba's Internal Problems with Rebels (November 22, 1963) (ARRE).
131 NSA Sigint Command Center: Details are in NSA, Top Secret/Dinar, "Record of Events Log, " November 22, 1963 (ARRB).
131 Don Gardiner: Details of what the :Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, Taylor, and McNamara were doing at the time of the assassination are in William Manchester, The Death if a President (New York: Harper & Row, 1967), pp. 140-44, 190.
132 "When this monstrously terrible thing happened": CIA, Carter to Judy Eithelberg, November 30, 1963 (Carter papers, George C. Marshall Research Library, Lexington, VA).
132 "President Kennedy is dead": ibid.
132 "Thousands upon thousands of miles away": George Morton, "Kami Seya -- 1963, " NCVA Cryptolog (Fall1992), p. 9.
132 Valdez: Ron Briggs, quoted at web site <http://www.geocities.com/swab byctrl/MemoriesPage2. html>.
132 NSA continued: For NSA activities immediately after the assassination, see NSA, Top Secret/Comint Channels Only, Eugene F. Yeates Memorandum for the Record, June 15, 1978 (ARRB).
132 "A state of alert is ordered": NSA, Top Secret/Dinar/Noforn, "SIGINT Daily Summary Number Twenty;" November 23, 1963 CARRB). See also NSA, Top Secret/Dinar, Watch Report 0600 22 November-0600 23 November 1963 (ARRB).
133 "military units are being relocated": NSA, Top Secret/Dinar intercept, "Cuba's Reaction to Kennedy's Murder, " November 27, 1963 (ARRB).
133 Mexico, Venezuela, and Colombia: NSA, Top Secret/Dinar intercept, "Latin American Countries Place Military Units on Alert, " November 22, 1963 (ARRB).
133 "I got the immediate impression": NSA, Top Secret/Dinar intercept, "Comment on Castro's Reaction to Death of Kennedy, " November 27, 1963 (ARRB).
133 "The assassination of Kennedy": NSA, Top Secret/Dinar intercept, "Cuban Statement on Visa for Oswald, " November 25, 1963 (ARRB).
133 "were unanimous in believing": NSA, Top Secret/Dinar intercept, "Cuban Authorities State Views Concerning Death of Kennedy, " November 27, 1963 (ARRB).
133 "In diplomatic circles": NSA, Top Secret/Dinar intercept, "Robert Kennedy Viewed as Leading Contender to Succeed His Brother in 1964, " November 22, 1963 (ARRB).
134 Egyptian diplomats: NSA, Top Secret/Dinar intercept, "Egyptian Reaction to President Kennedy's Murder, " November 23, 1963 (ARRB).
134 Dutch intercepts: NSA, Top Secret/Dinar intercept, "Information Requested about Foreign Representatives' Attendance at Kennedy Funeral, " November 26, 1963 (ARRB).
134 "will considerably weaken": NSA, Top Secret/Dinar intercept, "Kennedy's Death Felt to Weaken Foreign Policy, " November 23, 1963 CARRB).
134 "After signing the register": NSA, Top Secret/Dinar intercept, "American Ambassador Believes Russia and Cuba Involved in Kennedy's Death, " November 25, 1963 (ARRB).
134 "Behind the mysterious crime": NSA, Top Secret/Dinar/Minimum Distribution intercept, "President Kennedy's Assassination a Zionist Conspiracy, " November 25, 1963 CARRB).
134 Italian ambassador to Syria: NSA, Top Secret/Dinar intercept, "Syrians Claim Zionists Responsible for Death of President Kennedy, " November 29, 1963 (ARRB).
134 "Certain ill-intentioned persons": NSA, Secret/Sabre intercept, "Reaction to Kennedy's Assassination, " November 25, 1963 CARRB).
134 "were deeply touched": NSA, Top Secret/Dinar intercept, "Hungarian Reaction to News of Assassination of President Kennedy, " November 25, 1963 (ARRB).
135 "alarming ... anti-Communist hysteria": NSA, Top Secret/Dinar intercept, "Reactions to Kennedy's Death, " November 27, 1963 (ARRB).
135 "In spite of the antagonism"; NSA, Secret/Sabre intercept, "Official Cuban Statement on Death of President Kennedy, " November 23, 1963 (ARRB).
135 "The manner of perforating": NSA, Secret/Comint Channels Only, Meredith K. Gardner Memorandum for the Record, June 15, 1964 (ARRB):
135 "the names appearing in Lee's and Marina's address books"; ibid.
135 "The appearance of the term 'micro dots'": ibid.
136 "I have eliminated two items": NSA, Secret/Comint Channels Only memorandum, Rowlett to Tordella, June 16, 1964 (ARRB).
136 "1 do not believe a statement": ibid.
136 "The ball is in our court": White House, Top Secret/Eyes Only/Sensitive memorandum, Chase to Bundy, December 2, 1963 (LBJL, National Security File, Country File, Cuba, Contact with Cuban Leaders) (FRUS, VoL XI, #382).
137 "I assume you will want to brief the President": White House, Top Secret/Eyes Only memorandum, Chase to Bundy, November 25, 1963 (LBJL, National Security File, Country File, Cuba, Contact with Cuban Leaders) (FRUS, Vol. XI, #378).
137 "Lechuga ... and the Cubans in general": White House, Top Secret/Eyes Only memorandum, Chase to Bundy, December 11, 1963 (LBJL, National Security File, Country File, Cuba, Contact with Cuban Leaders) (FRUS, Vol. XI, #387).
137 "He asked": CIA, "Memorandum of DCI Meeting with President Johnson, " November 28, 1963 (FRUS, Vol. XI, #381).
137 Johnson later approved: White House, Top Secret/Sensitive, "Chase Memorandum of Meeting with the President, " December 19, 1963 (LBJL, National Security File, Country File, Cuba, Meetings) (FRUS, Vol. XI, #388).
138 "Until the tragic death of President Kennedy": NSA, Top Secret/Dinar intercept, "Castro Interview on Relations with U.S., " January 3, 1964 (ARRB).

CHAPTER 6: Ears
Page
139 Nate Gerson: Nate Gerson, "Collaboration in Sigint: Canada-U.S., " La Physique au Canada (November-December 1998), pp. 359-62.
140 "Study your globe": William M. Leary and Leonard A. LeSchack, Project Cold/eel: Secret Mission to a Soviet Ice Station (Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1996), p. 18.
140 "vicious winds"; Drifting Station Alpha: Details on Station Alpha, and the quotations from Smith, come from ibid., pp. 38-42.
141 Nate Gerson concluded: Gerson, "Collaboration in Sigint, " pp. 359-62.
142 Canada's most important listening post: "Northernmost Weather Station Called Major Link for Espionage, " Toronto Globe and Mail, January 12, 1974.
144 "It was the most desolate": Leary and LeSchack, Project Coldfeet, p. 128.
145 "Instantly upon loss of sight of the buildings": ibid" p. 144.
146 Its budget had risen: Richard Fryklund, "Two House Groups Set to Probe NSA Secrets, " Evening Star (Washington, D.C.), September 14, 1960.
147 broken the cipher systems: "Text of Statements Read in Moscow by Former U.S. Security Agency Employees, " New York Times, September 7, 1960; Osgood Caruthers, "Two Code Clerks Defect to Soviet: Score US. 'Spying, '" The New York Times, September 7, 1960.
147 Mike Stockmeier: His account Is in his article "Before Ehnendorf, " NCVA Cryptolog (Winter 1992), p. 23.
148 Cold and icy blue: Edward Bryant Bates, "Station X Adak Aleutian Islands, 1943-1945, " NCVA Cryptolog (January 1994), p. 24.
148 "I have been told": Karl Beeman, "Thesis on the Advantages of Living in Adak, Or, There Are None!" Reprinted in NCVA Cryptolog (Special Edition, 1991), p. 34.
149 committing suicide: Edward Bryant Bates, "What! Adak Again?" NCVA Cryptolog (Special Edition, 1991), pp. 33- 34.
149 Melody: Gene Poteat, "Elint and Stealth, " The Intelligencer (December 1999), pp. 10-13. The Intelligencer is published by the Association of Former Intelligence Officers.
150 a giant sixty-foot satellite dish: ibid.
150 Field Station, Berlin: US. Army Intelligence and Security Command, "INSCOM and Its Heritage: An Organizational History of the Command and Its Units" (1985), pp. 95-97.
151 "It was acting as a great big antenna": John Diamond, "Ex-Spies' Memories Full of Past Intrigue, " Chicago Tribune (September 13, 1999).
151 Bremerhaven: US. Naval Security Group Activity, Bremerhaven, "Command Histories, " 1968-1973. The facility was established in 1950 and disestablished on December 31, 1972. Most of the intercept operators were then transferred to listening posts at Edzell, Scotland, and Augsburg, West Germany.
151 "You're trying to pull": interview with Aubrey Brown, January 2000.
152 "One would have had to experience": Jeff Tracy, "The Merry Men of Todendorf, " NCVA Cryptolog (Winter 1992), p. 22. The facility was first activated in the late 1950s and decommissioned in the late 1970s.
152 "a target-rich environment": e-mail from Richard E. Kerr, Jr., January 26, 2000.
152 "At night": F. Harrison Wallace, Jr., "The History of Eckstein Border Site
1958-1993." Web posting at <http://members.tripod.com/adm/popup/roadmap. shtml?946895392450> (January 2, 2000).
152 "There was no running water on the mountain": ibid.
153 "The finest hour for Eckstein": ibid.
153 Creek Rose, Creek Stone, and Creek Flea: The details in this paragraph are drawn from US. Air Force, Secret, Headquarters, 7499th Support Group, "Command History, January 1, 1967, to June 30, 1967" (U.S. Air Force Historical Research Center, Maxwell AFB, Alabama).
154 "provided precise measurements": ibid.
154 able to detect East German missile equipment being moved: ibid.
154 "We couldn't listen": Interview with former Karamursel intercept operator.
155 "Our mission": Jack Wood, Internet posting at <http://www.delphi.com/karamursel/messages/?msg=50.1&ctx=1> (July 21, 1999).
155 "Malfunction!!!": "Was Gagarin's Flight a Near Disaster?" Space Views Update, March 16, 1996.
155 a place called Kamiseya: See generally "Kami Seya Special, " NCVA Cryptolog (Fall 1997).
156 Misawa Air Base: U.S. Army Intelligence and Security Command, "INSCOM and Its Heritage: An Organizational History of the Command and Its Units" (1985), pp. 10S-106.
157 "Security was hermetic on that post": For information about Torii Station, I have drawn on an e-mail from David Parks, February 8, 2000.
157 "It was reflected in the stuff we copied every day": interview with former intercept operator at Okinawa.
159 "Along the way, our ground stations would listen in": Robert Wheatley, Internet posting, <http://38.158.99.147/Part3_Page.htm> (April 29, 2000).
160 "locate intercept stations": NSA, Dr. Howard Campaigne Oral History, p. 66.
160 rugged, windswept desert of Eritrea: U.S. Army, A History of Kagnew Station and American Forces in Eritrea (undated).
161 "The Operations Center ... went on strike": Arthur Adolphsen, "Kagnew Recollections, " Internet posting, <http://www.fgi.net/-kagnew/stories/14.html> (July 19, 1999).
162 "The priority tasks from the NSA": This and other details on Aden come from Jock Kane, "GCHQ: The Negative Asset, " pp. 162-72. This manuscript was eized by the British government under the Official Secrets Act in 1984, and the book was never published. The author obtained a copy of the manuscript before the seizure.
162 Ascension Island: Andrew Marshall, "Remote Island Home of Spies and Turtles Opens Its Doors to Tourists, " The Independent (London), February 5, 1998.
162 "I looked and looked": Phillip Yasson, "Midway Island 1960, " NCVA Cryptolog (Winter 2000), pp. 10, 15.
164 "There was, a chateau": This and the early background of Diego Garcia are taken from Simon Winchester, The Sun Never Sets: Travels to the Remaining Outposts of the British Empire (New York: Prentice Hall, 1985), pp. 27-58.
164 "They were to be given no protection": ibid.
165 "A Soviet trawler maintained station": This and other details of Jibstay are drawn from Monty Rich, "NSGA Diego Garcia: The Prelude, " NCVA Cryptolog (Spring 2000), p. 1.
165 "All we had was seahuts": Gregor McAdam quoted in Internet posting at http://www.zianet.com/tedmorris/dg/warstories.html on August 11, 1999.
165 Classic Wizard: US. Naval Communications Station Diego Garcia, "Command Histories, 1973-1977." The Naval Security Group was officially activated on May 1, 1974, and the Classic Wizard facility was completed on April 20, 1976.
165 White Cloud: Other ground stations for the White Cloud satellite system were built at Adak, Alaska; Blossom Point, Maryland; Guam; Edzell, Scotland; and Winter Harbor, Maine. Winter Harbor also served as the training facility for he program.
166 "On those few occasions": Stephen 1. Forsberg quoted in http://www.zianet.com/tedmorris/dg/warstories.html on August 11, 1999.
166 a small private sailboat: Winchester, The Sun Never Sets, pp. 53-58.
166 By 1989 the Naval Security Group: James Yandle, "Naval Security Station Visit, " NCVA Cryptolog (Fall 1989), pp. 5, 7.
166 presence on Cyprus: Brendan O'Malley and Ian Craig, The Cyprus Conspiracy (London: I. B. Tauris & Co., 1999), pp. 79-84.
167 at Akrotiri: Mike Theodoulou, "News of the World, " Times (London), January 16, 1999.
167 Mission of the USS Halfbeak; Cassidy comments: Interview with George Cassidy, August 2000.
173 Details on the Kursk and the USS Memphis: Steven Lee Myers and Christopher Drew, "U.S. Spy Sub Said to Record Torpedo Blast Aboard Kursk, " New York Times (August 29, 2000), p. 1.
174 30, 000 five-figure groups: Andy Thomas, "British Signals Intelligence after the Second World War, " Intelligence and National Security (October 1988), p. 104.
174 Earl Richardson: William C. Grayson, Chicksands: A Millennium 0/ History (Crofton, Md.: Shefford Press, 1999), p. 221. Chicksands was closed in 1995 and is now the home of the Defence Intelligence and Security Center, a defense agency responsible for providing training throughout the spectrum of the military intelligence and security community.
174 "Much of the caution was perverse": ibid.
176 "We would go into bays": This and. the following quotations come from the author's interview with George A. Cassidy, January 2000.
176 "the weather conditions were so bad": Interview with Aubrey Brown, January 2000.
177 the CIA dumped some $12 million: Philip Agee, Inside the Company (New York: Stonehill, 1975), p. 321.
177 "put the guys": Brown interview.
178 "Every time we got it": Interview with George A. Cassidy, January 2000.
178 "I was called to Washington in the mid-fifties": Oral History of Captain Phil H. Bucklew, USN (Ret.) (March 1982) (U.S. Naval Institute, Annapolis).
178 "I was probably the father of it at NSA": interview with Frank Raven, July 23, 1981.
179 "They complained very bitterly": ibid.
179 "The Valdez was my dream ship": ibid.
180 "The bigger ships": interview with Lieutenant General Marshall S. Carter, July 17-18, 1980.
180 "Revelation of some sensitive": NSA, Top Secret/Umbra report, "A Review of the Technical Research Ship Program 1961-1969" (undated), pp. 126-27.
181 Every day at 8:00 A.M., 2:30 P.M.: William Galvez, Che in Africa (Hoboken, N.J.: Ocean Press, 1999), p. 224.
181 "It seems excessive": ibid.
182 "Those of us aboard Liberty": Details of the Liberty's Congo cruise come from Robert Casale, "Drama on the Congo, " US. Naval Cryptologic Veteran's Association (Paducah, Ky.: Turner Publishing Co" 1996), p. 77.

CHAPTER 7: Blood
Page
185 "Now, frankly": interview with Frank Raven, July 23, 1981.
186 "We ... had a choice": New York Times, August 21, 1982.
187 a contingency plan: Details on the selection of the Liberty for the Middle East mission come from NSA, Top Secret/Umbra, "Attack on a Sigint Collector, the USS Liberty" (1981), pp. 5-13.
188 MAKE IMMEDIATE PREPARATIONS; James M. Ennes, Jr., Assault on the Liberty (New York: Random House, 1979), p. 19.
188 "It was a message from the Joint Chiefs": ibid., p. 15.
188 "I mean, my God\': Raven interview, August 11, 1981.
189 Bryce Lockwood: interview with Bryce Lockwood, February 2000.
190 "who was communicating": Raven interview, August 11, 1981.
190 "You can sit in Crete and watch": ibid.
191 "We have an FBIS report": Details on Rostow come from Hugh Sidey, "The Presidency: Over the Hot Line -- the Middle East, " Life, June 16, 1967.
192 "Early this morning": Department of State, Secret Flash message from Barbour, U.S. Embassy, Tel Aviv, to Secretary of State and White House, June 5, 1967 (LBJL).
193 the hot line was activated: Department of Defense, press release, August 30, 1963; A. Golikov, "Direct Line, Moscow-White House, " Ogonyok (Russian magazine), August 25, 1963, p. 1; Robert Cahn, "'Hot Line' -- Never a Busy Signal, " Christian Science Monitor, June 10, 1965.
193 "Premier Kosygin is on the hot line": Robert S. McNamara, In Retrospect: The Tragedy and Lessons of Vietnam (New York: Vintage Books, 1995), pp. 278-279.
194 Johnson told Kosygin that the United States did not intend: "Hot Line Diplomacy, " Time, June 16, 1967.
195 "We were in disbelief and mystified": Unless otherwise noted, all details about the flight of the EC-121 Willy Victor come from e-mail, Marvin E. Nowicki to author, March 4, 2000. Nowicki was the chief Hebrew/Russian linguist aboard the EC-121.
197 Some twenty Soviet warships: NSA, Top Secret/Umbra, "Attack on a Sigint Collector, the USS Liberty" (1981), p. 19.
197 Then he asked if any consideration was being given: NSA, Secret/Spoke/Limited Distribution, "USS Liberty: Chronology of Events" (undated), p. 3.
197 "For God's sake": Raven interview, August 11, 1981.
198 the message never reached her: For details on the message delays, I rely on NSA, Top Secret/Umbra report, "Attack on a Sigint Collector, the USS Liberty" (1981), pp. 21-23.
199 "Uniform of the Day": USS Liberty, Plan of the Day for June 8, 1967.
199 John Scott noticed: U.S. Navy, Court of Inquiry transcript, Testimony of Ensign John Scott (June 10, .1967), p. 59.
199 "Fabulous morning": Ennes, Assault on the Liberty, p. 49.
199 the naval observer: Israeli Defense Force, Confidential, Court of Inquiry Report, Decision of Examining Judge, Lieutenant Colonel Yishaya Yerushalmi (July 21, 1967).
199 "What we could see": "Attack on the Liberty, " Thames Television (London), 1987.
200 "How would it affect our mission": Ennes, Assault on the Liberty, pp. 43-44.
200 reconnaissance was repeated at approximately thirty-minute intervals: NSA, Top Secret/Umbra, "Attack on a Sigint Collector, the USS Liberty" (1981), p. 25.
200 "It had a big Star of David on it": interview with Richard L. Weaver, February 2000.
200 the minaret at El Arish could be seen: NSA, Top Secret/Umbra, "Attack on a Sigint Collector, the USS Liberty" (1981), p. 25.
200 Commander McGonagle ... radar: US. Navy, Court of Inquiry transcript, testimony of Commander McGonagle (June 10, 1967), p. 31.
201 One Israeli general: Robert J. Donovan and the staff of the Los Angeles Times, Israel's Fight for Survival (New York: New American Library, 1967), p. 71.
201 A convoy: My account of the Israeli attack on the UN convoy is drawn from the Toronto Globe and Mail, June 16, 1967.
202 "I saw a line of prisoners": The account of the massacre comes from Youssef M. Ibrahim, "Egypt Says Israelis Killed P.O.W.'s in '67 War, " New York Times, September 21, 1995; "Israeli Killing of POWs in '67: Alleged Deaths of Hundreds Said Known to Leaders, " Newsday (August 17, 1995).
202 Gabi Bron saw: quoted by Serge Schmemann, "After a General Tells of Killing P.O.W.'s in 1956, Israelis Argue over Ethics of War, " New York Times, August 21, 1995.
202 Aryeh Yitzhaki, who worked: His account appears in "Israel Reportedly Killed POWs in '67, " Washington Post (August 17, 1995); "Israeli Killing of POWs in 1967: Alleged Deaths of Hundreds Said Known to Leaders, " Newsday (August 17, 1995).
202 One of his men: Barton Gellman, "Debate Tainting Image of Purity Wrenches Israel, " Washington Post (August 19, 1995).
202 "I had my Karl Gustav": Schmemann, ''After a General Tells of Killing P.O.W's in 1956, Israelis Argue over Ethics of War."
202 "If I were to be put on trial": Katherine M. Metres, "As Evidence Mounts, Toll of Israeli Prisoner of War Massacres Grows, " Washington Report on Middle East Affairs (February/March 1996), pp. 17, 104--105.
202 Sharon ... refused to say: Gellman, "Debate Tainting Image of Purity Wrenches Israel, " Washington Post (August 19, 1995).
203 "indirectly responsible": Andrew and Leslie Cockburn, Dangerous Liaison: The Inside Story of the US.-Israeli Covert Relationship (New York: HarperCollins, 1991), p. 333; see also "The Commission of Inquiry into Events at the Refugee Camps in Beirut" (Kahan Commission), Final Report, published as The Beirut Massacre (Princeton, N.J.: Karz-Cohl, 1983).
203 he [Sharon] set off the bloodiest upheaval: Deborah Sontag, "Violence Spreads to Israeli Towns; Arab Toll at 28, " New York Times (October 2, 2000).
203 "Israel doesn't need this": Gellman, "Debate Tainting Image of Purity Wrenches Israel."
203 "The whole army leadership"; "Israeli Killing of POWs in '67: Alleged Death of Hundreds Said Known to Leaders, " Newsday (August 17, 1995).
203 not releasing a report he had prepared: Naomi Segal, "Historian Alleges POW Deaths in 1956, 1967, " Jewish Telegraph Agency (August 17, 1995).
203 lies about who started the war: By at least June 7, Israel was still lying about who started the war. Israeli Defense Minister Moshe Dayan continued to contend, "Arabs attacked Israel" (Department of State, Secret/Limited Official Use, Chronology of US-Israeli Consultations on the Middle East, May 17-June 10, 1967 [June 15, 1967]).
203 "any instrument which sought to penetrate": Dr. Richard K. Smith, "The Violation of the Liberty, " United States Naval Institute Proceedings (June 1978), pp. 63-70.
203 $10.2 million; NSA, Top Secret/Umbra, "Attack on a Sigint Collector, the USS Liberty" (1981), p. 64.
204 At 10:39 A.M., the minaret at El Arish: U.S. Navy, Court of Inquiry transcript, Testimony of Commander McGonagle (June 10, 1967), p. 32.
204 "I reported this detection"; "Attack on the Liberty, " Thames Television.
204 "an electromagnetic audio-surveillance ship": Israeli Defense Force, Confidential, Court of Inquiry Report, Decision of the Examining Judge, Lieutenant Colonel Yishaya Yerushalmi (July 21, 1967).
206 "Between five in the morning": Oral History of James M. Ennes, Jr. (November 12, 1998). (Unless otherwise indicated, the oral histories of the Liberty crewmembers were conducted by former Naval Security Group member Richard G. Schmucker.)
206 range of such guns: See US. Navy, Top Secret/Limited Distribution/Noforn, "Findings of Fact, Opinions and Recommendations of a Court of Inquiry Convened by Order of Commander in Chief, United States Pacific Fleet, to Inquire into the Circumstances Relating to the Seizure of USS Pueblo (AGER-2) by North Korean Naval Forces" (April 9, 1969), p. 12.
207 "He longed for the sea": Ennes, Assault on the Liberty, p. 11.
208 "I was told to be on the lookout": Oral History of Charles L. Rowley (February 11, 1999).
209 "Process and reporting": Lockwood interview.
209 "You'd better call": U.S. Navy, Court of Inquiry transcript, Testimony of Lt. (jg) Lloyd C. Painter (June 10, 1967), p. 54.
209 "All of a sudden I heard"; Weaver interview.
210 "And then it happened again": e-mail, Stan White to author (March 7, 2000).
210 "1 immediately knew what it was"; interview with Bryce Lockwood (February 2000).
210 "absolutely no markings": Oral History of Lt. (jg) Lloyd C. Painter (November 21, 1998).
210 "I was trying to contact these two kids": U.S. Navy, Court of Inquiry transcript, Testimony of Lt. Cig) Lloyd C. Painter (June to, 1967), p. 55.
210 grabbed for the engine order annunciator: U.S. Navy, Court of Inquiry transcript, Testimony of Commander McGonagle (June 10, 1967), p. 35.
210 "Oil is spilling": transcript of cockpit conversations, "Attack on the Liberty, " Thames Television (London), 1987.
210 "They shot the camera": Rowley oral history.
211 "Any station, this is Rockstar": Ennes, Assault on the Liberty, p. 74.
211 "Great, wonderful, she's burning": "Attack on the Liberty, " Thames Television.
211 "Hey, Sarge": Lockwood interview.
211 "We had a room where we did voice": ibid.
211 "It was as though they knew": US. Naval Cryptologic veterans Association (Paducah, Ky.: Turner Publishing Co., 1996), p. 79.
211 "It appears to me that every tuning section": oral history of David E. Lewis (November 10, 1998).
212 "Schematic, this is Rockstar" ... "you son-of-a-bitch": Ennes, Assault on the Liberty, p. 78.
212 "He's hit her a lot": "Attack on the Liberty, " Thames TV
212 "Menachem, is he screwing her?" ''Attack on the Liberty, " Thames TV
213 "I said, 'Fred, you've got to stay' ": Weaver interview.
214 "Horrible sight!": "White e-mail to author.
214 "I was running as fast as I could": US. Navy, Court of Inquiry transcript, Testimony of Lt. (jg) Lloyd C. Painter (June 10, 1967), p. 55.
214 A later analysis would show: NSA, Top Secret/Umbra, "Attack on a Sigint Collector, the USS Liberty" (1981), p. 28.
214 "He's going down low with napalm": "Attack on the Liberty, " Thames TV
214 "It would be a mitzvah": A. Jay Cristol, quoted in "Seminar on Intelligence, Command and Control, " Harvard University, Program on Information Resources Policy.
215 "The captain's hurt": US. Navy, Court of Inquiry transcript, Testimony of Lt. (jg) Lloyd C. Painter (June 10, 1967), p. 55.
215 "Pay attention": "Attack on the Liberty, " Thames TV.
215 A later analysis said it would take: oral history of George H. Golden (November 12, 1998). One report indicates that several shots were fired at the torpedo boats from the starboard gun mount on the Liberty However, by then all gun mounts had been completely destroyed. "The starboard gun mount was destroyed and the machine gun was inoperable. I know this for a fact because I pulled one of my shipmates out of that gun mount blown to bits and that gun mount was unusable. We never fired a shot at the Israelis." Oral history of Phillip F. Tourney (November 9, 1998).
215 Commander McGonagle ordered the signalman: U.S. Navy, Court of Inquiry transcript, Testimony of Commander McGonagle (June 10, 1967), pp. 37-38.
216 "Stand by for torpedo": NSA, Top Secret/Umbra, "Attack on a Sigint Collector, " p. 28.
216 "Dear Eileen": Lockwood interview.
216 "There was just a": ibid.
217 "They told me that they saw the torpedo": Raven interview.
217 "I did just as I was told": oral history of Donald W. Pageler, by Joyce E. Terrill (June 1987).
217 "We knelt down and braced ourselves": White e-mail to author.
217 "I could feel a lot of warmth": Weaver interview.
218 "We were laying there": ibid.
219 "Do you require assistance?": U.S. Navy, Court of Inquiry transcript, Testimony of Commander McGonagle (June 10, 1967), p. 39.
219 the torpedo boats continued: oral history of Robert Schnell (November 21, 1998).
219 "They must have known": Weaver oral history.
219 "I watched with horror": Letter, Painter to Richard Schmucker (May 8, 2000). See also oral history of Lloyd Painter (November 21, 1998).
219 "When 'prepare to abandon ship' was announced": US. Naval Cryptologic Veterans Association, p. 80.
219 "If you don't go down with the ship": Pageler oral history.
219 "As soon as the lifeboats hit the water"; oral history of Phillip F. Tourney (November 9, 1998).
220 "They made circles": oral history of Larry Thorn (November 11, 1998).
220 "Our biggest fear": Tourney oral history.
220 "We heard Israeli traffic": Rowley oral history.
220 "told me that he wanted to scuttle the ship": George H. Golden Oral History, November 12, 199B.
222 "Sending aircraft": COMSIXTHFLT message (1305Z, June B, 1967).
222 "Request examine all communications": NSA, Top Secret/Comint Channels. Only message from DIRNSA (June B, 1967).
222 Eleven minutes after: A later study determined that while NSA's special Criticomm network, over which CRITICs were sent, operated relatively well, the Pentagon's Flash system met its mark only 22 percent of the time.
222 "The Liberty has been torpedoed": NSA, Top Secret/Umbra, "Attack on a Sigint Collector, " p. 32.
222 McNamara called Carter at NSA: NSA, Secret/Spoke/Limited Distribution, "USS Liberty: Chronology of Events" (undated), p. 13.
223 "After considerations of personnel safety": NSA, Top Secret/Umbra, Tordella memorandum for the record (June B, 1967).
223 "Captain Vineyard had mentioned": ibid.
223 "a distinct possibility": NSA, Top Secret/Umbra, "Attack on a Sigint Collector, the USS Liberty" (1981), p. 57.
223 "If it appeared the ship was going to sink": NSA, Secret/Spoke/Limited Distribution, "USS Liberty; Chronology of Events" (undated), p. 15.
223 "She was a communications research ship": NSA, Top Secret/Umbra, "Attack on a Sigint Collector, the USS Liberty" (1981), p. 48.
224 "destroy or drive off": ibid., p. 31.
224 "Flash, flash, flash": Ennes, Assault on the Liberty, p. 47.
224 Johnson feared that the attack: letter, Christian to James M. Ennes, Jr. (January 5, 1978).
224 Ernest C. Castle: Later, about 6:30 P.M. Liberty time, before sunset, Castle made a feeble attempt to fly to the Liberty aboard an Israeli helicopter. Out of uniform, without any megaphone or any other means of communicating, he dropped an orange on the deck with his business card tied to it. "Have you casualties?" he had written on the hack. A later NSA report remarked, "The bodies of three crew members had not yet been removed from the forecastle and must have been observed by those in the helicopter." (NSA, Top Secret/Umbra, "Attack on a Sigint Collector, the USS Liberty" [1981], p. 34.) Commander McGonagle testified before the court of inquiry: "There were numerous blood streams the full length from the 01 level on the forecastle to the main deck, at machine gun mount 51, where one body was still lying. I do recall that now. With his head nearly completely shot away. As I recall now, there was also another body in the vicinity of mount 51" (U.S. Navy, Court of Inquiry transcript, Testimony of Commander McGonagle [June 10, 1967J, p. 51).
224 NSA claims that it first learned: NSA, "Attack on a Sigint Collector, " p. 57; also, NSA, Top Secret/Umbra, Tordella memorandum for the record (June 8, 1967).
225 Details of Rakfeldt and the hot line: interview of Harry O. Rakfeldt (February 2000).
225 "We have just learned": NSA, Top Secret/Umbra, "Attack on a Sigint Collector, the USS Liberty" (1981), p. 32.
225 "Embassy Tel Aviv": Department of State, Secret/EXDIS, Chronology of US-Israeli Consultations on the Middle East, May 17-June 10, 1967 (June 15, 1967).
226 "President Johnson came on with a comment": oral history of David E. Lewis (November 10, 1998).
227 "Do whatever is feasible": NSA, Top Secret/Umbra, "Attack on a Sigint Collector, the USS Liberty" (1981), p. 44.
228 "If you ever repeat this to anyone else ever again": Weaver oral history.
228 "I took a crew": White e-mail to author.
228 "Below it was this guy's arm": Pageler oral history.
228 sold for scrap: details of Liberty's end are drawn from NSA, Top Secret/Umbra, "Attack on a Sigint Collector, the USS Liberty" (1981), p. 64.
228 $20, 000 to each of the wounded crewmen: Richard K. Smith, "The Violation of the Liberty, " United States Naval Proceedings (June 1978), p. 70.
228 Ten months earlier: Department of State, Press Release (May 13, 1969).
229 the U.S. government asked: Bernard Gwertzman, "Israeli Payment to Close the Book on '67 Attack on U.S. Navy Vessel, " New York Times (December 19, 1980).
229 Motor Torpedo Boat 203 display: photo and caption in A. Jay Cristol, "The Liberty Incident, " a Ph.D. dissertation submitted to the University of Miami in 1997, p. 331.
250 "I must have gone to the White House": memorandum, Moorer to AMEU (June 8, 1997).
230 "The government is pretty jumpy about Israel": Ennes, Assault on the Liberty, p. 194.
231 no U.S. naval vessel since World War II had suffered a higher percentage: Paul N. McCloskey, Jr., "The U.S.S. Liberty 1967-1989, " NCVA Cryptolog (Fall 1989), p. 1.
231 "Throughout the contact": Israeli Defense Force, Confidential, Court of Inquiry Report, Decision of Examining Judge, Lieutenant Colonel Yishaya Yerushalmi (July 21, 1967).
231 a small task force led by Walter Deeley: NSA, Top Secret/Umbra, "Attack on a Sigint Collector, the USS Liberty" (1981), p. 58.
232 "There is no way that they didn't know": Quoted in Cristol, "The Liberty Incident, " pp. 161-162, n. 49.
232 "There was no other answer": interview with Lieutenant General Marshall S. Carte, (July 17-18, 1980).
232 "Mr. Mahon probed several times": NSA, Top Secret/Umbra, Dr. Louis Tordella memorandum for the record (June 20, 1967).
233 "A nice whitewash": NSA, Top Secret/Umbra, "Attack on a Sigint Collector, the USS Liberty" (1981), p. 41.
233 "Nobody believes that explanation": interview with retired Major General John Morrison (July 2000).
233 many in NSA's G Group: NSA, Top Secret/Umbra, "Attack on a Sigint Collector, the USS Liberty" (1981), p. 63.
233 "The Israelis got by": Letter, Tourney to Senator John McCain (May 11, 2000).
233 "After many years I finally believe": oral history of William L. McGonagle (November 16, 1998).
233 McGonagle died: Michael E. Ruane, "An Ambushed Crew Salutes Its Captain, " Washington Post (April 10, 1999).
233 "Frankly, there was considerable skepticism": letter, Christian to James M. Ennes, Jr. (January 5, 1978).
234 "Exculpation of Israeli nationals": NSA, Top Secret/Umbra, "Attack on a Sigint Collector, the USS Liberty" (1981), p. 61.
234 "Though the pilots testified to the contrary": ibid., p. 41.
234 "The fact that two separate torpedo boat commanders": ibid.
235 "A persistent question relating to the Liberty": ibid., pp. 63-64.
235 "I believed the attack": NSA, Top Secret/Umbra, Dr. Louis Tordella memorandum for the record, June 20, 1967.
235 "It was not an official policy": From "Israel Reportedly Killed POWs in '67, " Washington Post (August 17, 1995).
235 "To speculate on the motives of an attack group": Lieutenant Commander Walter L. Jacobsen, JAGC, USN, "A Juridical Examination of the Israeli At- tack on the U.S.S. Liberty, " Naval Law Review (Winter 1986), pp. 1-52. The quoted text appears on p. 51.
237 "1 have to conclude that it was Israel's intent to sink the Liberty": Memorandum, Moorer to AMEU (June 8, 1997).
237 a CIA report: CIA, FOIA release of documents and television transcript (January 28, 1985).
237 "The Israelis have been very successful": CIA, Secret/Noforn/Nocontract/ Orcon, "Israel: Foreign Intelligence and Security Services" (March 1979), p. 32.
238 "The principal targets of the Israeli intelligence": ibid., p. 9.
238 "Congress to this day": Memorandum, Moorer to AMEU (June 8, 1997).
238 "I saw Abed lurch out": Details of the killing were reported by William A. Orme, Jr., "BBC Says Unprovoked Israeli Fire Killed an Employee in Lebanon, " New York Times (June 22, 2000).
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Re: BODY OF SECRETS -- ANATOMY OF THE ULTRA-SECRET NATIONAL

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Part 3 of 5

CHAPTER 8: Spine
Page
240 "The Navy was very interested in having a trawler program": NSA, Top Secret/Umbra, oral history of Eugene Sheck (December 16, 1982), p. 2.
241 "We talked once": Oral History of Admiral David Lamar McDonald, USN (Ret.) (November 1976) (U.S. Naval Institute, Annapolis, Maryland).
242 "We were operating": Sam Tooma, "USS Banner Anecdotes, " USS Pueblo web site <http://www.usspueblo.org/v2f/incident/incidentframe.html> (April 15, 2000).
242 The most serious incident took place: Joint Chiefs of Staff, Joint Reconnaissance Center, Top Secret, "The Pueblo Index: Experience of Harassment" (January 24, 1968), pp. 1-2.
243 "There were some touchy situations": Oral History of Vice Admiral Edwin B. Hooper, USN (Ret.) (1978) (U.S. Naval Institute, Annapolis, Maryland). Hooper was commander, Service Force, Pacific Fleet, based in Hawaii.
243 "The Liberty[-size] ships were owned by NSA"; interview with Stephen R. Harris (February 2000).
244 "The location of the first mission hadn't been decided upon"; Trevor Armbrister, A Matter of Accountability: The True Story of the Pueblo Affair (New York: Coward-McCann, 1970), p. 154; NSA, Top Secret/Umbra, Oral History of Eugene Sheck, December 16, 1982.
244 "would do one patrol in response": Sheck oral history.
245 "I want to sell you top secrets": Pete Early, Family of Spies: Inside the John Walker Spy Ring (New York: Bantam, 1988), p. 63.
245 Starting in May: This account of increasing North Korean activity draws on CIA, Secret, "North Korean Intentions and Capabilities with Respect to South Korea" (September 21, 1967), p. 1.
246 "We were about": Details of the attack on the RB-47 are from George V. Back, "North Korean Attack on RB-47, " web posting at <http;//www.55srwa.org/ 55_back.html> (May 1, 2000).
248 "This young fellow"; Sheck oral history.
248 "The following information is provided to aid": U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Armed Services, Special Subcommittee on the U.S.S. Pueblo, Inquiry into the U.S.S. Pueblo and EC-121 Plane Incidents, Hearings, 91st Cong., 1st Sess. (1989).
249 "This was the first voyage": ibid.
249 "NSA has a pretty strong voice": Sheck oral history.
250 On January 2, 1968: Unless otherwise noted, all details of the voyage of the USS Pueblo, as well as the prior approval process, come from US. Navy, Top Secret/ Limited Distribution/Noforn, "Findings of Fact, Opinions and Recommendations of a Court of Inquiry Convened by Order of Commander in Chief, United States Pacific Fleet, to Inquire into the Circumstances Relating to the Seizure of USS Pueblo (AGER-2) by North Korean Naval Forces" (April 9, 1969). Details on General Steakley and Captain Gladding: Trevor Armbrister, A Matter of Accountability: The True Story of the Pueblo Affair (New York: Coward-McCann, 1970), pp. 192-199.
251"Determine the nature and extent of naval activity": US. House of Representatives,
Committee on Armed Services, Special Subcommittee on the U.S.S.
Pueblo, Inquiry into the U.S.S. Pueblo and EC-121 Plane Incidents, Hearings,
91st Cong., 1st Sess. (1989), pp. 762-767.
251 "I was very upset when we found out": Harris interview.
252 "Out of Japan": E. M. Kisler, "Bucher's Bastards, " written in North Korea in September 1968.
253 "It ... infiltrated scores of armed boats": FBIS Transcript, Pyongyang KCNA International Service in English (November 27, 1967).
253 "Drawn into the spy ring": FBIS Transcript, Pyongyang KCNA International Service in English (November 10, 1967).
253 "As our side has declared time and again": FBIS Transcript, Pyongyang KCNA International Service in English (December 1, 1967).
253 quoted in a Japanese newspaper: New York Times, January 27, 1968.
253 "The US. imperialist aggressor troops": FBIS Transcript, Pyongyang KCNA International Service in English (January 11, 1968).
254 "Although the seas were calm": Stu Russell's remarks are quoted from Stu Russell, "Cold and Getting Colder, " U.S.S. Pueblo web site, <http://www.usspueblo.org/v2f/incident/incidentframe.html> (April 15, 2000).
255 "We had a crew meeting and we were told": interview with member of ship's crew.
255 "In the New Year, the U.S. imperialist aggressors": FBIS Transcript, Pyongyang KCNA International Service in English (January 10, 1968).
257 "We were close enough to see the crew": Russell, "Cold and Getting Colder."
258 "Subchaser No. 35": Secret, "Chronology of Events Concerning the Seizure of the USS Pueblo" (NSA, undated), pp. 1-4.
258 "A guy comes steaming back": Sheck oral history, p. 30.
260 5C-35 then instructed all North Korean vessels: Secret, "Chronology of Events Concerning the Seizure of the USS Pueblo" (NSA, undated), pp. 1-4.
261 "The Koreans requested from the United States": interview with former U.S. Air Force F-4 pilot Bruce Charles (February 2000).
262 "in excess of that necessary or desired": Department of Defense, Secret memorandum, "What Reaction Forces Were Available and What Were Our Reaction Options?" (January 24, 1968).
262 That left Okinawa: For the F-105s on Okinawa, see Thomas C. Utts, "After North Korea Seized USS Pueblo on the Eve of Tet, It Looked Like the Communists Had Opened a Two-Front War, " Vietnam magazine (date illegible on author's copy).
262 Bucher's actions during the attack: See, generally, Lloyd M. Bucher with Mark Rascovich, Bucher: My Story (New York: Doubleday, 1970).
263 "For ten days": Henry Millington, quoted in Sheck oral history.
263 "That happened around two o'clock": ibid.
267 "Each time the mike was keyed": Russell, "Cold and Getting Colder."
268 "That's guys' lives": "Betrayal: The Story of the USS Pueblo, " History Channel (1997).
268 "They were on their own": Sheck oral history.
269 "We were, it seemed": Russell, "Arrival in Wonsan, " USS Pueblo web site, <http://www.usspueblo.org/v2f/incident/incidentframe.html> (April 15, 2000).
269 "General Carter read it, and then he got up": Sheck oral history.
270 Within hours of the incident: Details of McNamara's war council come from Department of Defense, Top Secret, Memorandum for the Secretary of Defense (January 25, 1968).
271 "We had F-4-s lined up wingtip to wingtip": oral history of Gen. Charles H. Bonesteel, III, Volume 1 (1973), p. 34-8 (U.S. Army Military History Institute, Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania). Bonesteel was commanding general, 8th U.S. Army; commander-in-chief, United Nations Command; and commander, U.S. Forces Korea.
271 "They wanted to provoke": This and the subsequent quotations from Gene Sheck are from Sheck oral history.
273 "My first pass started off near Vladivostok": This and details on the A-12 come from Paul F. Crickmore, Lockheed SR-71: The Secret Missions Exposed (London: Osprey Aerospace, 1993), pp. 31-33.
273 "Our mission was to support the captain": Rakfeldt's comments and details concerning the USS Volador come from Harry O. Rakfeldt, letter to author (April 17, 2000).
275 "The KGB did not plan to capture": interview with Oleg Kalugin, unpublished CBS News transcript (undated), p. 9.
276 "The Soviets had been allowed to inspect": ibid., pp. 12-13.
276 "The ciphers and codes are considered": ibid., pp. 8-9.
276 "perhaps the best operative" ... "read your cables!": Pete Early, "Interview with the Spy Master, " Washington Post Magazine, April 23, 1995.
277 Jerry Whitworth: Early, Family of Spies, p. 137.
277 "Using the keylists provided by John Walker": interview with Oleg Kalugin, unpublished CBS News transcript (undated), pp. 13-14.
277 In some instances, classified information was passed on: The Court of Inquiry reported that one crew member "cooperated with the North Koreans during detention in that he amplified classified information which the North Koreans had captured and provided additional information which was not otherwise available." Other crew members, said the Court, "may also have disclosed significant classified information to a lesser degree, but the actual degree of such disclosure, over and above what was already available to the North Koreans, could not be determined from the evidence." U.S. Navy, Top Secret/Limited Distribution/Noforn, "Findings of Fact, Opinions and Recommendations of a Court of Inquiry Convened by Order of Commander in Chief, United States Pacific Fleet, to Inquire into the Circumstances Relating to the Seizure of USS Pueblo (AGER-2) by North Korean Naval Forces" (April 9, 1969), p. 94.
278 "Americans were shocked": William 1. Taylor, Jr., "Remembering Seizure of the Pueblo, " Washington Times (December 27, 1994).
278 "When a fourth-rate": "Betrayal, " History Channel (1998).
278 "I will sign the document": New York Times (December 23, 1968), p. 3.
278 "A determination": U.S. Navy, Top Secret/Limited Distribution/Noforn, "Findings of Fact, Opinions and Recommendations of a Court of Inquiry Convened by Order of Commander in Chief, United States Pacific Fleet, to Inquire into the Circumstances Relating to the Seizure of USS Pueblo (AGER2) by North Korean Naval Forces" (April 9, 1969), p. 84.
279 "He should have persisted": ibid., p. 88.
279 "failed completely in the execution": ibid., p. 89.
279 "With few exceptions": ibid.
280 "You're surrounded": Sheck oral history.
280 Naval Security Group officers at Pacific Fleet Headquarters: The court of inquiry recommended that Captain Everett B. Gladding, Director, Naval Security Group Pacific, be given a letter of reprimand for allegedly "failing to ensure the readiness of Pueblo's research detachment" and "[failing] to provide intelligence support to Pueblo during the mission." But Gladding's boss, Admiral Hyland, the Commander-in-Chief, Pacific Fleet, vetoed the recommendation.
280 "Folks out there said": Sheck oral history.
280 "They had total incapacity": Bonesteel oral history."
281 "They have suffered": U.S. Navy, press release (May 6, 1969).
281 "The Pueblo incident": interview with Oleg Kalugin, unpublished CBS News transcript (undated), pp. 32-33, 24-25.
281 moved to a pier: AP World News (October 26, 1999).
281 Led by a former NSA contractor; "The sooner, the better": "North Korea Moves Pueblo, " The Lonely Bull (newsletter of the crew of the Pueblo) (November 1999), p. 1.

CHAPTER 9: Adrenaline
Page
284 "I believe that the enemy will attempt": Military Assistance Command, Vietnam (MACV), Secret message, Westmoreland to General Earle Wheeler, January 22, 1968. (LBJL, National Security File, Country File, Vietnam, Box 68-69.)
285 "Japanese reports back to Tokyo": NSA., Top Secret/Umbra, "On Watch" (September 1986), pp. 33-41.
286 "Thus began the Indochina War": ibid.
286 "true autonomous self-government": Stanley Karnow, Vietnam: A History, rev. ed. (New York: Penguin, 1997), p. 148.
286 "would mean extremely adverse reactions": CIA, Secret memorandum, "Intelligence Memorandum No. 231: Consequences of Communist Control of French Indochina" (October 7, 1949), pp. 1-3. (HSTL, President's Secretary's File, Intelligence File, Box 250.)
286 aid, weapons, and U.S. forces: On August 2, 1950, the first ten U.S. officers arrived in Saigon. Sixty others soon followed, and before Truman left office in January 1953, 200 more would be sent in to help the French fight off Vietnamese opponents.
286 witless CIA officer: Sedgwick Tourison, Secret Army Secret War: Washington's Tragic Spy Operation in North Vietnam (Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1995), p. 7.
287 The operation began on March 13, 1954: CIA, William M. Leary, "Supporting the 'Secret War': CIA Air Operations in Laos, 1955-1974, " Studies in Intelligence (Winter 1999-2000).
287 "I recall very dramatically": interview with David W. Gaddy (May 2000).
287 "couldn't find any hard evidence": NSA, Top Secret/Umbra, "On Watch" (September 1986), p. 39.
288 "the current situation in South Vietnam": Director of Central Intelligence Directive 6/3, quoted in NSA, Top Secret/Umbra/Noforn, "In the Shadow of War " (June 1969), pp. 30-31.
288 400th ASA Special Operations Unit (Provisional): In September 1961 its name was changed to the 82nd Special Operations Unit. By mid-1966 the organization had grown considerably; it was thereafter named the 509th ASA Group.
289 "Cryptography must be secret, swift, and accurate"; "During the decades past": NSA, Essential Matters: A History of the Cryptographic Branch of the People's Army of Viet-Nam, 1945-1975 (translated and edited by David W. addy, NSA, 1994), pp. xiii-xiv.
289 "destroyed the entire set of (cryptographic] materials": ibid, p. 106.
290 "As a civilian from NSA": NSA, Top Secret/Umbra, "Deployment of the First ASA Unit to Vietnam" (undated), p. 80.
290 James T. Davis: For this account, I have relied on Army Intelligence and Security Command, "Biographical Data on Specialist Four James T. Davis" (undated).
292 "Many of us who knew about the 34A operations": Robert S. McNamara with Brian VanDeMark, In Retrospect: The Tragedy and Lessons of Vietnam (New York: Vintage Books, 1996), p. 130.
292 "By midsummer of 1964 the curtain was going up": NSA, Top Secret/Umbra, "On Watch" (September 1986), p. 41.
293 DeSoto patrols: ibid., p. 43.
293 another DeSoto mission was scheduled: Unless otherwise noted, details of the Gulf of Tonkin incident come from Edwin E. Morse's excellent study, Tonkin Gulf and the Escalation of the Vietnam War (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996); and NSA, Top Secret/Umbra, "On Watch" (September 1986), Chapter 6, "The Gulf of Tonkin Incident, the DeSoto Patrols and OPLAN 34A, " pp. 43-50.
297 "It seems likely that": Department of State, Top Secret memorandum, Forrestal to Secretary of State (August 3, 1964) (Department of State, FRUS 1964-1968, vol. 1, p. 599).
299 "Everybody was demanding the Sigint": Morse, Tonkin Gulf, ' pp. 197, 199.
300 "I must address the suggestion": U.S. Senate, Foreign Relations Committee, "The Gulf of Tonkin: The 1964 Incidents, " Hearings (February 20, 1968), p. 19.
300 Operation Northwoods: JCS, Top Secret/SpecialHandling/Noforn, Note by the Secretaries to the Joint Chiefs of Staff on Northwoods, Annex to Appendix to Enclosure A, "Pretexts to Justify U.S. Military Intervention in Cuba" (March 12, 1962), p. 8. Details of the operation are covered in more detail in chapter 4, "Fists."
300 to send the Sigint ship Banner: See chapter 8, "Spine."
301 "At the time there's no question": Michael Charlton and Anthony Moncrieff, Many Reasons Why: The American Involvement in Vietnam (New York: Hill & Wang, 1989), p. 108.
301 number of cryptologic personnel: 1, 322 were from ASA; 246 from the Air Force; and 179 from NSA and the Navy. NSA, Top Secret/Umbra/Noforn, "In the Shadow of War" (June 1969), p. 118.
302 "U.S. personnel with the ability to read Vietnamese": ibid., p. 55.
302 "We found that we had adequate": interview with a former senior NSA B02 Group official.
303 "And of course there was always.": interview with another former senior NSA B Group official.
303 "There was no blotter large enough": NSA, Top Secret/Umbra/Noforn, "Working Against the Tide, " part one (June 1970), p. 14.
303 "Through interrogation 9f these men": NSA, Secret/Noforn, "Deadly Transmissions" (December 1970), p. 4.
304 "The inescapable conclusion from the captured documents": ibid., p. 5.
304 "The enemy might disappear from a location": Lieutenant General Charles R. Myer, "Viet Cong Sigint and U.S. Army Comsec in Vietnam, " Cryptologia (April 1989), pp. 144-45.
305 "Even as late as the spring of 1969": NSA; Top Secret/Umbra/Noforn, "Working Against the Tide, " part one (June 1970), p. 14.
305 "It was ... likely that they could gain": ibid., p. 3.
305 "some tortuous evolutions": Myer, "Viet Cong Sigint and U.S. Army Comsec in Vietnam, " p. 147. .
306 "Signal security, particularly in voice": ibid., p. 150.
306 During 1967, Comsec monitors eavesdropped on: NSA, Top Secret/Umbra/Noforn, "Working Against the Tide, " part one (June 1970), p. 35.
306 "it was shot at the whole way": ibid., p. 19.
306 "capstone of the enemy's Sigint operations": ibid., p. 9.
307 estimated to be around $15 million: ibid.
307 "All of our primary operational communications": ibid., p. 16.
307 "Walker is not responsible for your failures": Pete Early, "Interview with the Spy Master, " Washington Post Magazine (April 25, 1995).
307 "We certainly provided": interview with Oleg Kalugin, unpublished CBS News transcript (undated), pp. 15-16.
310 "compromising cipher-signal anomalies": Details on the Izmeritel and Guam: NSA, Top Secret/Umbra/Noforn, "Working Against the Tide, " part two (June 1970), p. 202.
310 "The communications were in plain language": ibid.
311 "Comsec monitors and analysts had an advisory": NSA, Top Secret/Umbra/Noforn, "Working Against the Tide, " part one (June 1970), p. 16.
311 "35 kilometers north of here tomorrow;" "On landing, the assault force": ibid., p. 35.
312 "a veritable flood": ibid., p. 58.
312 "Most U.S. commanders in Vietnam": ibid., p. 50.
313 orders were transmitted to the ship on May 26: USS Oxford, "Command History" (January 6, 1966), Enclosure 1.
313 "In Africa we were looking at some of the local links": interview with George A. Cassidy (January 2000).
314 "They tried to keep the Oxford movements very highly classified": interview with John De Chene (February 5, 2000)
315 "I was on the back of a flat pickup truck": interview with Ray Bronco (February 17, 2000).
315 "There was always a rivalry between our sister ship": e-mail from Richard E. Kerr, Jr., to author (January 26, 2000).
316 "a world of their own": Bronco interview.
318 "The operators hung a long wire out the back": This and other details of the RU-6A Beaver and the RU-8D Seminole aircraft are drawn from NSA, "Army Security Agency Aerial Reconnaissance: Mission and Sacrifice" (undated), pp. 2-6; NSA, "National Vigilance Park RU-8 Aircraft Dedication Ceremony" (May 12, 1998).
318 "Whoever controlled the shipping channel": This and Richard McCarthy's other comments come from his e-mail to author (February 25, 2000). Mc earthy served in Vietnam from December 1965 to August 1967 and was awarded aircrew wings and the air medal with twenty-seven oak-leaf clusters.
319 "Naturally, that particular flight element": Major General Doyle Larson, "Direct Intelligence Combat Support in Vietnam: Project Teaball, " American Intelligence Journal (Spring/Summer 1994), pp. 56-58.
320 "MiG-21s would streak out"; This and Bruce Bailey's other remarks are from "The RB-47 & RC-135 in Vietnam, " his web posting at 55th Strategic Reconnaissance Wing Association web site <http://www.55srwa.orgj55_vietnam.html> (May 1, 12000).
321 "They were designed to intercept": Details on the drones are from Bruce Bailey, "Drones in Southeast Asia, " web posting at 55th Strategic Reconnaissance Wing Association web site <http://www.55srwa.org/55_bruce.html> (May 1, 2000).
322 the planes were soon assigned exclusively to Sigint: The CIA conducted a photo mission over North Vietnam on August 15, 1961. Between 1962 and 1964, CIA U-2s staged a total of thirty-six photographic missions over North and South Vietnam. By April 1964, however, photographic requirements were changing from strategic reconnaissance to tactical support as the Vietcong became more active. As a result of the increasing level of combat in Indochina, the US. Intelligence Board gave responsibility for aerial reconnaissance of the areas where fighting was taking place to the Strategic Air Command. Following the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, the Air Force assumed responsibility for all of Indochina (CIA, "The CIA and the U-2 Program, 1954-1974" [1998], pp. 222-31).
322 "All I had to do was throw a switch": Ben R. Rich and Leo Janos, Skunk Works (Boston: Little, Brown & Company, 1994), p. 185.
322 "The pilot did not operate the receivers": Bailey's comments and details of the U-2 come from Bruce Bailey, "The View from the Top, " web posting at 55th Strategic Reconnaissance "Wing Association web site <http://www.55srwa.org/55_bruce.html> (May 1, 2000).
323 "Throttles to Max A/B"; details on March 21, 1968, SR-71 flight: Paul F. Crickmore, Lockheed SR-71: The Secret Missions Exposed (London: Osprey Aerospace, 1993), pp. 1-8.
324 "The SR-71 was excellent for 'stimulating' ": Richard H. Graham, SR-71 Revealed: The Inside Story (Osceola, Wisc.: Motorbooks International, 1996), pp. 83-84.
325 "As a member of the Army Security Agency": This and David L. Parks's other remarks are from his e-mail to author (February 15, 2000).
326 the 199th Light Infantry Brigade: This was composed of a headquarters company and three battalions (three thousand men, more or less) of infantry troops.
330 "If SD and SSD are included": CIA report, Harold P. Ford, "CIA and the Vietnam Policymakers: Three Episodes 1962-1968" (1998), p. 85.
331 "MACV used mainly Confidential-level documents": ibid., p. 93.
331 "frustratingly unproductive": ibid.
332 "I was frequently and sometimes tendentiously interrupted": ibid.
332 NSA began reporting that two North Vietnamese Army divisions: U.S. District Court, Southern District of New York, General William C. Westmoreland v. CBS, Inc., et al. (82 Civ. 7913), Stipulation of Facts, p. 2; hereinafter, Westmoreland v. CBS.
332 "also told MACV headquarters personnel": William E. Rowe, "Defending Long Binh, " Vietnam (February 1995), pp. 47-52.
332 NSA issued the first in a series: Westmoreland v. CBS, exhibit 518, "Treatment of Indications in Finished Intelligence: NSA."
333 "A 'we are winning' consensus pretty much": CIA report, Harold P. Ford, "CIA and the Vietnam Policymakers: Three Episodes 1962-1968" (1998), p. 108.
333 "It would seem to us that there is a relationship": James J. Wirtz, The Tet Offensive: Intelligence Failure in War (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1991), p. 213.
333 the Oxford sailed to Bangkok: USS Oxford, Confidential, 1968 "Command History" (March 19, 1969), p. 2.
333 "Coordinated Vietnamese Communist Offensive Evidenced": Westmoreland v. CBS, exhibit 64, p. 26.
333 "Evening missions were usually very quiet": McCarthy e-mail to author (February 25, 2000).
334 Westmoreland finally saw: The following account is from CIA, Harold P. Ford, "CIA and the Vietnam Policymakers: Three Episodes 1962-1968" (1998), p. 115.
334 "At twelve midnight": e-mail from David L. Parks to author (February 18, 2000).
334 "They had been hiding in tunnels and foxholes": Rowe, "Defending Long Binh."
335 "They've hit the embassy and palace": NSA, account by Gary Bright, NSA Cryptologic Museum.
336 the Oxford's crew: USS Oxford, Confidential, 1968 "Command History" (March 19, 1969), p. 2.
336 "The National Security Agency stood alone": CIA, Harold P. Ford, "CIA and the Vietnam Policymakers: Three Episodes 1962-1968" (1998), pp. 116, 141.
337 "The National Security Agency extends its heartiest": NSA, telegram, Carter to Truman (May 8, 1968) (Carter Papers, George C. Marshall Library, Box 40, Folder 36).
337 Lyndon Johnson was being compared in the press to General George Custer: Art Buchwald, Washington Post (February 6, 1968).
337 "Nothing had been done to attend to their wounds": e-mail from David L. Parks to author (February 12, 2000).
339 "My opinion of 1969 on Oxford": Kerr e-mail to author (January 26, 2000).
339 95, 000 people: testimony of Secretary of Defense James Schlesinger, U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on Department of Defense, Department of Defense Appropriations for 1975, Part 1, 93rd Cong., 2nd Sess., p. 598.
339 In Southeast Asia alone: NSA, audiotape in the agency's Cryptologic Museum.
339 "monstrous": interview with Lieutenant General Marshall S. Carter (July 17-18, 1980).
340 "you couldn't tell whether": ibid.
340 "termite level": letter, Carter to William D. Pawley (May 19, 1997), Carter Papers, George C. Marshall Library, Lexington, Ky., Box 39, Folder 3.
340 "I am not winning": Letter, Carter to McCone (January 13, 1969), Carter Papers, George C. Marshall Library, Lexington, Ky., Box 37, Folder 8.
340 the sixth NSA director: NSA, "Vice Admiral Noel Gayler, USN, Becomes Agency's New Director, " NSAN (August 1969), p. 2; Navy biography.
341 "At the end of World War II": Department of the Army, Major Commanders' Annual Report to Headquarters of the Army, Command Presentation, United States Army Security Agency (October 7, 1971), p. 19.
341 "declaration of war": interview with Richard P. Floyd, former chief, Procurement Support Division, Office of Procurement, NSA (January 19, 1981).
341 "The strategy paper": ibid.
342 "He wasn't a ballplayer": ibid.
342 Lieutenant General Samuel C. Phillips: NSA, "General Samuel Phillips Receives Thomas D. White Space Trophy, " NSAN (September 1972), pp. 4-5.
342 "It came on thirty seconds after the missile's launch": interview with John Arnold (July 2000).
343 "They dumped": ibid.
343 Guardrail: The system is scheduled to be replaced by forty-five new intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance planes by 2006 under a new program codenamed Common Sensor. Defense News On-Line (March 1, 1999).
343 "From A-4 you could see the middle": interview with a former intercept operator (February 2000).
344 Earlier in March: Col. G. H. Turley, USMC, The Easter Offensive: The Last American Advisors, Vietnam 1972 (Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1985), p. 43.
345 "Shortly after daylight the NVA": ibid., pp. 49-50.
345 refused to believe: ibid., p. viii.
346 "The hut would burn for a couple of days": information from a former A-4 intercept operator.
346 Samuel Phillips left NSA: Phillips died of cancer at his home in Palos Verdes Estates in California at the age of sixty- eight on January 31, 1990.
346 Lew Allen, Jr.: NSA, "Lieutenant General Lew Allen, Jr., USAF, Named Director, " NSAN (August 1973), p. 2; Air Force biography.
347 "Have just received word to evacuate": NSA, Secret/Comint Channels Only message (1310Z April 28, 1975).
347 "I took the last fixed-wing aircraft": NSA, videotape interview with Ralph Adams. Decades later, Adams would rise to become executive director of NSA, the agency's number three position.
348 "THEY CANNOT GET": NSA, Secret/Comout/Fastcast message (1211Z April 29, 1975).
348 "I saw the ambassador briefly": Frank Snepp, Decent Interval: An Insider's Account of Saigon's Indecent End Told by the CIA's Chief Strategy Analyst in Vietnam (New York: Vintage, 1978), p. 553.
348 "Goddamnit, Graham!": ibid., p. 4-89.
349 "NO AMBASSADOR": NSA, Secret Camout/Fastcast message (1213Z April 29, 1975).
349 "THE AMBASSASDOR WILL NOT": NSA, Secret Camont/Fastcast message (16287. April 29, 1975).
349 "A PRESIDENTIAL MSG": NSA, Secret Camout/Fastcast message (19071. April 30, 1975).
350 "LADY ACE 09 ... IS NOT"; NSA, Secret Camout/Fastcast message (2043Z April 30, 1975).
350 "LADY ACE 09 IS or;; THE ROOF": NSA, Secret Camont/Fastcast message (2051 Z April 30, 1975).
350 "THERE HAS BEEN AN SA-7 LAUNCH": NSA, Secret Camout/Fastcast message (2052Z April 30, 1975).
350 "President Ford has directed": Snepp, Decent Interval, p. 559.
350 "LADY ACE 09 IS TIGER TIGER TIGER": NSA, Secret Comout/Fastcast message (2058Z April 30, 1975).
351 "THERE ARE 200 AMERICANS LEFT": NSA, Secret Comout/Fastcast message (2109Z April 30, 1975).
351 "NUMEROUS FIRE FIGHTS" ... "OUT REPEAT OUT": NSA, Secret Comout/Fastcast message (2142Z-2318Z April 30, 1975).
352 "Delicate political moves": This and the following are quoted from NSA, Gary Bright, "Don Vi' 600" (undated), pp. 1-5.

CHAPTER 10; Fat
Page
354 "I have been around long enough": "Ann Caracristi Accepts, " Colloquy (Twentieth Anniversary Issue, 1999), p. 24.
354 Within days: Details of Caracristi's background are from NSA, Secret/Comint Channels Only, oral history of Ann Caracristi (July 16, 1982)i "Ann Caracristi, " 1999 Annual Awards Testimonial Dinner Program. Security Affairs Support Association (May 27, 1999), p. 5.
355 "NSA opened its doors": NSA, Tom Johnson, "The Plan to Save NSA" (undated), p. 6.
355 One CIA official called: ibid.
356 "Monetary considerations": Commission on Organization of the Executive Branch of the Government, Top Secret/Comint Channels Only/U.S. Eyes Only report, Task Force on Intelligence Activities (Hoover Commission) (May 1955), Appendix, p. 3.
356 "to bring the best": ibid.
356 "potentially our best": The President's Board of Consultants on Foreign Intelligence Activities, Top Secret letter, Killian to the president (December 20, 1956), p. 7 (DDEL, Ann Whitman File, Administrative Series, Box 13).
356 "that the Director": Office of Defense Mobilization, memorandum (July 6, 1955), "Hoover Commission Report" (DDEL, Office of Staff Secretary, Box 13).
356 above $500 million: The President's Board of Consultants on Foreign Intelligence Activities, Top Secret letter, Killian to the president, (December 20, 1956), p. 7 (DDEL, Ann Whitman File, Administrative Series, Box 13).
356 more than half; Killian said; "Intelligence is approaching a $l-billion-a-year operation": White House, Top Secret memorandum, "Memorandum of Conference with the President, January 17, 1957, " p. 1 (DDEL, Ann Whitman File, Box 21).
356 "Because of our having been": ibid.
356 "was numb at the rate": White House, Top Secret/Eyes Only memorandum, "Discussions at the Special Meeting in the President's Office, January 17, 1957, " p. 4 (DDEL, White House , Office, Box 7).
356 "It would be extremely valuable": ibid.
357 "In our judgment": The President's Board of Consultants on Foreign Intelligence Activities, Top Secret letter, Killian to the president (December 20, 1956), p. 8 (DDEL, Ann Whitman File, Administrative Series, Box 13).
357 "An essential step": ibid.
357 Baker ... was appointed: CIA, Top Secret memorandum, Dulles to National Security Council (April 25, 1957) (DDEL, Office of Staff Secretary, Box 7). The Baker Committee was officially known as the President's Ad Hoc Task Force for Application of Communications Analysis for National Security and International Security.
357 Baker recommended that NSA have complete dominance: These recommendations were translated into a new Top Secret charter for NSA, the National Security Council Intelligence Directive (NSCID) No. 6, dated September 15, 1958. This replaced NSA's original charter, NSCID No.9, dated July 1, 1948: NSC, Top Secret/Comint Channels Only, Special Limited Distribution, "National Security Council Intelligence Directive No.6: Communications Intelligence and Electronics Intelligence" (September 15, 1958), pp. 1-11 (DDEL, Post-Presidential Papers, Box 2).
358 "I finally did produce' a report": interview with Richard M. Bissell, Jr. (November 30, 1984).
358 "I could never tell how close": interview with a former director of Central Intelligence.
359 "When they went bust": interview with a former NSA official.
360 "One good intercept is worth $5 million": This quotation and Gerson's remarks are drawn from N. C. Gerson, "Sigint in Space, " La Physique au Canada (November-December 1998), pp. 353-58.
360 "This has great promise for monitoring": White House, Top Secret, Memorandum of Conference with the President (February 10, 1959) (DDEL, White House Office, Office of Staff Secretary, Intelligence, Box 15).
361 Users are warned: Material Safety Data Sheet (October 1990).
363 the West Virginia State legislature: State of West Virginia, Radio Astronomy Zoning Act, House Bill No.2 (August 9, 1956).
363 30, 000 tons of steel: U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Appropriations, Military Construction Appropriations, Hearings for 1962, Part 1, 87th Cong., 1st Sess. pp. 242-45. It should be noted that records of the sanitized hearings contain no references to the intelligence mission of Sugar Grove.
363 "almost beyond": The description of the calculations' complexity is in US. House of Representatives, Committee on Appropriations, Military Construction Appropriations, Hearings for 1961, Part 1, 86th Cong., 1st Sess., pp. 568-71.
364 At a Howard Johnson's: Philip J. Klass and Joseph C. Anselmo, "NRO Lifts Veil on First Sigint Mission, " Aviation week & Space Technology (June 22, 1998).
364 "The wife and two children were asleep": Mayo's account is from an NSA audio interview with Reid Mayo, NSA Cryptologic Museum.
365 "Piggy-back Satellites Hailed": Charles Corddry, "Piggy-back Satellites Hailed as Big Space Gain for U.S., " Washington Post (June 23, 1960).
365 Details of the GRAB satellite are from Naval Research Laboratory, "GRAB: Galactic Radiation and Background" (1998), pp. 1-10.
366 "With Eisenhower's concern": Ivan Amato, All Things Considered, National Public Radio (June 18, 1998).
368 "The satellites would pick up the signals": interview with former NSA official.
369 "They were huge umbrellas": ibid.
371 "They came back with very, very poor quality": Arnold's comments and details of Operation Ivy Bells and the USS Halibut are from my interview with John Arnold (July 2000).
374 It had been a long ride: for Inman's early life, see Robert Sam Anson, "Requiem for the Smartest Spy, " Esquire, April 1994, pp. 84-86.
375 Inman and James Guerin: See Alan Friedman, Spider's Web: The Secret History of How the White House Illegally Armed Iraq (New York: Bantam Books, 1993), pp. 56-67; Elaine Sciolino, "Change at the Pentagon: Man in the News- obby Ray Inman, An Operator for the Pentagon, " New York Times (December 17, 1993).
375 "I was an analyst for thirty-three months": Harvard University, Center for Information Policy Research, Program on Information Resources Policy, "Seminar on Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence" (1980), p. 141.
376 "The idea of going back to be director"; Inman's Comments: NSA, Top Secret/ Talent/Keyhole/Umbra, Admiral Bobby Ray Inman oral history (June 18, 1997), p. 1.
377 "Few could understand this": Thomas E. Ricks and Michael K. Frisby, "Herd Instinct: How Inman Could Go from Superstar to 'Bizarre' in Such a Short Time, " Wall Street Journal, January 21, 1994.
378 "You have my vote": Barton Gellman, "Critical Spotlight Stings Behind-the-Scenes Man, " Washington Post, January 19, 1994.
378 "simply one of the smartest": quoted in ibid.
378 "a superstar": ibid.
378 "Inman's reviews": Howard Kurtz, "Inman Statements Surprise Some Former Confidants in Media, " Washington Post, January 21, 1994.
378 "I have over the years": Gellman, "Critical Spotlight."
378 "He certainly knew how to play the game": Kurtz, "Inman Statements."
378 "the single biggest leaker": ibid.
379 "Inman was in control of unequaled information": Suzanne Garment, "Of Secrecy and Paranoia: What Is Inman's Real Story?" Los Angeles Times, January 23, 1994.
379 "There were certain rules": Robert Sam Anson, "The Smartest Spy, " Omni (n.d.), pp. 248, 250.
379 Edward 1. Derwinski: Linda Greenhouse, "A Nominee's "Withdrawal; Inman and The New York Times: An Examination of the Accusations of Bias, " New York Times, January, 19, 1994. See also Robert Boettcher with Gordon L. Friedman, Gifts of Deceit; Sun Myung Moon, Tongsun Park, and the Korean Scandal (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1980), pp. 263-66. The New York Times article on Derwinski can he found in the paper's October 27, 1977, issue.
579 he believed he had a secret agreement: Anson, "Requiem for the Smartest Spy."
379 Sulzberger apparently had a different opinion: Greenhouse, "A Nominee's Withdrawal."
379 "The truth is there was nothing": ibid.
379 Woodward occasionally proposed a story: Kurtz, "Inman Statements."
380 "My name is really Bobby Ray, much as I hate it": NSA, Top Secret/Talent/ Keyhole/Umbra, Admiral Bobby .Ray Inman oral history (June 18, 1997).
380 he would wake up: Gellman, "Critical Spotlight."
380 "not deceptive": ibid.
380 "deliberately [sought them out]": "Bowing Out with a Bang, " Time, January 31, 1994.
380 "wound tighter than a hummingbird": Tony Kornheiser, "You Got Thin Skin, Inman, " Washington Post, January 23, 1994.
380 Captain Queeg: "Bowing Out with a Bang."
380 now saw plots: ibid.
380 "was very direct that if I didn't": Anson, "Requiem for the Smartest Spy."
380 Safire wrote: This episode is described in ibid.
381 "I try to do it": Harvard University Center for Information Policy Research, Program on Information Resources Policy, "Seminar on Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence" (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1980), Inman lecture, p. 152.
382 "a brittle golden boy": Anson, "Requiem for the Smartest Spy."
382 James Guerin: See Alan Friedman, Spider's Web: The Secret History of How The White House Illegally Armed Iraq (New York: Bantam Books, 1993), pp. 56-67.
382 "the largest ... ever perpetrated": Elaine Sciolino, "Change at the Pentagon: Man in the News-Bobby Ray Inman: An Operator for the Pentagon, " New York Times, December 17, 1993.
382 Inman wrote a letter: ibid.
383 "I said, 'Sure'"; Inman's comments: NSA, Top Secret/Talent/Keyhole/Umbra, Admiral Bobby Ray Inman oral history.
384 "deliberate withholding": George Lardner, Jr., "Agency Is Reluctant to Share Information, " Washington Post (March 19, 1990), p. A4. M
386 George Stephanopoulos was worried: For this account, see George Stephanopoulos, All Too Human; A Political Education (Boston: Little, Brown, 1999), pp. 233-37.
387 "Leaks are not the answer"; address by Lieutenant General Lincoln D. Faurer before the Phoenix Society on May 22, 1982; quoted in Phoenician (Fall 1982), pp. 2-7.
388 Faurer was allegedly: "Pentagon Said to Be Forcing Retirement of NSA Head over Budget Cuts, " Associated Press (February 1, 1985).
388 "The health of the Agency": address by Lieutenant General Lincoln D. Faurer, quoted in Phoenician (Fall 1982), pp. 2-7.
389 "created a big fuss"; Faurer's departure is recounted in Robert C. Toth, "Head of NSA Is Dismissed for Opposing Budget Cuts, " Los Angeles Times, April 19, 1985, p. 1; see also CBS Evening News (January 31, 1985).
389 Faurer's premature departure: Following his departure from NSA, Faurer became president and CEO of Corporation for Open Systems. Funded by a consortium of more than sixty computer and communications industry leaders, this research and development corporation was aimed at accelerating a worldwide "open systems" environment. In 1991 Faurer formed LDF, Inc. (for Lincoln D. Faurer), which provides consulting services concerning command, control, communications, computing, and intelligence. In 1998 he was named to the board of directors of TSI TelSys, Inc., which designs and manufactures high-performance protocol processing systems for the remote-.sensing satellite ground station market (News release, TSI TelSys, Corp. , November 2, 1998).
389 The Joint Chiefs of Staff recommended: Toth, "Head of NSA Is Dismissed for Opposing Budget Cuts."
390 claiming that intelligence leaks: Bill Gertz, "NSA Director Stresses Harm of Intelligence Leaks in Press, " Washington Times, October 12, 1988.
390 "There's leaking from Congress": "Electronic Spy Chief Says Leaks Increasingly Hurt U.S. Intelligence, " Boston Globe, September 3, 1987.
390 "irrefutable" proof: Address by President Ronald Reagan on April 14, 1986: "On March 25th, more than a week before the attack, orders were sent from Tripoli to the Libyan People's Bureau in East Berlin to conduct a terrorist at tack against Americans, to cause maximum and indiscriminate casualties. Libya's agents then planted the bomb. On April 4th, the People's Bureau alerted Tripoli that the attack would be carried out the following morning. The next day they reported back to Tripoli on the great success of their mission. Our evidence is direct, it is precise, it is irrefutable. We have solid evidence about other attacks Qaddafi has planned against United States installations and diplomats and even American tourists."
390 "Libya, sure. Just deadly losses.": Norman Black, "Gen. Odom Blames Leaks for 'Deadly' Intelligence Loss, " Washington Times, September 3, 1987.
391 Details and quotations concerning Wobensmith case: Stephen Engelberg, ''A Career in Ruins in Wake of Iran-Contra Affair, " New York Times, June 3, 1988.
392 nominated by the agency for a Federal Career Service Award: "Claxton, Wobensmith Are Federal Career Award Finalists, " NSAN (June 1981), p. 7.
392 shown the door: Bill Gertz, "Superseded General Expected to Resign, " Washington Times, February 21, 1988.
393 Joint Chiefs of Staff unanimously recommended: Stephen Engelberg, "Head of National Security Agency Plans to Retire, " New York Times, February 23, 1988. See also Aviation week and-Space Technology (February 29, 1988), p. 34.
393 "It was made clear to him"; "Superseded General Expected to Resign, " Washington Times, February 21, 1988.
393 "I've had a hell of an impact": Engelberg, New York Times, February 23, 1988; Aviation week and Space Technology (February 29, 1988).
393 "I think it was just fortuitous": These quotations are drawn from NSA, Top Secret/ Umbra/Talent/Keyhole/Plus, oral history of Admiral William O. Studeman (October 18, 1991), pp. 1-12.
393 "It was clear this agency did not want to spend": ibid.
394 UKUSA Communications Intelligence Agreement: In 1948 the United States and Canada entered into a similar bilateral agreement called the CANUSA Agreement.
394 Communications Security Establishment: See Government of Canada, "50 Years of Service; Agenda for CSE's 50th Anniversary Year Celebration" (1996). Control of Canadian Sigint is vested in the Interdepartmental Committee on Security and Intelligence, under the general direction of the Cabinet Committee on Security and Intelligence. The ICSI maintains general policy control over all aspects of the collection, processing, and dissemination of Siginti it exercises this control through the Intelligence Advisory Committee for national Sigint, and through the Canadian Forces for tactical Comint and Elint (Government of Canada, Intelligence Advisory Committee, Sigint Memorandum No.1).
The directors of the CBNRC and the CSE were Ed Drake (1946-1971), Kevin O'Neill (1971-1980), Peter Hunt (1980- 1989), and A. Stewart Woolner (1989-present). Woolner was previously the CSE's chief of communications security.
396 Among the CSE's listening posts: Bill Robinson, "Intelligence, Eavesdropping and Privacy: Who Watches the Listeners?" In Craig McKie, ed., The System: Crime and Punishment in Canadian Society: A Reader (Toronto: Thompson Educational Publishers).
397 "They spied on the Mexican trade representative": UPI dispatch, November 14, 1995.
397 "Knowledge is power": Nomi Morris, "Inside Canada's Most Secret Agency, " Maclean's, September 2, 1996, pp. 32.34.
398 "It made us look ridiculous": This and Tovey's subsequent comments are from Barrie Penrose, Simon Freeman, Donald Macintyre, "Secret ·War, " Sunday Times (London), February 5, 1984.
398 "Some sixty percent of the GCHQ radio operators": Jock Kane, "GCHQ: The Negative Asset" (unpublished manuscript), p. 61. This manuscript was seized by the British government under the Official Secrets Act in 198+, and the book was never published. The author obtained a copy of the manuscript before the seizure.
399 "I was able to spell out": Donald Macintyre, Barrie Penrose, Simon Freeman, "Peace Moves in Spy Centre Union Row, " Sunday Times (London), n.d.
399 "The massive response to the strike call": Kane, "GCHQ, " p. 114.
400 "the Government listens": Colin Hughes, "Solidarity Criticizes GCHQ Union Ban, " The Independent, October 12, 1988.
400 "Dependence is total": Duncan Campbell, "The Parliamentary Bypass Operation, " New Statesman (January 23, 1987), pp. 8-12.
400 NSA broke the Argentine code: "America's Falklands War, " The Economist, March 3, 1984, p. 25.
400 "We can ask the Americans to do things": Mark Urban, "The Magnum Force, " Electronic Telegraph, September 1, 1996.
400 codenamed Zircon: Campbell, "Bypass Operation, " describes this project.
400 "macho politics": Campbell, "Bypass Operation."
401 "The UK simply isn't able": Mark Urban, "American Satellite Spied on Britain, " Electronic Telegraph, September 1, 1996.
401 Major paid his first visit: Allan Smith, "Major Visits GCHQ, " (U.K.) Press Association Newsfile (November 25, 1994).
401 the Queen herself: Peter Archer, "Prince Meets Spycatchers, " (U.K.) Press Association Newsfile (March 7, 1995).
401 6, 228 people at its headquarters: Stephen Bates, "HMSO Reveals Britain Employs 10, 766 Spies at Home and Abroad, " The Guardian, March 25, 1994, p. 11.
401 space-age complex: "GCHQ Opts for Benhall, " Gloucestershire Echo, May 7, 1999, pp. 1-2; Maurice Chittenden and Simon Trump, "GCHQ Ties Up Millions in 'Doughnut, ' " Sunday Times (London), August 13, 2000.
402 "We must go back to our roots with GCHQ": James Bamford, "Loud and Clear: The Most Secret of Secret Agencies Operates Under Outdated Laws, " Washington Post (November 14, 1999).
402 Australian intelligence documents: Joint Intelligence Organisation, Fourth Annual Report, 1974, Canberra (November 1974), Part 2, pp. 4-5. (cited in Jeffrey T. Richelson and Desmond Ball, The Ties That Bind: Intelligence Cooperation Between tire UKUSA Countries (Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 1985), p. 42.
403 the newest and smallest member: Nicky Hager, Secret Power: New Zealand's Role in the International Spy Network (Nelson, New Zealand: Craig Potton, 1996), pp. 93-94.
404 Platform: James Bamford, The Puzzle Palace: A Report on NSA, America's Most Secret Agency (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1982), p. 102.
404 "We link the world's telecommunications": "What is INTELSA1'?" INTELSAT home page, <http://www.intelsat.com/> (May 18, 2000).
405 "We grew so fast in the '80's we got buried": NSA, Top Secret/Umbra, oral history of Robert L. Prestel (December 21, 1993), p. 14.
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Re: BODY OF SECRETS -- ANATOMY OF THE ULTRA-SECRET NATIONAL

Postby admin » Sun Sep 06, 2015 11:08 pm

Part 4 of 5

CHAPTER 11: Muscle
Page
406 Details on INTELSAT 707: Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Mission and Spacecraft Library, INTELSAT 7, 7A.
407 "I know that I have leaned": letter, Hooper to Carter (July 27, 1969) (Lieutenant General Marshall S. Carter Papers, George C. Marshall Research Library, Lexington, Virginia).
407 "He says, 'Well, look, you can turn'": interview with Lieutenant General Marshall S. Carter (July 17-18, 1980).
408 "satellite communications processing and reporting": U.S. Air Force, Air Intelligence Agency Almanac (1997).
408 "collection, identification, exploitation"; FORNSAT (Foreign Satellite Collection): Chief Warrant Officer 3 Katherine 1. O'Neal and Warrant Officer Keith J. Merryman, "Signals Collection/Identification Analyst (98K) Training, " Military Intelligence (July-September 1998), pp. 20-22.
408 "98Ks will 'break'": ibid.
409 India's nuclear weapons establishment, for example, uses this method; Seymour M. Hersh, "The Intelligence Gap, " The New Yorker; December 6, 1999, p. 58.
409 Australia's station at Geraldton; Frank Cranston, "Australia's Plans for New Listening Post, " Jane's Defence weekly (April 4, 1987), p. 582.
410 Osama bin Laden; interview with intelligence official.
410 "With regard to encryption": interview with former government official.
411 "US. intelligence operates what is probably": Admiral William O. Studeman, Remarks at the Symposium "National Security and National Competitiveness: Open Source Solutions" (December 1, 1992).
411 C-802 missile: Unless otherwise noted, all quotations and information concerning the C-802 missile come from documents at the National Security News Service.
411 "mighty attack capability": House of Representatives, Committee on International Relations, Report, Urging the Executive Branch to Take Action Regarding the Acquisition by Iran of C-802 Cruise Missiles, 105th Cong., 1st Sess. (October 6, 1997), p. 4.
412 "clear and present danger": US. Senate, Committee on Governmental Affairs, Subcommittee on International Security, Proliferation, and Federal Services, Hearings (April 10, 1997), p. 24.
412 phone call from Tehran: NSA, Secret/Spoke message (July 11, 1997) (National Security News Service documents).
413 "When you're buying arms": This and the details on Monzer al-Kassar are from Roy Rowan, "Pan Am 103: Why Did They Die?" Time, April 27, 1992, p. 24.
413 "The meeting had gone very well"; NSA, Secret/Spoke message (August 12, 1997) (National Security News Service documents).
413 GCHQ dutifully intercepted the list: NSA, Secret/Spoke message (September 23, 1997) (National Security News Service documents).
413 Chinese officials told ... U.S. intelligence reports: DIA, Secret/Spoke/Noforn/ Orcon/Specat report (November 13, 1997) (National Security News Service documents).
414 a letter of credit: NSA, Secret/Spoke/US/UK/CAN/AUS Eyes Only message (November 7, 1997) (National Security News Service documents).
415 "It is our understanding": Department of State, Secret/Release France memorandum (undated) (National Security News Service documents).
415 "mask involvement in Iranian anti-ship cruise missile": NSA, Secret/Spoke/AUS/CAN/UK/US Eyes Only message (December 12, 1997) (National Security News Service documents).
416 Jafari marched over: NSA, Secret/Spoke message (December 12, 1997) (National Security News Service documents).
416 While Jafari listened: ibid.
416 "policymakers": ibid.
416 "The future looked bleak": ibid.
417 "the current situation had already": ibid.
417 In February 1998 he learned: NSA, Secret/Spoke message (February 20, 1998) (National Security News Service documents).
417 "The complaints lodged by Tehran": Department of State, Secret/Spoke/Noforn report (February 10, 1998) (National Security News Service documents).
417 "According to IDF DMI, Iran signed a contract": OIA, Secret/Noforn message (March 17, 1998) (National Security News Service documents).
418 "Ninety percent": interview with former government official.
418 "Recent intelligence reports suggest": DIA, Secret/Spoke report (April 29, 1998) (National Security News Service documents).
418 "technologically self-sufficient": John Mintz, "Tracking Arms: A Study in Smoke, " Washington Post, April 3, 1999.
418 "Within Gamma they had double G": interview with former government official.
418 "FRD": NSA, Top Secret/Dinar intercept, "Castro Interview on with U.S." (January 3, 196") (ARRB).
419 "ILC": Department of Justice, Top Secret/Umbra/Comint Channels Only, "Report on Inquiry into CIA Related Electronic Surveillance Activities" (June 30, 1976), p. 28.
419 "I looked for": interview with former government official.
419 "They had pictures": ibid.
420 "In order to bring": ibid.
420 "The Agency": ibid.
420 "We'd never 'go in": ibid.
421 Once GCHQ intercepted: ibid.
421 French export inspectors: Mintz, "Tracking Arms."
421 "It doesn't mean": ibid.
422 "very different": ibid.
422 "Celebrating fifty years of successful partnership": NSA, BRUSA-UKUSA 1946-1996 plaque.
423 "There are a substantial number of legal problems": Author's audiotape of Studeman's address to the Baltimore/Washington Corridor Chamber of Commerce (June 29, 1990).
424 "The real issue for us": ibid.
424 "What we use the intelligence instrument for": Tony Capaccio, "Spy Agency Is Against Industrial Espionage for U.S. Firms, " Defense week (March 20, 1995), p. 1.
424 "We will be definitely": Author's audiotape of Studeman's address to the Baltimore/ Washington Corridor Chamber of Commerce (June 29, 1990).
425 "If we had any certain evidence": Capaccio, "Spy Agency Is Against Industrial Espionage."
425 "Yes, my continental European friends": R. James Woolsey, ""Why We Spy on Our Allies, " Wall Street Journal, March 17, 2000.
426 "has directed me to come here": Carol Vinzant, "Kantor Arrives in Geneva for Japan Car Talks, " Reuters (June 25, 1995).
426 an NSA team: For NSA involvement in the Geneva talks, see David E. Sanger and Tim Weiner, "Emerging Role for the CIA: Economic Spy, " New York Times, October 15, 1995.
426 frequently bypassed: ibid.
426 "would be a breach of duty": Writ between Her Majesty's Attorney-General and Jock Kane, High Court of Justice, Queen's Bench Division, #1984 A, No. 1116 (March 28, 1984), p. 5.
427 "Much of the targeting": Jock Kane, "GCHQ: The Negative Asset" (unpublished manuscript), p. 79.
427 capable of storing 5 trillion pages: John Mintz, "The Secret's Out: Covert E-Systems Inc. Covets Commercial Sales, " Washington Post, October 24, 1994. 427 Nasser Ahmed.: See "A Blow for Secret Evidence, " Washington Post editorial, August 6, 1999.
428 another federal judge ruled: Lorraine Adams and David A. Vise, "Classified Evidence Ruled Out in Deportation, " Washington Post, October 21, 1999.
429 names on its watch lists: Bob Woodward, "Messages of Activists Intercepted, " Washington Post, October 13, 1975.
429 "MINARET information specifically includes": U.S. Senate, Select Committee to Study Government Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, The National Security Agency and Fourth Amendment Rights, Hearings, Vol. 6, 94th Cong., 1st Sess. (1976), p. 150.
429 "I tried to object": interview with Frank Raven.
430 "Based on my review of the information": U.S. Senate, Select Committee on Intelligence, Book III, Supplementary Detailed Staff Reports on Intelligence and the Rights of Americans, Final Report (April 23, 1976), p. 937, n. 45.
430 "The president chewed": ibid.
430 "nothing less than a heaven-sent"; ibid., p. 965.
430 "NSA Contribution to Domestic Intelligence" and "to program for coverage": US. Senate, Select Committee to Study Government Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, The National Security Agency and Fourth Amendment Rights, Hearings, Vol. 5, 94th Cong., 1st Sess. (1976), pp. 156-57.
430 "went through the ceiling": U.S. Senate, Select Committee on Intelligence, Book III, Supplementary Detailed Staff Reports on Intelligence and the Rights of Americans, Final Report (April 23, 1976), p. 956.
430 no one challenged Hoover: ibid., p. 933.
431 "'Well, what the hell is this?": This conversation may be found in Transcripts if Newly Released White House Tapes (February 25, 1999), Richard Nixon Library.
434 L. Britt Snider: His remarks are quoted from CIA, L. Britt Snider, "Unlucky Shamrock: Recollections of the Church Committee's Investigation of NSA, " Studies in Intelligence (Winter 1999-2000).
435 a story appeared in the New York Times: Nicholas Horrock, "National Security Agency Reported Eavesdropping on Most Private Cables, " New York Times, August 8, 1975.
436 "During the 1950s, paper tape had been the medium": CIA, Snider, "Unlucky Shamrock."
438 "The companies had a duty": ibid.
441 "I want to make it clear": interview with senior intelligence official (July 2000).
441 886 eavesdropping warrants: Letter from Attorney General Janet Reno to House Speaker J. Dennis Hastert (April 27, 2000).
441 "The networks have collapsed": interview with senior NSA official.
442 "whom we may target": NSA, Secret/Comint Channels Only, USSID 18 Guide (April 15. 1998), p. 2.
442 United States Signals Intelligence Directive 18: NSA, Secret/Comint Channels Only, USSID 18 (May 26, 1976), pp. 1-15 plus Annexes. The directive is regularly revised over the years, including on July 27, 1993.
442 "These concerns are legitimate": NSA, Confidential/Comint Channels Only, "USSID 18 and Its Relevance to the Production of Foreign Intelligence" (June 1, 1999), p. 6.
442 "such as a hijacking or a terrorist attack": NSA, Secret/Comint Channels Only, "U.S. Identities in Sigint" (March 1994), p. 4. See also NSA, Top Secret/ Comint Channels Only memorandum from Office of General Counsel (Operations) (July 25, 1997), p. 7.
443 ;'When specific, actionable threat": NSA, Secret/Comint Channels Only, USSID 18 Guide (April 15, 1998), pp. 3-4.
443 "we bump into violations": U.S. House of Representatives, House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, Hearings, Testimony of Lieutenant General Michael Hayden (April 12, 2000).
443 "As a general rule": NSA, Confidential/Comint Channels Only memorandum from W9R3 to W Group Reporting Elements (September 30, 1997), p. 1-2.
443 "Please remember": ibid.
444 "You have reason to believe": NSA, Secret/Comint Channels Only, "USSID 18 Questions and Answers" (November 11, 1996), p. 4.
444 referred to by title: Interestingly, the use of titles for senior officials of the judicial and legislative branches does need special approval. And only the CIA director can approve the inclusion of the names of members of Congress in Sigint reports. See NSA, Secret/Comint Channels Only memorandum from P052 (February 5, 1993).
444 "The NSA Office of the General Counsel ... has advised": NSA, Confidential/ Comint Channels Only memorandum from P052 (January 4, 1993).
444 names of United Nations officials: NSA, Secret/Comint Channels Only, USSID 18 Guide (April 15. 1998), p. 6.
445 What was her status?: NSA, Confidential/Comint Channels Only, "Status of First Lady as Government Official" (June 29, 1993).
445 "Mrs. Clinton may be identified": NSA, Confidential/Comint Channels Only, "Reporting Guidance on References to the First Lady" (July 8, 1993).
445 "The current U.S. Administration has cautiously": NSA, Secret/Comint Channels Only memorandum from P052 (December 15, 1994).
446 "The direct involvement of the Central Intelligence Agency": "Legislator: CIA Operative Ordered Guatemala Killings, " Minneapolis Star Tribune, March 23, 1995.
446 "any information concerning events": NSA, Secret/Comint Channels Only memorandum from Chief, Special Product Control Branch (March 31, 1995).
447 "The political parties of the U.S. are": NSA, Confidential/Comint Channels Only memorandum from Chief, P0521 (June 6, 1996).
447 "USSID 18 procedures for Search and Development": NSA, Tap Secret/Comint Channels Only memorandum from the Office of General Counsel (Operations) (July 25, 1997), pp. 1-9.
448 details on the briefing memorandum: ibid.
448 "raw traffic storage systems": NSA, Secret/Comint Channels Only, USSID 18 Guide (April 15, 1998), p. 6.
448 "Do your research before": NSA, TopSecret/Comint Channels Only memorandum from the Office of General Counsel (Operations) (July 25, 1997), pp. 1-9.
448 "Americans were never listed": interview with knowledgeable source.
449 "If the [Sigint] report goes out": interview with a senior intelligence official involved in Sigint (July 2000).
449 "communications identified as domestic": NSA, Secret/Comint Channels Only, USSID 18, Appendix 1, "Standard Minimization Procedures for NSA Surveillance, " Section 5 (a) (Domestic Communications/Dissemination). See also NSA, Secret/Comint Channels Only memorandum (re: "Collection, Processing, Retention, and Dissemination of 'Domestic' Communications under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act") from Office of General Counsel (Operations) (February 25, 199B), pp. 1-4.
449 "significant foreign intelligence": NSA, Secret/Comint Channels Only, USSID 18 Guide (April 15, 1998), p. 5.
449 one party to which is a U.S. official: ibid.
450 "The primary purpose of the collection activity": NSA, Secret/Spoke, "Guidelines for ... Narcotics-Related Sigint Collection" (undated), pp. 1-3.
450 "If the Sigint business": interview with senior intelligence official.
450 "When I was at the National Security Agency": Stewart A. Baker, "Should Spies Be Cops?" Foreign Policy (Winter 1994).
451 "'Trust us' is the NSA's implicit message"; David Ignatius, "Where We Can't Snoop, " Washington Post, April 17, 2000.
452 "It was the whole net"; interview with Lieutenant General Michael V. Hayden (February 2, 2000).
452 "What do I tell the workforce?"; ibid.
452 Details on Universe and Normalizer. Vice Admiral John M. McConnell, Director, NSA, "Intelligence Processing, " Government Executive (December 1994), p. 24.
453 "As each day passes": NSA, DIRNSA's Desk, NSAN (August 1998), p. 3.
453 "In some cases": NSA, Kathy Baskerville, "Y2K Oversight Office Tackles Millennium Problem, " NSAN (August 1998), pp. 8-9.
453 "Solving the Y2K problem": NSA, DIRNSA's Desk, NSAN (August 1998), p. 3.
453 stickers were placed: NSA, Action Line, NSAN (November 1998), p. 11.
454 "We covered the whole thing": Maurice Chittenden and Simon Trump, "GCHQ Ties Up Millions in 'Doughnut, ' " Sunday Times (London), August 13, 2000.
454 12 to 15 percent of capacity: interview with a senior NSA official.
454 "The network outage was a wake-up call": Lieutenant General Michael V. Hayden, address to the Kennedy Political Union of American University (February 17, 2000).
454 "I'll state right up front": NSA, DIRNSA's Desk, NSAN (May 1999), p. 3.
455 Born on March 17, 1945: Hayden's background is described in Department of the Air Force, Biography of Major General Michael V. Hayden (September 1998), pp. 1-2.
455 "Other than the affront to truthfulness"; interview with Lieutenant General Michael V. Hayden (February 2, 2000).
456 "The term 'warlordism''': interview with an NSA official (January 2000).
456 "I don't know how anything gets done": ibid.
456 "The budget is one of his biggest problems": ibid.
456 "As an agency, we now face our greatest": NSA, DIRNSA's Desk, NSAN (February 2000), p. 3.
457 "The NSA used to have the best computers": Bob Drogin, "NSA Blackout Reveals Downside of Secrecy, " Los Angeles Times, March 13, 2000.
457 "Most of what they were expert in": ibid.
457 "Believe me": ibid.
457 "This should have come as a surprise to no one": U.S. House of Representatives, Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, Report, Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2001, 106th Cong., 2nd Sess. (May 16, 2000).
457 "Signals intelligence is in a crisis": John I. Millis, address to the Central Intelligence Retirees Association (CIRA) (October 5, 1998), transcript printed in CIRA Newsletter (Winter 1998/1999).
458 "Increasingly"; Vice Admiral J. M. McConnell, USN, "New World, New Challenges: NSA into the 21st Century, " American Intelligence Journal (Spring-Summer 1994), p. 8.
458 "We've got to do both"; interview with Lieutenant General Michael V. Hayden (February 2, 2000).
458 "Forty years ago": Barbara McNamara, address before the American Bar Association, Standing Committee on National Security Law, Washington, D.C. (May 18, 2000).
459 304 million people with Internet access: Vernon Loeb, "This Just In, " Washington Post, June 20, 2000.
459 about 1, 500 "immediate" requests for intelligence: information from senior NSA official.
459 "Well, what are all these communications": interview with senior intelligence official involved in Sigint (July 2000).
460 "So far": Barbara McNamara, address before the American Bar Association.
460 "Technology has now become": Bob Brewin, Daniel Verton, and William Matthews, "NSA Playing IT Catch-Up, " Federal Computer week (December 6, 1999).
460 only 2 percent of AT&T's voice and data: information provided by a senior NSA official (September 2000).
461 it fought against export: Michael S. Lelyveld, "Fiber-Optic Curbs on Ex-USSR Tied to Missile Fear;" Journal of Commerce (March 24, 1992); Michael S. Lelyveld, "Spy Concerns Help Shape U.S. Export Policy, Experts Say, " Journal of Commerce (March 24, 1992).
461 "The ability to get bits down a fiber": Jeff Hecht, "Wavelength Division Multiplexing, " Technology Review (MIT) (March 1, 1999).
461 details on WDM and Project Oxygen: ibid.
461 "producing hundreds of kilometers": Chappell Brown, "System Design: Nonlinear Material, Low Costs Build Fiber Infrastructure, " Electronic Engineering Times (January 11, 1999), p. 59.
462 Lucent Technologies unveiled: "Lucent Technologies Delivers Record-Breaking Optical Networking Capacity, " M2 Press Wire (January 27, 1998).
462 the Netherlands' KPN Telecom B.V.: Brown, "System Design."
462 For two decades William O. Baker served: Security Affairs Support Association, Annual Awards Testimonial Dinner (May 27, 1999), p. 7.
462 David P. Kokalis: GAO Review of Federal Advisory Committees, 1997Annual Report.
462 NSA has also joined: "Breakthrough Technology Added to Government Research Network, " Business Wire (July 19, 1999).
463 "We're going to drown in fiber"; Hecht, "Wavelength Division Multiplexing."
463 increases in volume at 20 percent a year: Paul Korzeniowski, "Telepath: Record Growth Spurs Demand for Dense WDM-Infrastructure Bandwidth Gears Up for Next Wave, " Communications Week (June 2, 1997).
463 "Today you have no idea": Tabassum Zakaria, "Top Secret US. Spy Agency
Shapes Up for a New World, " Reuters (December 13, 1999).
463 "The mere fact of digitizing": interview with former NSA official.
463 "Crypto policy is the wave of the past": Richard Lardner, "New National Security Agency Director Sure to Face Major Challenges, " Inside the Pentagon (November 5, 1998).
463 "No matter what we do": John I. Millis address to the Central Intelligence Retirees Association (October 5, 1998).
464 "only 10 percent of communications": information from a senior NSA official (September 2000).
464 "Difficulties posed by new technologies": David Ensor, "Biggest US. Spy Agency Choking on Too Much Information, " CNN web posting (November 25, 1999).
464 "Hard of Hearing": Gregory Vistica and Evan Thomas, "Hard of Hearing, " Newsweek, December 13, 1999, p. 78.
464 "One criticism is that we're omniscient": Bryan Bender, "US. National Security Agency Faces Data Deluge, Says Chief, " Jane's Defence Weekly (March 22, 2000).
464 "The projections that we made": NSA, videotape, "A Conversation Between the Deputy Director for Services and the NSA Technical Work Force" (September 30, 1999),
465 "postal service": "Computing's Next Superpower, " Fortune, May 12, 1997.
465 "If you can see": NSA, videotape, "A Conversation Between the Deputy Director for Services and the NSA Technical Work Force" (September 30, 1999).
465 "surveillance, mine warfare": Drogin, "NSA Blackout Reveals Downside of Secrecy."
465 "the massive volume of stuff": interview with Lieutenant General Michael V. Hayden (February 2, 2000).
466 "We spend more money": John I. Millis address to the Central Intelligence Retirees Association (October 5, 1998).
466 Integrated Overhead Signals Intelligence Architecture-2: U.S. Senate, Armed Services Committee, U.S. National Security Space Programs and Issues, Testimony of NRO Director Keith R. Hall (March 11, 1998).
466 "the magnitude of the job": Jeremy Singer, "Sophisticated Fiber Optics Also Problematic for NSA, " Defense News (June 12, 2000), p. 1.
466 "NSA now faces new": U.S. House of Representatives, Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, Report, Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2001, 106th Cong., 2nd Sess. (May 16, 2000).
467 "There was an attitude": NSA, videotape, "Address by Timothy Sample at the Cryptologic History Symposium" (October 27, 1999).
469 "Not Congress": interview with Lieutenant General Michael V. Hayden (February 2, 2000).
469 "I think in the history of the agency": interview with NSA official.
470 "Our agency must undergo change": NSA, DIRNSA's Desk, NSAN (January 2000), p. 3.
470 "There has been much discussion about this change": ibid.
470 "responsible anarchists": Bob Brewin, Daniel Verton, William Matthews, "NSA Playing IT Catch-Up, " Federal Computer Week, December 6, 1999, p. 1.
470 "Absent profound change at NSA"; details from the New Enterprise Team: NSA, "New Enterprise Team (NETeam) Recommendations: The Director's Work Plan for Change" (October 1, 1999).
471 "slowness"; details from the outside team: NSA, "External Team Report: A Management Review for the Director, NSA" (October 22, 1999).
472 "In a broad sense"; interview with Lieutenant General Michael V. Hayden (February 2, 2000).
472 "Even the best game plan"; NSA, DIRNSA's Desk, NSAN (January 2000), p. 3.
472 So Hayden threw out the unwieldy: ibid.
472 he chose Beverly Wright; NSA, "Director of National Security Agency Welcomes Ms. Beverly Wright, Chief Financial Manager, " NSAN (February 2000), p. 2.
473 Black background: Interview with an NSA official. At SAIC, Black served as assistant vice president and director of information operations in its Columbia, Maryland, office.
474 "The CIA is good at stealing": Jeff Stein, "Spy Business Leaves Little Room for Intelligence, " Newsday (December 7, 1995), p. 48.
474 "Perhaps the most compelling": CIA, Gates quoted in John H. Hedley, "The Intelligence Community: Is It Broken? How to Fix It?" Studies in Intelligence (1996), p. 18.
474 no more than ten or fifteen: Walter Pincus, "CIA Chief Cited Loss of Agency's Capabilities, " Washington Post, May 25, 1998.
474 "a sorry blend": Edward G. Shirley, "Can't Anybody Here Play This Game?" The Atlantic Monthly, February 1998.
474 "Not a single Iran-desk chief": ibid.
475 "had few competent Arabic-speaking officers": Letters to the Editor, The Atlantic Monthly, May 1998.
475 "The CIA's spy service": Melvin A. Goodman, "Starting Over at the CIA, " IntellectualCapital.com (Internet magazine), June 17, 1998.
475 "It is fair to say that the cupboard is nearly bare": Walter Pincus, "CIA's Espionage Capability Found Lacking, " Washington Post, May 10, 1998.
475 "huge increase": John Diamond, "Bill Pumps Money into Intelligence, " Associated Press (October 8, 1998).
475 "windfall": Walter Pincus, "Much of Intelligence Funding Will Go to Satellites, " Washington Post, October 23, 1998.
475 "much smaller"; CIA, Gates quoted in Hedley, "The Intelligence Community, " p. 16.
475 "We don't really have a Director": ibid., p. 17.
476 only 15 percent: Vernon Loeb, "Inside Information, " Washingtonpost.com (December 27, 1999).
476 "It is very difficult to exercise"; John 1. Millis address to the Central Intelligence Retirees Association (October 5, 1998).
476 Camp Perry: interview with a senior CIA official (October 22, 1999).
476 "At the end of the day": Vernon Loeb, "Drug Plant Attack on Target, Says CIA Chief, " Washington Post, October 21, 1999, p. A27.
477 Special Collection Service: Unless otherwise noted, this information comes from interviews with senior CIA officials.
477 "As it happened": NSA, Secret/Comint Channels Only, oral history of Dr. Abraham Sinkov (May 1979), p. 119.
478 "1. IDENTIFICATION"; (ARRB).
479 "Yesterday's code clerk": interview with senior CIA official.
479 Springfield Road: Federation of American Scientists, Intelligence Resource Program, at FAS web site http://www.fas.org/irp/facility/cssg.htm (June 21, 2000).
479 live room: Tom Bowman and Scott Shane, "Espionage from the Front Lines, " Baltimore Sun (special series, December 3-5, 1995).
479 "Sometimes that's a very small antenna": "Spy Machines, " Nova (PBS, 1987).
480 "in motion" ... "at rest"; interviews with senior intelligence officials.
480 first transatlantic intercept station: See James Bamford, The Puzzle Palace: A Report on NSA, America's Most Secret Agency (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1982), pp. 155-56.

CHAPTER 12: Heart
Page
481 fifty buildings: NSA, Dana Roscoe, "NSA Hosts Special Partnership Breakfast, " NSAN (January 2000), p. 4.
481 more than $500 million: Baltimore/Washington Corridor Chambergram (March 1989), p. 1.
481 1.5 million square feet: Vice Admiral William Studeman, Address to the Baltimore/ Washington Corridor Chamber of Commerce (June 29, 1990).
481 $152.8 million more: NSA, "Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About NSA but Were Afraid to Ask, " NSAN (July 1994), p. 9.
481 "Were we a corporate company": NSA, videotape, "A Conversation Between Deputy Director for Support Services Terry Thompson and the NSA Techni cal Work Force" (September 30, 1999).
481 NSA's overall budget: These figures were the result of a slip accidentally included in Part Three of the Senate defense appropriations subcommittee's fiscal 1994 hearing volumes.
482 approximately 38, 000 people: This figure is an extrapolation from a chart, "Relative Personnel and Funding Sizes of Major Intelligence Agencies, " contained in the report "Preparing for the 21st Century: An Appraisal of U.S. Intelligence" (March 1, 1996), p. 132. The report was prepared by the Commission on the Roles and Capabilities of the US. Intelligence Community.
482 secret city's own cops: Until 1986 the city was protected by the General Services Administration's Federal Protective Service. That year the GSA delegated protection authority to the director of NSA.
482 3, 850 miles each month: NSA, T. C. Carrington and Debra L. Z. Potts, "Protective Services-More Than Meets the Eye, " NSAN (September 1999), pp. 8-10.
482 Emergency Response: NSA, Andrew Plitt, "Emergency! Emergency!" NSAN (September 1991), pp. 8-9.
482 Emergency Reaction Team: NSA, "Here Come the Men in Black, " NSAN (June 1999), p. 4.
482 Executive Protection Unit: Carrington and Potts, "Protective Services -- More Than Meets the Eye."
482 $4 million screening center: Tanya Jones, "NSA, Fort Meade Await Federal Building Funds, " Baltimore Sun, July 24, 1997.
483 Explosive Detection Canine Unit: NSA, "NSA's Anti-Terrorism Security Measures, " NSAN (February 1999), p. 4.
483 monthly electric bill: NSA, "The National Security Agency: Facts & Figures" (1999). NSA pays more than $21 million a year to the Baltimore Gas and Electric Company.
483 243, 000 pounds: Some of the statistics in this paragraph are from Vice Admiral William Studeman's Address to the Baltimore/Washington Corridor Chamber of Commerce (June 29, 1990).
483 fire department: NSA, "Fire Prevention Week, NSAN (January 2000), p. 11.
483 blood donor program: NSA, "Work/Life Services" (1999). Also NSA, Dana Roscoe, "NSA Hosts Special Partnership Breakfast." Laura Sullivan, "Secret Spy Agency Puts on Human Face, " Baltimore Sun, March 21, 2000.
484 Pathfinder and Touki Bouki· NSA, NSAN (June 1997), p. 12.
484 My Village at Sunset.: NSA, "CLA Film Festival, " NSAN (May 1999), p. 5.
484 Wolof: NSA's keen interest in Wolof likely stems in part from Mauritania's support of Saddam Hussein in Desert Storm. In particular, Saddam sent his wife and other relatives to Mauritania for protection.
484 Wend Kuuni: NSA, "September Film Festival, " NSAN (September 1999), p. 12.
484 Harvest: 3000 Years: NSA, "March CLA 1998 Film Series 'Africa-Asia Month, '" NSAN (March 1998), p. 12.
484 A Mongolian Tale: NSA, "May CLA Film Festival 2000, " NSAN (May 2000), p. 11.
484 more than 105 films in 48 foreign languages: NSA, "CLA Film Library Acquisitions, " NSAN (August 1999), p. 12.
484 its own ticket agency: Baltimore/Washington Corridor Chambergram (March 1989), p. 1.
484 twentieth largest in the country: Vice Admiral William Studeman, Address to the Baltimore/Washington Corridor Chamber of Commerce (June 29, 1990).
484 Children's World: NSA, "Child Care: NSA, the New National Priorities, " NSAN (July 1998), pp. 8-10.
485 "a lot of junk food addicts"; NSA, Sherry Copeland, "A Look 'Inside' NSA's Drugstore, " NSAN (December 1999), pp. 4-5.
485 Arundel Yacht Club: NSA, Club Notes, NSAN (May 2000), p. 16.
485 More than 3, 200 employees: NSA, "NSA's Civilian Welfare Fund, " NSAN (December 1998), p. 10.
485 Family Historians Genealogy Club: NSA, "Family Historians Genealogy Club, " NSAN (February 1999), p. 7.
485 Sex Hormones vs. GS Ratings: NSA, NSAN (August 1996), p. 12.
485 Gay, Lesbian, or Bisexual Employees (GLOBE): NSA, Club Notes, NSAN (February 2000), p. 12.
486 "All American Festival": NSA, "'Agency All-American Festival' Schedule of Events, " NSAN (June 2000), pp. 10-11.
486 "For many years": ibid.
486 eleven cafeterias: NSA, NSAN (June 1998), p. 11.
486 on December 13: NSA, NSAN (February 1994), p. 3.
487 food sales totaled: NSA, NSAN (November 1994) p. 4.
487 SHAPE: NSA, NSAN (August 1993), p. 10; NSA, "SHAPE-Your New Year's Resolution Solution, " NSAN (January 1998), p. 12; NSA, NSAN (December 1998), p. 5; NSA, "Work/Life Services" (1999).
487 Learned Organizations: NSA Crypto-Linguistic Association brochure (February 1973).
488 "Accumulated along every hallway": NSA, Action Line, "Trapped Down Under, " NSAN (April 1995), p. 12.
488 burned-out car: NSA, Action Line, "Let's Talk Trash, " NSAN (August 1999), p. 12.
488 "If I use the south tunnel": NSA, Action Line, "Dark Tunnels and Deserted Stairwells, " NSAN (April 1994), p. 11.
488 the real building: NSA, "On a Clear Day You Can See the Washington Monument?" NSAN (April 1984), pp. 4-5.
488 shielding technique is used throughout much of the city: Barton Reppert, Associated Press, "'Electromagnetic Envelope' for NSA, " Washington Post, March 30, 1984.
490 "NSOC": personal observation.
490 Operation Silkworth: "Silkworth Security Guidelines, " in United Slates if America ex ref. Margaret A. Newsham and Martin Overbeek Bloem v. Lockheed Missiles and Space, Inc., US. District Court, Northern District of California, Civil Act. No. C88-20009.
490 red badge: interview with former NSA official.
490 "clearance status not indicated": ibid.
490 ''After you leave an NSA installation": NSA, For Official Use Only, "NSA Employee Handbook."
490 Visitor Control Center: personal observations.
490 "sinister talons"; NSA, "The National Security Agency Insignia."
490 Aperiodic Inspection Team: NSA, "Protective Services Celebrates 10th Anniversary, " NSAN (October 1996), pp. 8- 9.
491 "Furby Alert"; Vernon Loeb, "A Toy Story of Hairy Espionage, " Washington Post., January 13, 1999.
491 "No Classified Talk!": Personal observations.
491 14, 000 security posters: NSA, Action Line, NSAN (January 1991), p. 11.
492 On the very day: ibid.
492 "a not-too-subtle": ibid.
492 "must find them surreal": NSA, Action Line, NSAN (June 1991) p. 11.
492 "If Cal's identified": Tony Capaccio, "Ripken in a Matter of National Security, "
USA Today, June 6, 1996.
493 "Members of the SSOC": NSA, "Protesters at NSA on the 4th of July, " The
Communicator (August 27, 1996).
494 "an unequivocal success": ibid.
494 "Very efficient": ibid.
494 National Cryptologic Memorial Wall: NSA, Picture This, NSAN (July 1996), p. 7; NSA, "NSA/CSS Memorial Day Observance, " NSAN (July 1997), p. 12.
494 "I drive myself": Interview with Lieutenant General Michael V Hayden (February 2, 2000).
495 his corner office: personal observations during several visits in 2000.
496 "When I've talked": Hayden interview (February 2, 2000).
498 "in consonance": NSA, For Official Use Only, NSA/CSS Regulation No. 10-11, "Release of Unclassified NSA/CSS Information, " Annex B (June 16, 1987), p. B-2.
498 his own "ambassadors": ibid., p. B-3.
499 United States Signals Intelligence Directives: Until 1957 it was known as the Manual of U.S. Sigint Operations (MUSSO). NSA, Top Secret/Codeword, Oral History of Herbert L. Conley (March 5, 1984), p. 87.
499 "pursuing an area": This and the information about Taylor's background come from NSA, "The Newest SALT Members, " The Communicator (April 9, 1996).
499 "Operations encompasses all the activities": NSA, Linda Lewis, "DO and DT Focus Days, " NSAN (January 2000), p. 2.
500 Tiiu Kera: US. Air Force, biography of Major General Tiiu Kera (March 1999).
501 "leadership and management of a newly formed organization": "DOD Distinguished Civilian Service Awards Presented, " Regulatory Intelligence Data (November 4, 1999).
501 NSOC: personal observation during visit in April 2000.
501 USS Cole: interview with senior NSA official.
502 Worldwide Video Teleconferencing Center: NSA, "Across the World-By Video Teleconferencing, " NSAN (September 1998), pp. 4-5.
502 the organization's seal: NSA, "Celebrating a Quarter Century, " NSAN (July 1989), p. 7.
502 "You didn't want NORAD": interview with Lieutenant General Daniel O. Graham (December 1984).
503 "initial analysis and reporting": NSA, "DEFSMAC Dedication, " "Director's Talking Points" (April 7, 1998).
503 more than doubled: "DEFSMAC: A Quiet Hero in Anti-Proliferation Fight, " Intelligence Newsletter (November 26, 1998).
503 "It has all the inputs from all the assets": Harvard University, Center for Information Policy Research, Program on Information Resources Policy, Seminar on Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1980), Raymond T. Tate lecture, p. 30.
503 "DEFSMAC not only detects": interview with former NSA official.
503 "the ... premier": NSA, Chary Izquierdo, welcoming remarks at DEFSMAC Dedication Ceremony (April 7, 1998). .
503 Topol-M single-warhead: David Hoffman, "Russi.an Rocket Explodes in Test, " Washinglon Post, October 24, 1998. See also Sid Balman, Jr., "U.S. Sees More Iranian Tests, " UPI (July 23, 1998).
504 DEFSMAC officials would immediately have sent: NSA, Chary Izquierdo, welcoming remarks at DEFSMAC Dedication Ceremony (April 7, 1998).
504 DIA Alert Center: This is a twenty-four-hour-a-day indications and warning center, responsible for providing time- sensitive intelligence to the secretary of defense, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and others.
504 National Telemetry Processing Center: For the information in this paragraph, I have drawn on NSA, telemetry display, NSA Cryptologic Museum.
505 mobile medical center: NSA, "DRESS Is Going Mobile ... Again!" NSAN (August 1999), pp. 4-5.
505 Oilstock: NSA, "The Docent Book" (January 1996), p. 26.
505 Main Library: NSA, Ann Bubeck, "NSA/CSS Libraries -- 'Putting Knowledge to Work, '" NSAN (April 1997), pp. 4- 5.
505 "an astounding record of successful operations": "DOD Distinguished Civilian Service Awards Presented, " Regulatory Intelligence Data (November 4, 1999).
506 "With today's rapidly evolving": NSA telemetry display, NSA Cryptologic Museum. 506 "Consider that hundreds or thousands of channels": NSA, "Career Opportunities in Signals Analysis" (2000).
506 "Demodulating and unraveling the internal structure": ibid.
506 "extremely sensitive"; NSA, security handout, "NSA Security 'Seal' of Approval" (July 1987).
506 "completely by a black cloth": ibid.
507 "The Malfunctioning Santallite"; NSA, "CWF Holiday Door Decorating Contest, " NSAN (February 2000), p. 16.
507 "Using biometrics for identifying and authenticating": Gerald Lazar, "Agencies Scan Biometrics for Potential Applications, " Federal Computer Week (January 20, 1997).
507 In 1999, NSA installed: Charlotte Adams, "Software Bundles Biometric Solutions, " Federal Computer Week (May 10, 1999).
507 High Security Portal: NSA, "Eye Scans and Key Access Machines, " NSAN (June 1993), p. 5.
508 Automated Key Access Machine: ibid.
508 secure phones: For details on the STU-I, STU-II, and STU-III, see NSA, "The Docent Book" (January 1996), p. 24.
509 Details on the STE: interview with Michael 1. Jacobs (September 23, 2000).
509 it will remain fully secure: ibid.
509 NSA's ACCESS menu: NSA, "ACCESS the NSA/CSS Connection, " NSAN (April 1997), p. 12.
509 Operators average 250, 000 assisted calls: NSA, Kathy Gleason, "Telephone Switching Services (J532), " NSAN (June 2000), p. 6.
510 "because it was the only bidder": Bob Berwin, "Intercepts, " Federal Computer Week (May 11, 1998).
510 Channel 50: NSA, "Multimedia Expo '93, " NSAN (March 1993), p. 4.
510 Television Center: NSA, "On the Air in 5-4-3-2-1..., " NSAN (June 1999), p. 6.
510 "If you enjoy": NSA, "Attention Talk Show Junkies!" NSAN (August 1994), p. 10.
510 On March 25: NSA, "Talk NSA 'On Location, '" NSAN (March 1998), p. 12.
510 "Ask short, straightforward questions": NSA, "How to ... , for Future Day's Worldwide Virtual Event, " The Communicator (October 8, . 1996).
510 6, 000 people ... 36, 711 lines of text: NSA, The Communicator (November 6, 1996).
511 "long before CNN": George Lardner, Jr., "On This Network, All the News Is Top Secret, " Washington Post, March 3, 1992.
511 "If Warren Christopher": William F. Powers, "Cloak and Dagger Internet Lets Spies Whisper in Binary Code, " Washington Post, December 8, 1994.
511 "a major breakthrough": ibid.
512 "Essentially": ibid.
512 "pizza truck" and "a brilliant use of cyberspace": press release, Computer Sciences Corporation, 1998.
512 "Collaboration with our counterparts": Fredrick Thomas Martin, Top Secret Intranet (Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1999), p. 34.
513 Wer'zit!?: ibid., p. 164.
513 WebChat: ibid., p. 186.
513 have caused concern: ibid., p. 189.
514 four separate networks: ibid., pp. 53-55.
514 "Intelink-P": press release, Computer Sciences Corporation, 1998.
514 single largest data repository: Martin, Top Secret Intranet, p. 55.
514 expanding worldwide: ibid., p. 56.
514 Advanced Technology Demonstration Network: Don Clark, "What's Ahead: New Technologies Promise a Quantum Leap in Performance, " Wall Street Journal, November 140, 1994.
515 Fastlane: Charlotte Adams, "Reorg Stresses Schedules, Customers, " Federal Computer week (July 4, 1994), p. 24.
515 "a feast of the world's most": Martin, Top Secret Intranet, p. 270.
515 SIGSUM, ibid.
515 Beamrider: ibid., pp. 272--74.
515 the National SlGINT File: ibid., pp. 276--79.
516 "Is the National Security Agency": U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Appropriations, "Military Construction Appropriations, " Hearings for 1974, 93rd Cong., 1st Sess., p. 466.
516 "That means": General Accounting Office, Report to the Congress by the Comptroller General of the United States, "Oversight of the Government's Security Classification Program-Some Improvements Still Needed, " LCD-81- 13, December 16, 1980, p. 14.
518 "Try to imagine": NSA, "Latest Findings in the Automatic Waste Collection System, " NSdN(ApriI1983), pp. 4-5.
518 In 1998, the agency took in: NSA, Karen Gray, "Reduce + Reuse + Recycle = Good Business, " NSAN (December 1998), pp. 4-5.
519 "The Paper Chase": NSA, "The Paper Chase, " NSAN (September 1999), p. 5.
519 438 tons of metal: NSA, "NSA Does It All and Does It Well!" The Communicator (October 8, 1996).
519 degausser operators: NSA, "New Data on Electromagnetic Field Exposure, " NSAN (February 1999), p. 5.
519 more than 129 million documents: GPO, "Report of the Commission on Protecting and Reducing Government Secrecy" (1997), p. 74.
519 "The sheer number of records": NSA, "E.G. 12958-A Classification Update, " The Communicator, vol. 6, no. 1 (1996).
520 11 million "permanent records": NSA, "Archives and Records Center Gets New Look, " NSAN (March 1991), p. 5.
520 "The German was a past master": Tim Weiner, "Pentagon Spy Agency Bares Some Dusty Secret Papers, " New York Times, April 5, 1996.
520 Automated Declassification System": NSA, The Communicator (Summer 1998).
520 "Sometimes I think we just collect": CIA, John H. Hedley, "The Intelligence Community: Is It Broken? How to Fix It?" Studies in Intelligence (1996), pp. 17-18.
521 CYPRIS microprocessor: NSA, "The CYPRIS Microprocessor, " NSA Technical Fact Sheet (1999).
521 At one time NSA accounted for 50 percent: NSA, Focus Your Intelligence (2000).
521 electron-beam maskmaking: ibid.
522 "The problem of providing power": NSA, "The Microencapsulated Betacell, " NSA Technical Fact Sheet (1999).
522 Robert E. Stevens: SASA, SASA Spring 1997 program, "National Cryptologic
Strategy for the 21st Century."
522 computer wafers to half a micron: NSA, "Wafer and Die Thinning Technology, " NSA Technical Fact Sheet (1999).
522 $2 billion market: "Sigint Is Hot Market, " NCVA Cryptolog (Winter 2000), p. 16.
522 more than 13, 000 contracts: Roscoe, "NSA Hosts Special Partnership Breakfast."
523 J. Michael McConnell: "Roster, " Federal Computer week (April 15, 1996).
523 William P. Crowell: SASA, SASA Spring 1997 program, "National Cryptologic Strategy for the 21st Century."
523 Charles R. Lord: "In Memoriam, " NCVA Cryptolog (Spring 1993), p. 16. Lord died of a cerebral hemorrhage on February 8, 1993.
523 bridge between: SASA was established in April 1979 to "enhance the relationships and understanding among those in government, industry and academe ..." (SASA, SASA Fall 1998 program, "The Emerging Challenge.")
523 2001 budget authorization: Subsequent quotations are drawn from U.S. House of Representatives, Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, Report, Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2001;' 106th Cong., 2nd Sess. (May 16, 2000).
524 "The explosive growth of the global network": NSA, DIRNSA's Desk, NSAN (July 2000), p. 3.
524 "The magnitude of their education"; Interview with Lieutenant General Marshall S. Carter (July 17, 1980).
525 Military Elint Signal Analysis Program: NSA, Picture This, NSAN (September 1992), p. 5.
525 NSA Graduate Studies Center: NSA, "JMIC Graduate Center Dedicated, " NSAN (April 1997), p. 11; NSA, Michael L. Barksdale, "The Part-time Master of Science of Strategic Intelligence Program, " NSAN (December 1999), p. 2.
525 master of science in strategic intelligence: NSA, Mary C. Parker, "A Master's Degree: Yours for the Taking, " NSAN (November 1996), pp; 8-9.
525 largest computerized training; NSA, "NSA Testing Center, " NSAN (May 1993), p. 7.
525 Senior Technical Development Program: NSA, "STDP Class of 1998 Graduates, " NSAN (September 1998), p. 5.
525 "best of the best": ibid.
525 Roadhouse Cafe: NSA, " 'Roadhouse' Rhonda, " NSAN (October 1996), p. 10.
525 $5 million for additional courses: Roscoe, "NSA Hosts Special Partnership Breakfast."
525 "have the potential": NSA, NSA/CSS Office of Contracting, Research Grant; 7/30/84.
526 "His brilliant achievements": NSA, "Frank Rowlett Retires, " NSAN (Special: Edition) (January 1966), p. 1.
526 "This building": NSA, Tom Johnson, "OPS 3 Building Dedicated to Cryptologic Pioneer, " NSAN (March 1999), p. 10.
527 "Despite NSA's size and success": NSA, Confidential/Comint Channels Only, "Beyond Codes and Ciphers: The Expanded Meaning of Cryptology in the Late Twentieth Century, " Cryptologic Quarterly (Winter 1990), pp. 27, 34.
527 "labyrinth of letters": Jorge Luis Borges, "The Library of Babel, " quoted in Emir Rodriguez Monegal, Jorge Luis Borges: A Literary Biography (New York: E.P. Dutton, 1978), p. 26.
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Re: BODY OF SECRETS -- ANATOMY OF THE ULTRA-SECRET NATIONAL

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Part 5 of 5

CHAPTER 13, Soul
Page
528 with between fourteen and eighteen years of experience: Richard Lardner, "The Secret's Out, " Government Executive (August 1998), p. 26.
528 59 percent of the workers are male: NSA, DIRNSA's Desk, NSAN (March 1998), p. 3.
528 Sixty-three percent: NSA, "Deputy Director for Support Services, " NSAN (April 1993). p. 7.
528 13 percent ... 27 percent .. 3.3 percent: NSA, "A Quick True or False Quiz, " NSAN (May 1993), p. 3.
528 four generals and admirals: General Accounting Office report (June 16, 1997), Appendix III.
528 the top 10 percent ... $9, 4 million in air travel ... $65 million in state income taxes: NSA, "Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About NSA But Weren't Allowed to Ask, " NSAN (July 1994), p. 9.
528 largest collection of mathematicians: NSA, Focus Your Intelligence (2000).
529 "She's known as the 'tire lady'": interview with former intelligence official.
529 "There is no dress code at all": Cort Kirkwood, "Our Friendly Neighborhood Colony of Spies, " Baltimore Magazine, reprinted in NCK4, Cryptolog (Winter 1994), pp. 1, 9.
529 Brent Morris: NSA, "From Magic to Math and Back Again, " NSAN (July 1993), p. 7.
529 Eileen Buckholtz: NSA, Read-All-About-It, NSAN (January 1991), p. 16.
529 Frederick Bulinski: NSA, Read-All-About-It, NSAN (November 1992), p. 24.
529 "The results show that the personality": NSA, Gary L. Grantham, Who Is NSA (April 1985), p. 1 (National War College).
530 "This contrasts markedly": ibid., p. 8.
530 "You can always tell an NSA extrovert": Warren P. Strobel, "Incredible 3-Day NSA Computer Failure- - Sound of Silence, " U.S. News &. World Report, February 6, 2000.
530 "The great predominance of introverts"; NSA, Grantham, Who Is NSA, p. 9.
530 "The predominance of thinking types": ibid., p. 11.
531 "The overwhelming preference among NSA managers": ibid.
531 "From my perspective": NSA, "Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About NSA but Weren't Allowed to Ask."
531 "Perhaps one of the first security practices": NSA, NSA Handbook (undated), pp. 1-2.
532 "We in NSA comprise": NSA, "Editorial Comment: Why Work for NSA?" NSA Technical Journal (undated), pp. i-ii.
532 "Your challenge": NSA, recruitment brochure, "If Math Is Your Area of Expertise, We'd Like to Introduce You to Ours" (undated; circa 1998).
532 "The challenge is": Bob Drogin, "Help Wanted: US. Intelligence Agencies Make No Secret of Need for Workers, " Minneapolis Star Tribune, November 16, 1999.
532 "We're looking": ibid.
532 Undergraduate Training Program: NSA, "NSA Salutes 'Father of the Undergraduate Training Program (UTP), '" NSAN (February 1999), p. 2.
533 "It is appalling": NSA, Action Line, NSAN (September 1997).
533 Co-operative Education Program: NSA, "1997 Co-op Graduation, " NSAN (September 1997), p. 12.
533 "Our recruiting strategy has historically been built": NSA, videotape, "A Conversation Between Deputy Director for Services Terry Thompson and the NSA Technical Workforce" (September 30, 1999).
533 initiated a streamlined hiring process: NSA, Cynthia Scourtis, "Hiring for the Future, " NSAN (November 1998), p. 2.
533 e-mail address: Resumes can also be mailed to NSA. P.O.Box 8787, Gaithersburg, MD 20898, or faxed to (301) 947-2086.
534 "they undoubtedly represent": NSA, Confidential/Comint Channels Only, "Beyond Codes and Ciphers: The Expanding Meaning of Cryptology in the Late Twentieth Century, " Cryptologic Quarterly (Winter 1990), p. 31, n. 5.
534 One math major: Internet posting by <proff@iq.org>, "An Interview with the NSA" (February 11, 1999).
535 SSBI: General Accounting Office, "Background Investigations: Impediments to Consolidating Investigation and Adjudicative Function" (1995). In 1992 the NSA spent about $154, 000 on SSBIs. This, however, did not include the costs associated with SSBIs conducted on military personnel assigned to the NSA, which were paid for by the individual military services. General Accounting Office, Classified Information· Costs of Protection Are Integrated with Other Security Costs (October 1993), pp. 11-12.
535 Rob Fuggetta: This account appears in Paul Mandelbaum, "Your Boss Is Spying on You, " Baltimore Magazine (May 1985), pp. 79, 127.
535 NSA officials are fighting a new proposal: "Background Investigations Procedures Change, " Los Angeles Times, April 6, 1998; "Pentagon Security Investigation Backlog, " AFIO Weekly Intelligence Notes (June 11, 1999).
536 900, 000 Investigations: Walter Pincus, "900, 000 People Awaiting Pentagon Security Clearances, " Washington Post, April 22, 2000.
536 94 percent: GAO, National and International Affairs Division, Report B-283901, "DOD Personnel-Inadequate Personnel Security Investigations Pose National Security Risks" (October 27, 1999), p. 8.
536 arrested on October 28 and charged with espionage: Department of Defense, Rear Admiral Craig Quigley news conference (November 30, 1999).
536 allegedly confessing to mailing a computer disk and details on NSA's undersea cable-tapping operations: CBS Evening News (November 29, 1999).
536 "respiration, electro-dermal responses": NSA, NSA/CSS Regulation No. 122-3, "Polygraph Examination and Examiners, " Annex D (April 6, 1984), p. 2.
537 "Polygraph! The word alone": NSA, "To Tell the Truth, " NSAN (October 1994), pp. 8-9.
537 a study at NSA: U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Education and Labor, Subcommittee on Employment Opportunities, Polygraphs in the Workplace: The Use of "Lie Detectors" in Hiring and Firing, 95th Cong., 1st Sess. (1986), pp. 147-70.
537 From July 1983 to June 1984: U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Armed Services, Investigations Subcommittee, Hearing on H.R. 4681 Relating to the Administration of Polygraph Examinations and Prepublication Review Requirements by Federal Agencies, 98th Cong., 2nd Sess. (1984), p. 111.
538 "The worst experience of my life": Kirkwood, "Our Friendly Neighborhood Colony of Spies."
538 "termination of employment": NSA memorandum, "Personnel Security Procedures" (September 27, 1982).
538 four leaks a year: Testimony of the chief of NSA's Operations Directorate Intelligence Staff [name deleted], U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on the Judiciary, Subcommittee on Civil and Constitutional Rights, Presidential Directive on the Use of Polygraphs and Prepublication Review, Hearings, 98th Cong., 1st and 2nd Sess. (1983-1984), p. 150.
538 topics covered during NSA's counterintelligence polygraph examination: NSA, For Official Use Only, NSA/CSS Regulation No. 122-06, Personnel Security Programs for Continued Access (July 29, 1991), p. 4.
539 "the work force at NSA": U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Armed Services, Investigations Subcommittee, Hearing on H.R. 4681 Relating to the Administration of Polygraph Examinations and Prepublication Review Requirements by Federal Agencies, 98th Cong., 2nd Sess. (1984), pp. 46-47.
539 Under the aperiodic exam program: ibid.
539 According to the chief of the Polygraph Division: ibid.
540 an analysis of 20, 511 applicants between 1974 and 1979; US. House of Representatives, Committee on Education and Labor, Subcommittee on Employment Opportunities, Polygraphs in the Workplace; The Use of "Lie Detectors" in Hiring and Firing, 95th Cong., 1st Sess. (1986), pp. 147-70.
541 Polygraph Assisted Scoring System: NSA, "Computerized Swift Decision Making from Multiple Sensor Inputs, " NSA Technology Fact Sheet (1999).
542 "In the near future"; NSA, "To Tell the Truth."
542 Asked whether: US. House of Representatives, Committee on the Judiciary, Subcommittee on Civil and Constitutional Rights, Presidential Directive on the Use of Polygraphs and Prepublication Review, 89th Cong., 1st and 2nd Sess. (1983-1984), p. 59.
542 Senate Select Committee: Walter Pincus, "Senators Question Polygraph Use, " Washington Post, July 24, 1999.
542 "In our situation": ibid.
543 "The Soviets seem to have": White House, Top Secret memorandum, "Discussion at the 463rd Meeting of the National Security Council, October 13, 1960" (DDEL, Ann Whitman File, NSC Series, Box 13).
543 Anderson was also concerned: ibid.
544 GLOBE: NSA, Club Notes, NSAN (October 1999), p. 12; NSA, Club Notes, NSAN (December 1999), p. 12.
544 "Clearly during the Iran-Iraq war": Studeman's comments were made in an address before the Association of Former Intelligence Officers (February 4, 1991), reprinted in NCVA Cryptolog (Fall Extra, 1991), pp. 2, 11.
545 "While standing amongst the weeds": Rodney R. Ingram, "Marietta, Washington, Forty Years Later, " NCVA Cryptolog (March 1994), p. 2.
546 deactivation ceremonies at Edzell: "Final Flag Lowered at RAF Edzell, Scotland, " Dundee (Scotland) Courier & Advertiser (October 1, 1997), p. 1.
546 Kamiseya ordered closed: Jay R. Browne, "Kami Seya -- The Last Years, " NCVA Cryptolog (Fall 1997), p. 43.
546 Eckstein: F. Harrison Wallace, Jr., "The History of Eckstein Border Site 1958-1993." Web posting at http://asa.npoint.net/eckstin.htm (October 2, 2000).
547 "Most of the [intercepted information]": Nicky Hager, Secret Power: New Zealand's Role in the International Spy Network (Nelson, New Zealand: Craig Potton, 1996), pp. 85-88. The Unit was located next to the DSD headquarters building on the grounds of the Australian Department of Defence's Victoria Barracks on St. Kilda Road, Melbourne. 547 Hong Kong: Glenn Schloss, "U.K. Spy Site Razed to Keep Its Secrets, " South China Morning Post, November 30, 1997, p. 4.
547 Planted in the walls: "British 'Bugs' Listen In on Generals, " Intelligence Newsletter (April 23, 1998).
547 "If we can stay at 4, 500": Bill Goodwin, "Overmanned and Expensive to Run?" Electronic Times (November 30, 1995).
548 "'Who remembers what we did": Robert R. Payne, "I Was Never There, But I Remember Skaggs Island , " NCVA Cryptolog (Special Issue 1996), pp. 3-4.
548 "Technology has progressed": Jay R. Browne, "Introduction, " NSGA Cryptolog (Fall 1997), p. 2.
549 a retired Navy cryptologist wrote: Commander Mike Loescher, United States Naval Institute Proceedings (February 2000).
549 "There will continue to be a Naval Security Group": As of 1999, the Naval Security Group operated the following stations. Naval Security Group Detachments: Barbers Point, Hawaii; Brunswick, Maine; Digby, U.K.; London, U.K.; Monterey, California; Pensacola, Florida; South Korea; Yakima, Washington. Naval Security Group Activities: Bad Aibling, Germany; Bahrain; Denver, Colorado; Fort Meade, Maryland; Fort Gordon, Georgia; Groton, Connecticut; Guantanamo Bay, Cuba; Kunia, Hawaii; Medina, Texas; Menwith Hill, UK.; Misawa, Japan; Naples, Italy; Norfolk, Virginia; Northwest, Virginia; Pearl Harbor, Hawaii; Rota, Spain; Sabana Seca, Puerto Rico; San Diego, California; Sugar Grove, West Virginia; Whidbey Island, Washington; Yokosuka, Japan. Naval Security Group Communications Detachment: Washington, D.C., Naval Security Group Support Detachment Four, Edzell, U.K. Naval Security Group Departments: NAVCOMTELSTA Guam; NAVCOMTELSTA Diego Garcia; NAVCOMTEL Area Master Station, Pacific, Wahiawa, Hawaii. See "Security Group Listing, " NCVA Cryptolog (Spring 1999), p. 10.
549 "people [were] stacked almost three deep": Thomas Hasler, "Security Agency Expanding Facilities, " [Baltimore] Evening Sun, June 18, 1982.
549 NSA building projects: Thomas Hasler, "The Secret's Out: Hush-hush NSA Is Expanding, " [Baltimore] Evening Sun, April 23, 1983.
549 what it had been in 1980: CIA, Robert Gates, quoted in John H. Hedley, "The Intelligence Community: Is It Broken? How to Fix It?" Studies in Intelligence (1996), p. 14.
549 number of spy satellites: ibid.
549 "NSA's relative piece": Studeman's comments are from NSA, memorandum, Admiral W. O. Studeman to All Employees (April 8, 1992), pp. 1-2.
549 cut its staff by 17-1/2 percent: NSA, "NSA Transition Book for the Department of Defense" (transition from Bush to Clinton administrations) (December 9, 1992), p. 13.
549 24 percent by 2001: "US. Spy Agencies Bloated, Panel Finds, " Los Angeles Times, March 2, 1996.
549 Brown said that at least: ibid.
549 "We found that the growth of the Agency": Department of Defense, Inspector General, Intelligence Review Directorate, Policy and Oversight Report, "Final Report on the Verification Inspection of the National Security Agency" (February 13, 1996), p. 11.
550 "NSA personnel will be deeply affected": NSA, "NSA Plans for the Future, " NSAN (January 1993), p. 4.
550 A White House study: Commission on the Roles and Capabilities of the United States Intelligence Community, "Preparing for the 21st Century: An Appraisal of US. Intelligence" (March 1, 1996), p. 96.
550 "Employees should": NSA, "NSA Plans for the Future, "
551 "While our neighbors and family members": NSA, Action Line, NSAN (December 1992), p. 11.
551 a bond had been broken: NSA, "Rep. Steny Hoyer Visits NSA, " The Communicator (September 3, 1996).
551 "I had visions": NSA, Secret/Comint Channels Only, Oral History of Dr. Howard Campaigne (June 29, 1983), pp. 130-31.
551 Soft Landing: NSA, Karen Anderson Cianci, "NSA's Soft Landing Program, " NSAN (April 1997), p. 7. See also "Soft Landing for Ex-Spies, " Intelligence Newsletter (September 3, 1998); Defense Information and Electronics Report (August 21, 1998).
551 Barbara Prettyman retired: NSA, "Update on Soft Landing, " NSAN (November, 1998), p. 4.
552 "Four Navy chiefs and one NSA civilian": NSA, "The Magic of CSGs, " The Communicator (March 4, 1996).
552 "I have three": Loch K. Johnson, Secret Agencies: U.S. Intelligence in a Hostile World (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press), p. 21.
553 "There now exists a world full of 'Navajo Code Talkers'": Vice Admiral J. M. McConnell, USN, "New World, New Challenges: NSA Into the 21st Century, " American Intelligence Journal (Spring/Summer 1994), p. 8.
553 fully 58 percent ... 13 percent: CIA, former CIA director Robert Gates, quoted in Hedley, "The Intelligence Community, p. 11.
553 asked fifteen colleges: Mark Mayfield, "Feds Recruit Students to Study Russian, " USA Today, September 13, 1983, p. 3A.
553 a shortage of Berber translators led to a critical delay: Frank Greve, "Linguist Might Have Averted Fatal Disco Terrorist Bombing, " Knight-Ridder News Service (November 28, 1986).
553 "steadily deteriorating language training": ibid.
554 "a group of approximately 125 linguists": Al Kamen, "Join the Army and See Sarajevo, " Washington Post, May 4, 1993, p. 19.
554 "When Haiti blew up": NSA videotape, "A Conversation between Deputy Director for Services Terry Thompson and the NSA Technical Work Force" (September 30, 1999).
554 the tedium of the job: Kirkwood, "Our Friendly Neighborhood Colony of Spies."
554 Florida A&M University: "Language Program with Spy Ties, " Intelligence Newsletter (December 16, 1992).
555 "NSA is faced with the growing problem": NSA, "Multi-Lingual Document Image Analysis, " NSA Technical Fact Sheet (1995).
555 The machine was eventually able: Colin Campbell, " 'Intelligent' Computer Reads Many Typefaces, " New York Times, August 19, 1984, p. 22.
555 SYSTRAN: SYSTRAN Software, Inc., fact sheet (undated), pp. 2, 9.
555 NSA has also developed a technique: NSA, "Information Sorting and Retrieval by Language or Topic, " Technology Fact Sheet (1999).
556 Semantic Forests: Suelette Dreyfus, "Spies in the 'Forests, '" The Independent (November 22, 1999).
556 Berger-Liaw Neural Network, University of Southern California Press Release #0999025 (September 30, 1999).
557 "It's a good-size problem": Interview with Lieutenant General Michael V. Hayden (February 2, 2000).
557 "Group Three languages": ibid.
557 "We need to hire a lot more people": NSA videotape, "A Conversation between Deputy Director for Services Terry Thompson and the NSA Technical Work Force" (September 30, 1999).
558 In a series of lectures at NSA: NSA, National Cryptologic School, The Friedman Lectures on Cryptology (1965).
558 "The philosophy here": Neal Thompson, "Call for Mathematicians No Secret, " Baltimore Sun, January 10, 1998.
558 "the agency succumbed": NSA, Confidential/Comint Channels Only, "Beyond Codes and Ciphers: The Expanded Meaning of Cryptology in the Late Twentieth Century, " Cryptologic Quarterly (Winter 1990), pp. 27-29.
558 "irrelevant to (and unintelligible to)": ibid.
559 "The Cold War": Thompson, "Call for Mathematicians."
559 "Over a three-year period": ibid.
559 42 percent fewer graduates: interview with Michael J. Jacobs (September 23, 2000).
559 "I have been here at NSA": This and the following quotations are drawn from U.S. Department of Defense, Office of the Inspector General, "Review of Hiring and Promotion Practices at the National Security Agency" (1994), pp. 56-- 57.
560 "The philosophy": ibid., p. 20.
560 Southwestern Recruiting Office: ibid., p. 17.
560 in 1993 women made up: U.S. House of Representatives, Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, Hearing, Central Intelligence Agency, Defense Intelligence Agency and National Security Agency: Minority Hire, Retentions and Promotions, 103rd Cong., 1st Sess. (1994), p. 2.
561 "we have probably": ibid., pp. 27-33.
561 encouraging his recruiters to make: U.S. House of Representatives, Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, Hiring, Promotion, Retention and Overall Representation of Minorities, Women and Disabled Persons Within the Intelligence Community, 103rd Cong., 2nd Sess. (1995), pp. 61-63.
561 fewer than 200: NSA, "Director Appears on TALK NSA, " The Communicator (June 19, 1996). There was a projection of 500 hires for 1996.
561 "So far I haven't gone to court": U.S. House of Representatives, Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, Hiring, Promotion, Retention and Overall Representation of Minorities, Women and Disabled Persons Within the Intelligence Community, 103rd Cong., 2nd Sess. (1995), p. 124.
561 presentation by storyteller Penny Gamble Williams: NSA, Jennifer Pelletier, "The Native American/Alaskan Employment Program, " NSAN (November 1999), pp. 8-9.
562 6917 Electronic Security Group: NSA, From the Director's Desk, The Communicator( March 12, 1996).
562 one of his chief assignments: R. Jeffrey Smith, "Military Men Named to Top Intelligence Posts, " Washington Post, January 25, 1996, p. 9.
562 "They would use the phrase": NSA, Top Secret/Comint Channels Only, Oral History of Lieutenant General Kenneth A. Minihan (March 8, 1999), pp. 1-26.
562 "It .. really surprised me": ibid.
563 "He was a 'geek'": Fredrick Thomas Martin, Top Secret Intranet (Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1999), pp. 271-72.
563 "The DDIR [deputy director] is part of the seducing": NSA, Top Secret/Comint Channels Only, Oral History of Lieutenant General Kenneth A. Minihan (March 8, 1999), pp. 1-26.
563 "I was very disruptive": ibid.
563 "My first two or three weeks": ibid.
564 "You could hear the groans": ibid.
564 "Ann knew": NSA, Top Secret/Talent/Keyhole/Umbra, Oral History of Admiral Bobby Ray Inman (June 18, 1997).
564 "I am honored to have been sworn in before you today": NSA, "Day of Celebration, " NSAN (January 1998), p. 4.
564 race and gender issues: In 1998 Asian Pacific Americans (APAs) comprised only 1.3 percent of the NSA workforce, compared to 3.9 percent of the federal workforce. Between 1990 and 1996 NSA hired 89 APAs. See NSA, "Come Celebrate Asian Pacific American Heritage Month, " NSAN (May 1998), p. 8.
565 By 1997: The material in this and the following paragraphs draws on Scott Wilson, "NSA's Quest for Diversity Called Threat, " Baltimore Sun, July 6, 1997.
565 the government later settled with him [Sonntag]: James C. Ho, "A Year of Bill Lan Lee, " op-ed article in Washington Times, December 24, 1998.
565 Mary Ann Sheehy: NSA, Office of the Inspector General, Report CO-94-0317 (April 18, 1996); interview with Mary Ann Sheehy. At NSA, "Personnel Employment Information" is defined in NSA/CSS PMM 30-2, chapter 303, paragraphs 1-4 and 2-2(b), as "information contained in an employee's Official Personnel Folder and limited to
1. Name and present or forwarding address
2. Present and past position titles, grades, tenure, and salaries
3. Civil service status, if applicable
4. Date and reason for separation, if applicable, and
5. Comments provided by management constituting a letter of reference
566 "I am quite concerned about this": NSA letter from Dr. Michael J. Wigglesworth, clinical psychologist, to Mary McGowan (October 5, 1994).
567 "no evidence of improper or illegal activity": NSA, letter from Reginald J. Bowman, Senior Assistant Inspector General for Investigations to Mary Ann Sheehy (April 18, 1996).
567 "NSA believes it is above the law"; Letter, Mary Ann Sheehy to Attorney General Janet Reno (May 17, 1999),
567 "While we sympathize": letter from Department of Justice, Criminal Division, to Mary Ann Sheehy (November 26, 1999).
567 The U.S. Attorney's Office responded: letter from United States Attorney, District of Maryland, Northern Division, to Mary Ann Sheehy (April 13, 2000).
567 The U.S. Attorney's Office eventually dismissed her complaint: letter from United States Attorney, District of Maryland, Northern Division, to Mary Ann Sheehy (April 26, 2000).
567 "You should look for another job": interview with Mary Ann Sheehy (September 22, 2000).
567 "all parts of the Agency together with ideas": NSA, Lieutenant General Kenneth A. Minihan, From the Director's Desk, NSAN (January 1998), p. 3.
567 "I think it's magnificent": NSA, Top Secret/Comint Channels Only, Oral History of Lieutenant General Kenneth A. Minihan (March 8, 1999), p. 8.
568 "No one will work harder": NSA, Lieutenant General Kenneth A. Minihan, From the Director's Desk, NSAN (April 1996), p. 3.
568 "Out-of-the-box thinking": NSA, From the Director's Desk, The Communicator (March 12, 1996).
568 Skunk Works: NSA, "Skunk Works, " The Communicator (April 16, 1996).
568 "Now is the time for Team NSA": NSA, Lieutenant General Kenneth A. Minihan, From the Director's Desk, NSAN (January 1997), p. 3.
568 "Where are my hip boots?": NSA, Action Line, NSAN (March 1997), p. 11.
569 "We now have people talking about both sides": Terry L. Thompson in "Terry L. Thompson, Deputy Director for Support Services, " NSAN (September 1997), p. 4.
569 "very large changes": Walter Pincus, "Panel Ties NSA Funds to Changes at Agency, " Washington Post, May 7, 1998.
570 "The NSA FY 1997 financial statements": "Black Money Hole, " Federal Computer Week (August 31, 1998).
570 "cannot track allocations": Pincus, "Panel Ties NSA Funds to Changes."
570 In a plan approved in late April: U.S. Department of Defense News Release, "DOD Announces Reorganization of C31 Office" (May 13, 1998). See also Richard Lardner, "The Secret's Out, " p. 27.
570 seriously mismanaging: NSA, "The Agency's CIO, " NSAN (July 1998), p. 2.
571 "Just as control of industrial technology": NSA, Lieutenant General Kenneth A. Minihan, From the Director's Desk, NSAN (November 1997), p. 3.
571 "Information will give us the power to pick all the locks": Major General Kenneth A. Minihan, USAF, "The Challenge for Intelligence, " American Intelligence Journal (Spring/Summer 1995), p. 38.
571 "Information dominance for America": NSA, Top Secret/Comint Channels Only, Oral History of Lieutenant General Kenneth A. Minihan (March 8, 1999), pp. 6-7.
571 "Though new technologies provide": NSA, DIRNSA's Desk, NSAN (July 1998), p. 3.
571 "Information warfare poses a strategic risk"; NSA, Lieutenant General Kenneth A. Minihan, From the Director's Desk, NSAN (May 1996), p. 3.
572 "The committee believes"; Vernon Loeb, "A Key Panel Asks: 'Why Only One Spy Probe?" Washington Post, July 7, 1999.
572 "Looking back": Richard Lardner, "New National Security Agency Director Sure to Face Major Challenges, " Inside the Pentagon (November 5, 1998).
572 "It's the hardest job I've ever had"; NSA, Top Secret/Comint Channels Only, Oral History of Lieutenant General Kenneth A. Minihan (March 8, 1999), p. 24.
572 "I think it will be catastrophic": ibid., p. 17.
572 Minihan walked between: NSA, "Agency Events Celebrate Distinguished Career of Lt. Gen. Minihan, " NSAN (May 1999), p. 2.
572 chilly air of retirement; Minihan became president and chief operating officer of TeleHub Communications Corporation, a provider of voice, video, and data to ATM networks worldwide. "TeleHub Communications, Inc., Secures 'Million Dollar' Men, " Canadian Corporate News (July 7, 1999).
573 near the kitchen is a plaque: Personal observation.
573 outside contractors: NSA, Dana Roscoe, "NSA Hosts Special Partnership Breakfast, " NSAN (January 2000), p. 4.
573 Groundbreaker: Vernon Loeb, "NSA to Turn Over Non-Spy Technology to Private Industry, " Washington Post, June 7, 2000.
573 "more than 3, 000": NSA, Dana Roscoe, "NSA Hosts Special Partnership Breakfast."
574 "information technology infrastructure": Loeb, "NSA to Turn Over Non-Spy Technology."
574 "They're buying all those new toys"; Neal Thompson, "Putting NSA Under Scrutiny, " Baltimore Sun, October 18, 1998.
574 "the intelligence failure": ibid.
574 "There is a significant amount of concern": NSA, videotape, "A Conversation Between Deputy Director for Services Terry Thompson and the NSA Technical Work Force" (September 30, 1999).
575 Employee Assistance Service: NSA, "NSA's Helping Hand, " NSAN (January 1999), p. 5.
575 "It's a real worry": Richard Lardner, "The Secret's Out, " p. 24.
575 "Our hiring program skims"; NSA, videotape, "A Conversation Between Deputy Director for Services Terry Thompson and the NSA Technical Work Force" (September 30, 1999).
576 "While average starting salaries": U.S. Department of Commerce, "America's New Deficit: The Shortage of Information Technology Workers" (1997).
576 "the unique nature of our work": Arik Hesseldahl, "Uncle Sam Wants Spooks, " Wired News (October 26, 1998).
576 "This is simply insufficient": Commission on the Roles and Capabilities of the United States Intelligence Community, report, "Preparing for the 21st Century: An Appraisal of U.S. Intelligence" (March 1, 1996), pp. 96-97.
576 "Our budget has declined"; NSA, videotape, "A Conversation Between Deputy Director for Services Terry Thompson and the NSA Technical Work Force" (September 30, 1999).
577 "The nose is pointing down": "Federal Bytes, " Federal Computer week (February 3, 1997).

CHAPTER 14: Brain
Page
578 "I had five and a half acres": interview with Lieutenant General Marshall S. Carter (July 17, 1980).
578 "It's double that today": interview with an NSA official.
580 SSA's cryptanalytic: Army Security Agency, Top Secret/Ultra report, "The Achievement of the Signal Security Agency in World War II" (February 20, 1945), p. 16.
581 "The author believes": NSA, J. T. Pendergrass, "Cryptanalytic Use of High-Speed Digital Computing Machines" (1946), pp. 1-2.
581 "We had the biggest collection": NSA, Secret/Comint Channels Only, Oral History of Dr. Howard Campaigne (June 29, 1983), pp. 75, 89.
582 "A copy of this report hit my desk": Sam Snyder, "Sam and Ray and Abner, " The Phoenician (a publication of the Phoenix Society, the association of NSA retirees) (Winter 1995-1996), pp. 13-14. '
582 "We chose the name": ibid.
582 "From then on"; NSA, Tom Johnson, "The Plan to Save NSA" (undated NSA brochure issued upon the death of Dr. Louis Tordella), pp. 7-8.
583 PACE 10: NSA, "The Docent Book" (January 1996), p. 25.
583 "Dammit, I want you fellows": NSA, "Influence of U.S. Cryptologic Organizations on the Digital Computer Industry" (May 1977), pp. 1-28.
583 "After the ideas of Harvest": NSA, Secret/Comint Channels Only, Oral History of Dr. Howard Campaigne (June 29, 1983), p. 62.
583 "We were always surprised": ibid., pp. 73-74, 76.
584 "In the late sixties": ibid., pp. 74, 88, 95.
584 to less than 4 percent: NSA, Top Secret/Comint Channels Only, Oral History of Lieutenant General Kenneth A. Minihan (March 8, 1999), p. 3.
584 "What the research-and-development people": NSA, Secret/Comint Channels Only, Oral History of Dr. Howard Campaigne (June 29, 1983), pp. 83-84.
585 "There is no such thing": ibid., p. 104.
585 "All those committee chairs were very friendly in those days": NSA, Arthur Levenson quoted in "Louis Tordella: As Colleagues Remember Him, " Cryptolog (Spring 1996), p. 13.
585 "We didn't have any in those days": Cecil Corry quoted in ibid.
585 "We had in the past": NSA, Secret/Comint Channels Only, Oral History of Dr. Howard Campaigne (June 29, 1983), p. 73.
586 " As the computers became": NSA, Top Secret/Comint Channels Only, Oral History of Dr. Solomon Kullback (August 26, 1982), p. 136.
586 "The idea ... was to have": NSA, Secret/Comint Channels Only, Oral History of Dr. Howard Campaigne (June 29, 1983), p. 62.
586 "He didn't interfere with us": ibid" p. 85.
586 "IBM regarded it as": ibid., p. 62.
587 "It was clear to us": ibid" p. 64.
587 "You save enough": NSA, Top Secret/Comint Channels Only, Oral History of Dr. Solomon Kullback (August 26 1982), p. 129.
588 not only: Details of Harvest are from NSA, "HARVEST: NSA's Ultra High-Speed Computer, " Cryptologic Milestones (November 1968), pp. 1-4.
588 "there was little purpose": White House, Top Secret/Eyes Only memorandum, "Discussion at the 378th Meeting of the National Security Council, August 27, 1958" (August 28, 1958), p. 2. (DDEL, Ann Whitman Files, NSC, Box 10). See also CIA, Top Secret/Eider memorandum, Huntington D. Sheldon to Andrew J. Goodpaster (January 19, 1959) (DDEL, Office of Staff Secretary, Intelligence, Box 15).
588 CRITICOMM: NSA, "The SIGINT Communications System, " Cryptologic Milestones (September 1965), pp. 1-4; Tom Johnson, "The Plan to Save NSA."
589 Rye: NSA, "Remote-Access Computer Systems, " Cryptologic Milestones (August 1965), pp. 1-4.
589 "It's beautiful, but it doesn't work": NSA, Top Secret/Comint Channels Only, Oral History of Dr. Solomon Kullback (August 26, 1982) (comment by Robert D. Farley, pp. 133-34).
589 "The Soviet Union could achieve": White House, Top Secret/Noforn, "Report of the Computer Panel of the President's Science Advisory Committee" (September 11, 1959), p. 3.
590 "expensive love seat": interview with an NSA official.
590 "is to supercomputers": Phillip Elmer-DeWitt, "Fast and Smart, " Time, March 28, 1988, pp. 54-57.
591 "I work when I'm at home": ibid., p. 57.
591 Engineering Research Associates: See Erwin Tomash and Arnold A. Cohen, "The Birth of an ERA: Engineering Research Associates, Inc., 1946-1955, " Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 1, no. 2 (October 19, 79), pp. 83-96.
592 Butterfly processor ... about 1 million: "New Computer, " Aviation Week (April 15, 1985), p. 13.
592 Details on the CRAY-2: Philip Elmer-DeWitt, "A Sleek, Superpowered Machine, " Time, June 17, 1985, p. 53.
593 "we should be at 100 billion gigaflops": IBM vice president Irving Wladawsky-Berger quoted in Elmer-Dewitt, "Fast and Smart, " p. 58.
593 Ncube: "Faster Than a Speeding Chip, " Newsweek, March 28, 1988, p. 63.
594 ETA 10: "Filter Center, " Aviation week (July 13, 1987), p. 147; "Fast Computer in a Small Package, " Insight (July 18, 1988), p. 54.
594 all of humanity: William B. Scott, "Los Alamos Carries Research Beyond All Physical Boundaries, " Aviation week (July 25, 1988), p. 36.
594 minutes of a Department of Defense study group: Keith Bradsher, "Industries Seek Protection as Vital to U.S. Security, " New York Times, January 19, 1993.
595 "US. firms would be most fortunate": David E. Sanger, "A High Tech Lead in Danger, " New York Times, December 18, 1988.
595 National Semiconductor: "Electronic Intelligence, " Aviation Week (April 19, 1989), p. 86.
595 20, 000 square feet: NSA, "Microelectronics Completes the Circuit, " NSAN (November 1989), p. 8.
595 "If a hostile agent": William D. Marbach, "Developments to Watch, " Business. Week (April 3, 1989), p. 110.
596 CRAY-3: John Markoff, "A Computer Star's New Advance, " New York Times, February 17, 1994.
597 ETA Systems: Charles 1. Murray, The Supermen (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1997), p. 196.
597 the outer frame for the SS-1; ibid., p. 211.
597 Details on Frostberg: NSA, NSA Museum.
597 the agency awarded: William M. Bulkeley, "Technology: Cray Computer Gets U.S. Pact, " wall Street Journal, August 18, 1994.
597 "the world's ultimate": John Markoff, "A Spy Agency Gives Contract to Cray Computer, " New York Times, August 18, 1994.
598 Splash 2: NSA, "A New Direction in High Performance Computing, " NSA Technical Fact Sheet (1993).
598 "start from a clean sheet of paper": Murray, The Supermen, p. 219.
599 meterological centers in Australia, Canada, England: John Markoff, "Cray Said to Have Lost Sale Because Offer Was Inferior, " New York Times, August 28,
1997.
599 "Simply put, Cray Research lost": ibid. After the contract was awarded to NEC, Cray Research accused the Japanese company of "dumping" its computer in the United States. Political pressure was also exercised in favor of Gray, and in 1997 the US. International Trade Commission ruled unanimously against NEC, saying, in essence, that the Japanese were selling four machines for the price of one. 599 "The rules changed when it became clear": Alexander Wolfe and Loring Wirbel, "Quirky Gray Hailed for Vision, Tenacity, " Electronic Engineering Times (October 14, 1996), p. 1.
599 "In the days before": ibid.
600 "There are no other major players left standing": Steve Alexander, "SGI Will Buy Cray Research: Supercomputer Firm Has Price Tag of $736 Million, " Minneapolis Star Tribune, February 27, 1996.
600 "We don't have a lot of innovative architects": John Markoff, "A Maverick Builds a New Supercomputer in a PC World, " New York Times, February 9, 1998.
600 "Burton's folly": ibid.
600 "Most people": ibid.
600 "Burton Smith is the last": ibid.
601 "The question was": Jaikumar Vijayan, "SGI Results Worse Than Expected; McCracken Out, Layoffs Planned, " Computerworld (November 3, 1997), p. 3.
601 Its stock had plunged: "Silicon Graphics Will Spin Off Cray, Cut Up to 3, 000 Jobs in Restructuring, " Minneapolis Star Tribune, August 11, 1999.
601 "The United States is committed": "U.S. Government to Support SGI Vector Supercomputer, " Mainframe Computing (November 1, 1999).
602 Tera Computer acquired Cray Research from SGI: "Tera Computer Company to Acquire Supercomputer Pioneer Cray from SGI, " Business Wire (March 2, 2000).
602 One report said: Steve Alexander, "Struggling Firm Buys Struggling Cray Research, " Minneapolis Star Tribune, March 3, 2000.
602 upgrade a CRAY T3E-1200 supercomputer: "Cray Inc. Lands $18.5 Million U.S. Army Contract for One of World's Most Powerful Supercomputers, " Business Wire (May 10, 2000).
602 Tordella Supercomputer Facility: NSA, Dedication brochure (October 29, 1996), p. 4; NSA, Tom Johnson and Jerome Taylor, "Tordella Supercomputer Facility Transition Begins, " NSAN (January 1997), p. 4.
603 RS/6000 SP: Daniel Verton, "IBM Upgrades SP Server, " Federal Computer Week (February 8, 1999).
603 Automated Cartridge System: NSA, "The Docent Book, " p. 26.
603 robotic arm: ibid.
604 5 trillion pages of text: John Mintz, "The Secret's Out: Covert E-Systems Inc. Covets Commercial Sales, " Washington Post, October 24, 1994.
604 Supercomputer Research Center: NSA, "Questions and Answers with Regard to the Supercomputer Research Center, " pp. 1-5.
604 According to Lieutenant General Lincoln D. Faurer: Rudolph A. Pyatt, Jr., "R&D Center Set for PG., " Washington Post, November 28, 1984.
604 10, 000 times faster: ibid.
604 $12 million on a twenty-acre site: "Gray Inc. Lands $18.5 Million U.S. Army Contract."
604 part of the Institute: For further details, see James Bamford, The Puzzle
Palace: A Report on America's Most Secret Agency (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1982), pp. 342-43.
605 "That one piece of equipment": NSA, "NSA Research Institute, " Cryptologic Milestones (March 1965), p. 2.
605 IDA-C31: General Accounting Office, "Federally Funded R&D Centers: Information on the Size and Scope of DOD- sponsored Centers" (Apri1 1996), p. 24.
605 Laboratory for Physical Sciences: NSA, Lois G. Brown, "The Laboratory for Physical Sciences, " NSAN (November 1996), p. 6.
606 "We don't know": Jayson T. Blair, "Spy Agency Toils Quietly on Campus, " Washington Post, July to, 1997.
606 magnetic microscopy: NSA, "Applications of Magnetic Microscopy to Magnetic Recording, " NSA Technical Fact Sheet (1999).
606 synthetic diamonds: NSA, "NSA Pioneers New Diamond-Based Technology, " NSAN (November 1999), p. 4.
606 Project Oceanarium: Fredrick Thomas Martin, Top Secret Intranet (Upper Saddle River, NJ.: Prentice Hall, 1999), p. 275.
606 microscopic magnets: John Markoff, "Tiny Magnets May Bring Computing Breakthrough, " New York Times, January 27, 1997.
607 "A spy could remove": Charles C. Mann, "The Mole in the Machine, " New York Times Magazine (July 25, 1999).
607 drive-controlled disk sanitization device: NSA, "Drive Controlled Disk Sanitization, " NSA Technology Fact Sheet (1999).
608 femtoseconds: a femtosecond is one millionth of a nanosecond.
608 Blue Gene: Justin Gillis, "IBM to Put Genetics on Fast Track, " Washington Post, June 3, 2000; Steve Lohr, "IBM Plans Supercomputer That Works at Speed of Life, " New York Times, December 6, 1999.
608 "It will suck down"; Gillis, "IBM to Put Genetics on Fast Track."
608 "It is the greatest play box": Richard Lardner, "The Secret's Out, " Government Executive (August 1998), p. 24.
609 seventy of them would fit: The SPL reduced the feature size (the smallest dimension of any feature of an ASIC, typically the transistor gate length) of an ASIC to 0.5 micron.
609 size of a small suitcase: NSA, "NSA Pioneers New Diamond-Based Technology."
609 fit into a cube six inches on a side: ibid.
609 about $4 million a year: Tom Siegfried, "Computers Poised for a Quantum Leap, " Dallas Morning News, March 16, 1998.
610 "On paper, at least": Lov K. Grover, "Quantum Computing, " The Sciences (July/August 1999).
610 "bust": NSA, Top Secret/Umbra, Cryptolog (March 1982).
610 A breakthrough into quantum computing: John Markoff, "Quantum Computing Is Becoming More Than Just a Good Idea, " New York Times, April 28, 1998.
610 rudimentary electronic logic gates: John Markoff, "Computer Scientists Are Poised for Revolution on a Tiny Scale, " New York Times, November 1, 1999.
611 wires less than a dozen atoms across: ibid,
611 "It looked for a long time like a solution": Siegfried, "Computers Poised for a Quantum Leap. "
611 "What's intriguing is that"; Markoff, "Quantum Computing Is Becoming More Than Just a Good Idea."
611 moletronics: C. P. Collier, E. W. Wong, M. Belohradsk, "Electronically Configurable Molecular-Based Logic Gates, " Science (July 16, 1999), pp. 391-94; John Markoff, "Chip Designers Search for Life After Silicon, " New York Times, July 19, 1999.
611 "A single molecular computer": John Markoff, "Tiniest Circuits Hold Prospect of Explosive Computer Speeds, " New York Times, July 16, 1999.
611 "We have made a big step": Yoshiko Hara, "Computers Make a Quantum Leap, " EE Times (July 6, 1999).
612 "great leap forward" meetings: Ivars Peterson, "Pentacrunchers, " Science News (April 15, 1995), p. 23.
612 "I don't think": ibid.
612 E coli.: ibid.
612 "We would like to make processors": Markoff, "Chip Designers Search for Life After Silicon."
612 "motors" out of DNA: Andrew Pollack, "Researchers Harness DNA for Tiny Motors That Could Widen Use of Genetic Code, " New York Times, August 10, 2000.
612 according to Bell Labs physicist Bernard Yurke: ibid.

Afterword
Page
614 "This is Morning Edition": Bob Edwards, Morning Edition, National Public Radio (September 11, 2001).
614 "This is not the first time": Michael Sullivan, "Death in Afghanistan, " Morning Edition, National Public Radio (September 11, 2001).
614 For highly cleared visitors: Interview with an intelligence official.
615 Khalil had become: Details on Ziyad Khalil are derived from Mark Morris, "Jihad phone linked to former Missouri student, " Kansas City Star (September 19, 2001).
616 sent word from London: Details concerning the calls between London and Afghanistan are derived from Vernon Loeb, "NSA Intercepts Are Foundation of Bombing Case, " Washington Post (January 8, 2001).
616 currently waiting extradition: Details concerning the legal status of the embassy bombing suspects are derived from United States Attorney, Southern District of New York, Press Release, May 29, 2001.
616 listening post ... at Geraldton: Australia's station at Geraldton: Frank Cranston, "Australia's Plans for New Listening Post, " Jane's Defense Weekly (April 4, 1987), p. 582.
616 One such call, picked up by NSA: Neil A. Lewis and David Johnston, "Jubilant Calls on Sept. 11 Led to F.B.I. Arrests, " New York Times, (October 28, 2001).
617 blue, four-door Toyota, "We saw them every day": "Many Recall Terror Suspects, " Atlanta Journal-Constitution (September 20, 2001).
618 "It's like a neighborhood": Brooke A. Masters, Leef Smith, and Michael D. Shear, "Dulles Hijackers Made Maryland Their Base, " Washington Post (September 19, 2001).
618 "He used the dryer in the back": Hamil R. Harris, "Possible Ties to Attacks Cast Shadow on Laurel, " Washington Post (September 27, 2001).
618 Mohamed Atta used a supermarket: "Hijackers' Money Trail Again Points to Laurel, " WEAL (Baltimore) News Report (October 3, 2001), p. 6.
618 Hani Hanjour took flying lessons: Brooke A. Masters, Leef Smith, and Michael D. Shear, "Dulles Hijackers Made Maryland Their Base, " Washington Post (September 19, 2001).
618 "They blended in pretty well": ibid.
618 Ziad Jarrah, "Is there really a devil?" Pin-Del Motel: Laura Vonella, "Terror Trail Brings FBI to County Men Who Stayed at Motels, " Baltimore Sun (September 20, 2001).
619 "Good Morning"; this and subsequent quotes from flight crew aboard Flight 11 and the air traffic controllers are derived from: "Transcripts of Flights 11 and 175, " New York Times (October 16, 2001).
619 3.1 million parts; 23, 980 gallons of fuel; enough to fill the tanks of 1, 200 minivans: Boeing 767 Fact Sheet, The Boeing Company.
620 "When his hands were dirty"; Ogonowski's background: Dave Weber and Ed Hayward, "Pilot's Greatest Love Was His Family, " Boston Herald (September 12, 2001).
620 "Don't do anything foolish": Mark Clayton, "Controller's Tale of Flight 11, " Christian Science Monitor (September 13, 2001).
621 "American seventy-seven, Dulles tower"; this and subsequent quotes from flight crew aboard Flight 77 and the air traffic controllers are derived from: "Transcript of Flight 77, " New York Times (October 16, 2001).
621 "Good luck.... I usually say": "Get These Planes on the Ground, " 20/20, ABC News (October 24, 2001).
623 around 700 miles per hour: Glen Johnson, "Timeline Shows Fighters Were Closing on Jets, " Boston Globe (September 19, 2001).
623 Sharing an armrest: Information concerning Mark Bingham, Tom Burnett, and Jeremy Glick is derived from Karen Breslau, "The Final Moments of United Flight 93, " Newsweek (September 22, 2001).
624 Details on George Tenet's breakfast derived from: Barbara Slavin and Susan Page, "CIA Recovering After Failure to Prevent Attacks, " USA Today (October 2, 2001).
624 a shaken flight attendant managed to telephone: Peter Finn and Charles Lane, "Will Gives a Window into Suspect's Mind, " Washington Post (October 6, 2001).
624 Details on Steve McIntyre and the employees of the American Bureau of Shipping are derived from: John McLaughlin and Alison Bate, "Cheating Death, " Lloyds List (September 17, 2001).
625 Jules and Gedeon Naudet: "ABC Halts Replay of WTC Attacks, " Daily News (September 19, 2001).
625 "Oh my God, all my people"; "Oh, shit": John McLaughlin and Alison Bate, "Cheating Death, " Lloyds List (September 17, 2001).
627 "This just in": Live at Daybreak, Cable News Network (September 11, 2001).
627 "I just witnessed": ibid.
628 Christopher Hanley ... worked for a division of Reuters: Sukhdev Sandhu, "Aliens and Others, " London Review of Books (October 4, 2001).
628 Hanley called fire rescue: "Second-by-Second Terror Revealed in Calls to 911, " New York Daily News (September 30, 2001).
628 Cantor Fitzgerald employee called: "Second-by-Second Terror Revealed in Calls to 911, " New York Daily News (September 30, 2001).
628 Ian Schneider background; called his wife: "Lives Remembered, Ian Schneider, Kept Everyone Laughing, " [New Jersey] Star-Ledger (October 5, 2001); Janny Scott, "In Neckties or Fire Helmets, Victims Shared a Work Ethic, " New York Times (November 4, 2001).
628 Schneider ... called fire rescue: "Second-by-Second Terror Revealed in Calls to 911, " New York Daily News (September 30, 2001).
628 "It's the other building"; this and subsequent quotes from Beverly Eckert and Sean Rooney are derived from: Michael Howerton, "Bittersweet Goodbye; Stamford Widow Finds Solace in Final Phone Call, " Stamford Advocate (Date not available).
629 His cell phone went off: "Get These Planes on the Ground, " 20/20, ABC News (October 24, 2001).
630 "We lost him, too": 20/20, ABC News (October 24, 2001).
630 "It appears that there is more": Good Morning America, ABC News (September 11, 2001).
630 "My God!"; "That looks like a second": ibid.
631 "I couldn't believe"; "Well, I better get out": Weekend Magazine, MSNBC (date unavailable).
633 "A second plane has hit the World Trade Center": Howard Fineman and Martha Brant, "This Is Our Life Now, " Newsweek (December 3, 2001).
633 "Really good readers, whew!": Nancy Gibbs, "Special Report: Day of the Attack, " Time (September 12, 2001).
633 "Unable to land on roof": "Second-by-Second Terror Revealed in Calls to 911, " New York Daily News (September 30, 2001).
633 "People falling out of building"; ibid.
633 "One hundred twenty people trapped on the 106th floor": ibid.
634 "You guys never"; "Transcript of Flight 77, " New York Times (October 16, 2001).
634 "Fast moving primary target": "Get These Planes on the Ground, " 20/20, ABC News (October 24, 2001).
634 "Oh my God!"; ibid.
635 "Barbara is on the phone"; this and other details concerning Ted and Barbara Olson are derived from; Ted Olson interview, Larry King Live, CNN (September 14, 2001).
636 "I, unfortunately, will be going back to Washington": "Remarks by the President After Two Planes Crash into World Trade Center, " White House transcript (September 11, 2001).
636. "He's twelve miles west"; "Get These Planes on the Ground, " 20/20, ABC News (October 24, 2001).
637 "We're moving now, sir; we're moving": Nancy Gibbs, "Special Report: Day of the Attack, " Time (September 12, 2001).
637 "Six miles"; "And we waited": "Get These Planes on the Ground, " 20/20, ABC News (October 24, 2001).
637 "It looked like a plane coming in for a landing": Paul Haring, "Pentagon Crash Eyewitness Comforted Victims, " Military District of Washington News Service (September 28, 2001).
638 "I saw it crash into the building": ibid.
638 "Did you see that?": "USA Under Terrorist Attack, " Associated Press (September 12, 2001).
638 "Dulles, hold all of our inbound"; "Get These Planes on the Ground, " 20/20, ABC News (October 24, 2001).
638 "I want you to protect the White House": Matthew L. Wald with Kevin Sack, "'We Have Some Planes, ' Hijacker Told Controller, " New York Times (October 16, 2001).
638 "I did and I didn't want to": Ted Olson interview, Larry King Live, CNN (September 14, 2001).
639 Beware, cockpit intrusion; "Nobody move, please": "Transcripts from Sept. 11 Reveal Voice from Cockpit, " Associated Press (October 16, 2001).
639 "Good Morning, Cleveland": Karen Breslau, Eleanor Clift, and Evan Thomas, "The Real Story of Flight 93, " Newsweek (December 3, 2001).
639 "We're being hijacked!": ibid.
639 "Somebody call Cleveland?": ibid.
640 "Ladies and gentlemen": ibid.
640 World Trade Center details: Catherine Pepinster, "The World Trade Centre, New York, " [London] Independent (September 12, 2001); Warren E. Leary, "Years to Build and Moments to Destroy: How the Twin Towers Fell, " New York Times (September 25, 2001).
641 the stairway had collapsed: "Second-by-Second Terror Revealed in Calls to 911, " New York Daily News (September 30, 2001).
641 "They're in the cockpit now"; details on Flight 93: Karen Breslau, Eleanor Clift, and Evan Thomas, "The Real Story of Flight 93, " Newsweek (December 3, 2001).
643 "People still jumping off the tower"; "People need help on the 105th floor!": "Second-by-Second Terror Revealed in Calls to 911, " New York Daily News (September 30, 2001).
643 "It was terror, sheer terror": Interview with James Grillo, Larry King Live, CNN (September 12, 2001).
644 "How bad is the smoke?"; details concerning Beverly Eckert and Sean Rooney are derived from: Michael Howerton, "Bittersweet Goodbye: Stamford Widow Finds Solace in Final Phone Call, " Stamford Advocate (Date not available).
645 "I was thinking"; details concerning employees of American Bureau of Shipping and Steve McIntyre are derived from: John McLaughlin and Alison Bate, "Cheating Death, " Lloyds List (September 17, 2001).
646 Details concerning the response of NSA to the crisis are derived from: interviews with senior NSA officials.
647 "U.S. intelligence operates what is probably": Admiral William O. Studeman, Remarks at the Symposium on "National Security and National Competitiveness: Open Source Solutions" (December 1, 1992).
647 "We don't come near to processing": Vernon Loeb, "Portrait of a Pessimist, " Washington Post (March 6, 2000).
647 "Forty years ago": Lt. Gen. Michael V. Hayden, USAF, Director, National Security Agency, Address to Kennedy Political Union of American University, 17 February 2000.
647 "faced with profound": U.S. Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service, Richard A. Best, Jr., "The National Security Agency: Issues for Congress, "
Report RL 30740 (updated January 16, 2001), p. 3.
648 "NSA headquarters was brain dead": David Martin, "National Security Nightmare, " CBS Evening News (February 13, 2001).
648 "an act of God": Neil King, Jr., "Big Technology Players Vie to Upgrade NSA Computers, " Wall Street Journal (March 13, 2001).
648 "There's simply too much out there": Neil King, Jr., "In Digital Age, U.S. Spy Agency Fights to Keep from Going Deaf, " Wall Street Journal (May 23, 2001).
648 "NSA is ... not well positioned": U.S. Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service, Richard A. Best, Jr., "The National Security Agency: Issues for Congress, " Report RL 30740 (updated January 16, 2001), unpaginated page. 649 "Cultural pride has reemerged": Renee Meyer's remarks were derived from a lecture she gave at NSA on June 11, 2001, at which the author was present.
649 "The Chinese leadership views"; "So long as China remains": John B. Judis, "The China Hawks, " The American Prospect Online (September 1, 1997 October 1, 1997).
650 "I think ... we're in big trouble": Vernon Loeb, "Portrait of a Pessimist, " Washington Post (March 6, 2000).
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Re: BODY OF SECRETS -- ANATOMY OF THE ULTRA-SECRET NATIONAL

Postby admin » Sun Sep 06, 2015 11:09 pm

INDEX

A-3 telephone scrambler,
357-58
A-4 firebase, 343-44, 346
A-12 reconnaissance aircraft,
272
Abel, Rudolf, 62n
Abelson, Harold, 612
Abner, 582
Abrams, Creighton w., 306,
330
Acheson, Dean G., 30-31
Adams, Ralph, 347, 566
Adolphsen, Arthur, 161
ADONIS encryption equipment,
353
Advanced Research Projects
Agency (ARPA),
361-62
Afghanistan, 18, 44, 389,
398, 399, 410, 555
Ahmed, Nasser, 427-28
Air Force, U.S., 159, 174,
323, 357
Pueblo incident and,
261-62, 268
Air Force Intelligence
Agency, 498
Air Force Security Service,
96, 194
Albert, A. Adrian, 605
Albright, Madeleine, 418
Alde, Robert 0., 360
Alert, 139, 141-42, 396-97,
546
al-Fawwaz, Khalid, 615
Algeria, 80, 81
Alhazmi, Nawaf, 617-18
Alhazmi, Salem, 617,
619
Allen, Charles E., 496
Allen, Lew, Jr., 346-47,
376, 439
Almihdhar, Khalid 617,
619
al-Zawahiri, Ayman, 616
America, 222, 224
American Black Chamber,
1-3, 6, 499, 580
American Legion, 66-67
American Thermogen Corporation,
517-18
Ames, Aldrich, 562
Anderson, Robert, 58, 543
Anderson, Rudolf, 118
Ansley, Norman, 539, 542
Aquarian, 397
Aquitania, 13
Arc Light, 308-10
Arecibo Ionosphere
Observatory (AIO),
361-62
Argentina. 19, 134, 176-77,
400
Armed Forces Security
Agency (AFSA),
24-25, 28-31, 537
Army, U.S., 18, 103-4, 198,
288, 428, 581
Army Intelligence and Security
Command, 49B,
554
Army Security Agency
(ASA), U.S., 22, 24,
27-28, 29, 88, 150,
152, 298, 325
Arnold, Larry K., 631
Arnold. John, 104-6, 343,
370, 371, 373-74
Aspin, Les, 385
AT&T, 460-61, 462
Atlantika, 114
Atlas computer, 581
Atta, Mohamed, 618, 619,
620, 621
Attwood, William, 128-29,
130, 136-37
Austin, Harold, 38
Australia, 368-69, 409, 513,
547, 599
Automated Cartridge System,
603-4
Azzole, Pete, 114-15

Back, George V, 246-48
Baer, Bill, 126-27
Bailey, Bruce, 33-34, 119,
320-23
Bailey, Charles Waldo, II,
67
Bailey, Don, 259, 260-61,
263, 265-67
Baker, Howard, 439
Baker, Stewart A., 450-51,
463
Baker, William O., 357, 462
Ball, Dave, 132
Ball, George, 116, 301
Banner, 241-44, 250, 258,
270-72, 300-301
Barbour, Walworth, 192
Bary, Abdel 616
Bates, Edward Bryant, 148
Batista, Fulgencio, 73
Bauman, Ethan L., 567
Bay of Pigs invasion, 63,
66-67, 70-79, 82, 88,
358
CIA and, 70, 72, 73-76,
78, 79
JFK-JCS meeting on,
71-73
Joint Chiefs of Staff
and, 71-75
landing site for, 74
Lemnitzer and, 73-75
NSA's role in, 75-76
onset and failure of,
77-78
proposed secret deceptions
and, 70--71
Soviet arms shipments
prior to, 76-77
Beamrider, 515
Beeman, Karl, 148-49
Begin, Menachem, 186
Bell Laboratories, 98, 357,
462, 580, 609-10, 612
Belmont, 187, 223
Beloretsk, 95-96
Ben-Gurion, David, 40
Bennett, Donald v., 430
Berens, RonaId L., 252
Berger-Liaw Neural Network
Speaker Independent
Speech
Recognition System,
556-57
Berlin Wall, 450, 492, 544
Berrigan, Philip, 493-94
Bicher, George A., 8, 12
Biden, Joseph, 378
Billygate scandal, 380-81,
443
bin Laden, Osama, 410,
441, 614-17
Biro, Arye, 202
Biryuzov, S. S., 46
Bishop, Robert P., 241, 243
Bissell, Richard M., 43, 79,
358
Black, William B., Jr., 473,
497
Black Friday (1948), 23-24
Blake, Gordon Aylesworth,
96-97, 99-101, 102-3,
118-19, 131-32, 136
Blalook, Donald L., 227-28
Bletchley Park, 10, 12-14,
15, 17, 162, 398
Bloor, A. W., 520
Blue, Allen M., 227
Blue Gene supercomputer,
608
Blue House raid, 253-57
Bogart, 584
Bonesteel, Charles H., III,
261-62, 271, 281
Bonney, Walter, 52
Boomer, Walter, 344<-4-6
Boorman, Derek, 401
Borges, Jorge Luis, 527
Boudreau, Henry, 348
Bowen, Jeremy, 238-39
Box Top mission, 246-47
Bradlee, Ben, 380
Brand, Joe, 501
Brass Knob mission, 131
Brazil, 19, 133, 177, 425
Brezhnev, Leonid, 369, 389,
475
Bright, Gary, 335-36
Bron, Gabi, 202
Bronco, Ray, 315, 316
Brown, Aubrey, 95, 109,
112, 113-14, 151, 175,
176-77
Brown, Buddy, 322
Brown, Harold, 383, 385,
476, 549
Brownell, George Abbott,
30-31
Bruce, David K., 31
Brzezinski, Zbigniew, 383
Bubbles, 592-93
Bucher, Lloyd Mark,
243-44, 252, 254-65,
267, 268, 275, 278-82
Buckholtz, Eileen, 529
Bucklew, Phil H., 178
Buffham, Benson K., 376
Bui Dang Dzuong, 289
Bulinski, Frederick, 529
Bullock, William C., 66
Bundy, McGeorge, 116,
126, 128, 130, 136-37
Burke, Arleigh A., 68-69
Burning Candy missions,
320
Burns, Joseph D., 498-99
Buscher, Max, 110, 112
741
Bush, George, 422
Bush, George W" 632~33,
636, 645
Butterfly processor, 592
Buzbee, William, 599
Buzhardt, J. Fred, Jr.,
431-34

C-802 missile, 411-16, 417,
421, 458
Campaigne, Howard,
13-14, 15-17, 42-43,
96, 160, 551, 581,
583-87
Campbell, Ronnie, 216-17
Canada, 126, 513, 599
Arctic listening posts of,
139-42
CSE of, 394-97
Canine, Ralph l, 30, 39, 41,
42-45, 377, 477, 573,
583, 585
Caracristi, Ann, 354-55,
370, 377, 462, 523,
564
Carillon computer system,
390
Carlucci, Frank, 393
Carter, Billy, 381, 443
Carter, Jimmy, 229, 381,
443, 44546
Carter, Marshall S., 102,
108, 128, 132, 180,
222-23, 228, 231-32,
249, 263, 269, 337,
339-40, 407, 524, 578
Carver, George, 331-32
Casale, Robert, 184
Casey, William J., 382, 389,
391
Cassidy, George A., 167-72,
176, 178, 313
Castle, Ernest C., 224
Castro, Fidel, 63, 70, 71, 72,
73, 74, 78, 83, 89, 90,
118, 120, 123, 125,
129, 135-38, 181
748
peace feelers of, 128-30,
136, 139
Central Intelligence
Agency (CIA), 30, 37,
41, 44, 51, 57, 58-60,
61, 99, 127, 129, 136,
147, 149, 177, 246,
291-92, 323, 355, 409,
420, 429, 430, 435,
437, 446, 511, 512,
516, 526
assassination unit of,
479
Bay of Pigs invasion
and, 70, 72, 73-76, 78,
79
Cuban missile crisis and,
100, 107, 109, 116,
124
Dien Bien Phu battle
and, 286-87
Gulf War and declining
status of, 474-76
Inman at, 382
NSA's relations with,
358-59, 382-85,
473-79, 500
rebuilding of, 476-77
Vietnam War and, 331,
333, 337
Central Signals Organization,
162
Cesaire, Aime, 178
Chafee, John H., 281
Chagos Archipelago,
163-64
Charles Berry, 310
Chase, Gordon, 136-37
Chen, Steve, 593, 597'
Cheney, Dick, 637
Cheramy, Ed, , 395
Chiang Kai-shek, 27-28
Chicca, Robert, 264
Chile, 19, 61, 13}--34, 382
China, Nationalist, 19
Marshall mission to,
27-28
China, People's Republic
of, 25, 42, 93, 142,
242, 293, 316-17,
352, 368, 402, 408,
503, 649
French engine sales to,
474-75
Hong Kong and, 547
Iranian missile deal
with, 409-18, 421-22,
458
in Korean War, 27-29
listening post surveillance
of, 155, 157-59
China National Precision
Machinery Import &
Export Corporation,
409-10, 411, 416, 417
Christian, George, 233-34
Church, Frank, 434, 439
Church Committee,
435-36, 438-40, 442
Churchill, Winston, 357
Clark, David, 461, 463
Clark, Tom, 436
Classic Wizard, 165
Clickbeetle, 242-43
Cline, Ray S., 299
Clinton, Bill, 385, 426, 444,
445, 495-96, 520, 554
Jiang's summit with,
414, 416, 447
Clinton administration,
282, 444
CNN, 464, 510-11
Cobra Ball missions, 504
Cocheteux, Jean-Bernard,
421-22
Codevilla, Angelo, 378
Coldfeet, 144
Cold War, see specific events
and individuals
Cole, 501
Cole, Isaiah, 549
Colombia, 19, 23, 133
Combat Apple missions,
320
Combat Fox, 271
Combined Naval Cypher
Number 3, 18
Comint, 8
Commerce Department,
U.S., 421, 424
Communications Branch of
the National Research
Council (CBNRC),
141
Communications Security
Establishment (CSE),
394-97, 421
Comout, 348
computers:
Project Lightning and,
582-90
RAMs as forerunners of,
579-80, 581
vacuum tubes in, 581,
584
see also supercomputers
Confidential Code Number
2, 18
CONFIRM access list, 507
Congo, 134, 181, 182, 183
Congo, Republic of, 182
Congress, US., 53, 103, 301,
425, 456, 460, 469,
470, 415, 558, 560,
574, 576
Inman's relations with,
377-79, 381, 384
Lemnitzer's testimony
to, 68, 73, 88
Liberty attack left unprobed
by, 231, 238
Tonkin Gulf Resolution
enacted by, 299
see also House of Representatives,
US.; Senate,
US.
Conley, Herbert L., 24
Connell, John, 187, 197
Conrad, Joseph, 182-83
Cook, Ralph E., 222, 250
Corderman, W. Preston, 19
Cosgrove, Thomas Avery,
95
Cotter, George R., 498, 601
Craig, 293
Craig, William H., 86, 88
Crandal, Charles, 264
Cray; Inc., 602
Cray, Seymour, 587,
590-93, 596, 598,
599-600, 602, 612
Cray Computer, Inc.,
596-600
Cray Research, Inc., 590,
593-94, 596, 598, 599,
602
Crete, 190, 196, 197
CRITIC messages, 76, 100,
194, 302, 501, 516,
589
CRITICOMM system,
588-89
Cronkite, Walter, 66
Crosby, Bruce, Jr., 344-46
Crowell, William P, 523,
562-63, 564
Crypto City, 3, 6, 387-88,
404, 456, 470,
481-527, 578, 602
budget of, 481, 523-24
classification system of,
489-90
communications network
of, 514-15
community relations
and, 4-5
crime in, 487-88
day care in, 484-85
education in, 524-25,
532-33
emergency services of,
492-93
headquarters building
of, 488-91
microprocessor factory
of, 521, 595
Operations buildings of,
494-508, 520-21
police and security force
of, 482-83
security obsession of,
491-93, 507-10
television and news
facilities of, 496,
510-11
Crypto-Linguistic Association,
484, 487
Cryptologic Service Groups
(CSGs), 502
Cuba, 62-63, 72, 93, 187,
330
JFK assassination and,
132-33, 135, 137-38
Soviet arms shipments
to, 76-77
troops sent to Congo by,
181
U.S. economic embargo
of, 126
see also Bay of Pigs invasion;
Northwoods
"Cuban Debacle, The,"
73-74
Cuban missile crisis,
95 126, 197, 322, 546
CIA in, 100, 107, 109,
116, 124
Cuba as Soviet eavesdropping
base after,
124-25
Cuban air defense
buildup in, 100, 106-8
evidence of offensive
missiles in, 100, t09,
112-13
JFK's ultimatum in,
113-14
nuclear launch scare in,
114-15
Palladium intercepts in,
107-8
rapprochement attempt
after, 128-30
RFK-Dobrynin talks in,
119-22
SAM missiles opera
tional in, 106-8,
117-18
Soviet shipping of supplies
and personnel in,
95-96, 101
Soviet withdrawal after,
122-23
spy ship intercepts in,
99, 100, 102-3,
107-12, 125-26
turnaround of Soviet
ships in, 115-16
U-2 shootdown in,
118-19, 120, 122
U.S. overflights in, 102,
109, 117, 118-19
Cylink, 523
CYPRIS microprocessor,
521
Cyprus, 40, 187, 196
Czechoslovakia, 23, 72, 152,
153, 475

Darrigo, Joseph, 25
Davidson, Phillip, 331-32
Davis, 226
Davis, James T., 290-91,
317, 337, 339, 494
Davis, John, 100
Dayan, Moshe, 40, 203
Dean, John Wesley, III,
431, 433
De Chene, John, 314-16
Decker, George H., 69
Decle, T., 406, 415, 421,
422
Deeley, Walter G., 231-32,
311
Defence Ministry, British,
400-401
Defence Signals Directorate
(DSD),
Australian, 402, 409,
421
Defense Advanced Research
Projects
Agency (DARPA) 514,
600, 609, 611
Strategic Computing
Program of, 592
Defense Department, U.S.,
5, 90, 91, 147, 193,
288, 356, 389, 476,
514, St6, 554, 569,
570, 594, 602
Office of Special Operations
of, 78-79
Defense Humint Service,
476
Defense Information Systems
Agency, 514
Defense Intelligence
Agency (DIA), 100,
246, 331, 389, 429, 430,
432, 502, 511, 513
Defense Intelligence Network
(DIN), 510-11
Defense Security Service,
535-36
Defense Special Missile and
Aeronautics Center
(DEFSMAC), 502-4
de Gaulle, Charles, 22
Deitz, Robert L, 498
Denholm, Charles J., 341
Dennison, Robert Lee, 95
Derwinski, Edward 1, 379
DeSoto patrols, 292-93
Deutsch, John, 562
Devine, John P, 470,
522-23
DeVine, Michael, 446
Diego Garcia, 165-66, 277
Dien Bien Phu, battle of,
284, 286-87
Dillon, C. Douglas, 52,
60-61
DIRgrams, 473
Dobrynin, Anatoly, 120-22
Dole, Bob, 386, 447
domestic watch list program,
428-29
Donovan, William 0., 7
Doomsday exercise, 50-51
Dornan, Jack, 395
Drake, Robert E., 376-77
Drifting Station Alpha,
140-41, 143, 144
Dulles, Allen, 41, 47, 50,
56, 382, 477, 588
Bay of Pigs invasion
and, 72-73
U-2 crisis and, 52, 53-54,
58, 60, 62
Dulles, John Foster, 40, 41
Dunn, Jeff, 507
Dustbin, 17

Eban, Abba, 192
Echelon Computer system,
404, 407, 409, 411,
421, 427-28
Eden, Anthony, 40
Egypt, 19, 134, 153, 186,
190--91, 197, 201, 209
Suez crisis and, 39-41
Eisenbeiss, Harry, 115
Eisenhower, Dwight D., 8
31, 35, 69, 72, 75, 94,
356, 557, 360, 365,
366, 588, 604
CRITICOMM system
approved by, 588-89
homosexuality scare and,
543-44
Indochina conflict and,
286-87, 288
Lemnitzer appointed by,
67-68
Northwoods and, 82-83
Paris summit and, 62
Suez crisis and, 40, 41
U-2 crisis and, 43, 49-50,
51-52, 53-54, 55-60,
62, 116-17, 322
Eismann, Bernard, 80
elephant cage antenna, 77,
95, 154
Elint, 8
El Quseir, 230, 234-35
Emmel, Judith A., 496-97
EMR Improvement Program
(EIP), 324-25
Energy Department, U.S.,
542
Engineering Research
Associates, 580, 581,
591
Englander, Owen, 103
Engstrom, Howard, 591
ENIAC, 580-81
Enigma encryption machine,
9, 12, 13, 14,
17, 18, 98, 301, 312,
397, 486
Ennes, Jim, 230
Enterprise, 262
Equal Employment Opportunity
Commission,
560, 565
E-Systems, 523, 604
ETA, 595-94, 596
Ethiopia, 19, 160, 161-62
European Space Agency,
406-7
Evron, Ephraim, 229
Explorer system, 343-46

Fan Song radar, 154, 324
Farley, Robert D., 96
Farm Team, 318
Far Right, The, 80-81
Fast, Barbara G., 498
Fastlane encryption program,
515
Faurer, Lincoln D., 387-89,
604
Federal Bureau of Investigation
(FBI), 355, 379,
429, 437, 441, 449,
493, 543
NSA's domestic spying
opposed by, 430-31
NSA's embassy break-ins
dispute with, 432-33
ferret missions, 32-38, 47,
54, 366
fiber optic cables, 460-63,
465, 510
Finder, 321
Firebase Sarge, 343-46
Fire Can radar, 154
Fish cipher machine, 14,
15, 18, 20, 397
Russian, 15-17, 18, 23,
355, 583
Ford, Gerald, 88, 103, 350,
439
Foreign Broadcast Information
Service, 191,
253
Foreign Intelligence Advisory
Board, 88, 131
Foreign Intelligence Surveillance
Act, 440
Foreign Intelligence Surveillance
Court,
440-41
Forrestal, Michael, 297-98
Forsberg, Steven J., 166
Fort Meade, Md., 41, 43,
93, 302, 404, 452, 573
France, 19, 22, 68, 80, 81,
137-38, 147, 402,
421
China engine sales of,
414-15
Holocaust and, 10-11
Indochina conflict of,
284, 285-87
Suez crisis and, 39-41
Vichy government of, 11
Freedom of Information
Act, 520
Freeh, Louis J., 542
Frequent Wind, 347
Friedman, William Frederick,
1-2, 4, 22, 354,
477, 558, 586
Frost, Laurence Hugh, 93,
96, 97, 288
Frostberg computer, 597
Fuggetta, Rob, 535
Fujitsu, 595-96
Fulbright, J. William,
60-62
Fulton, Robert Edison, Jr.,
143-44
Fulton Skyhook, 143-46
FUNNEL messages, 102

Gaddy, Dave, 287
Gagarin, Yuri, 154-55
Gailey, C. K., 64
Galactic Radiation and
Background (GRAB),
365-66
Gardiner, Don, 131
Gardner, Meredith K., 135
Garfinkel, Simson, 607
Garment, Suzanne, 378-79
Gates, Robert, 474, 475, 520
Gates, Thomas, 4-9-50, 53,
54, 57
Gavin, James M., 68
Gayler, Noel, 34G-42, 430,
431, 433
Geis, Lawrence R., 226
Georgetown, 187
Gerecht, Reuel Marc, 474
Germany, Democratic Republic
of (East Germany),
4-3, 150, 151,
492
NSA overflights of,
153-54-
Germany, Federal Republic
of (West Germany),
43, 72, 124, 150-51,
152, 492
Germany, Nazi, 10, 11, 16,
19, 20, 312
Germany, reunified, 462,
492
Gerson, Nate, 139, 141-42,
360-64
Gertz, Bill, 393
Gladding, Everett 8.,
250-51
Gleason, Everett, 31
Glenn, John, 84
Golden, George H., 220
Goldwater, Barry M., 60,
378, 439
Goodman, Melvin A., 475
Goodpaster, Andrew, 52, 54
Gordon, John A., 496
Gore, Al, Jr., 80, 512
Gore, Albert, Sr., 80, 88
Goss, Porter 1, 457, 475
Government Communications
Headquarters
(GCHQ), 10, 40,
398-402, 407, 409,
454, 502, 538, 547-48,
592
China-Iran missile deal
and, 412-13
industrial espionage and,
426-27
Zircon satellite and,
400-401
Government Communications
Security Bureau
(GCSB), 403, 421
Graham, Daniel 0., 502
Graham, Richard H., 324
Grantham, Gary L,
529-30
Gray, David W, 70, 88
Cray, Gordon, 55-56
Gray, L. Patrick, 433
Great Britain, 19, 27, 89,
422, 462, 513, 599
Aden listening post of,
161-62
Chagos Archipelago and,
163-65
cryptoanalytic activities
of, 397-402
Hong Kong and, 547
listening posts in,
174-75
Suez crisis and, 39-41
Green Hornet missions, 44
Groundbreaker, 573-74
Grover, Lov K., 610
Guatemala, 62, 446
Guerin, James. 375. 382
Guevara Che, 130, 180,
185
Gulf of Tonkin incident,
90-91, 290-300, 322
Maddox attacked in,
296-97, 299
Gulf War of 1990, 167,
474, 512
NSA's performance in,
544-45

Hagelin M-209, cipher machine,
22, 585-86
Haldeman, H. R., 433
Halfbeak, 167-72
Halibut, 371-74, 465
Halman, James, 210-11
Hamry, John, 496
Hanjour, Hani, 617, 619.
621
Hanyok, Robert J., 10-11
Harriman, Averell, 116-17
Harris, Stephen R., 243,
244, 251-52, 256, 264,
266, 279-81
Harvest computer, 583-fl9
Harvey, William, 4·77-79
Hatch, David, 564
Hayden, Michael V., xiii,
402, 443, 451-57, 164,
465, 469, 501, 524,
557, 573, 614, 6t7,
619, 646-49
reforms by, 470-73
typical day of, 494-99
Helms, Richard, 61-62, 99,
125, 331, 332
Henault, Emile J, Jr., 565
Henry, Harold, 26
Herrelko, Frank. L., 39
Herrick., John, 295-98
Herter, Christian, 52,
53-54, 61, 62
Herzfeld, Charles, 361-62
Hitler, Adolf, 7, 11, 10, 12,
14, 358
Ho Chi Minh, 284-85, 286,
287, 288-89, 292, 347
Hodges, Duane, 264, 278
Holt, Carl, 38
Homerun, 35-37
Hooper, Edwin B., 243
Hooper, Leonard, 407
Hoover, J. Edgar, 429-31,
433, 434, 543-44
Horrock, Nicholas, 379
Horton, Russell H., 20
House of Representatives,
U.S., 68, 231
Appropriations Committee,
103
Intelligence Committee,
377-78, 381, 384, 457,
464, 467, 475, 523-24,
557, 569, 570, 572
Un-American Activities
Committee, 66
Howard, Lisa, 128, 129-30,
136-37
Hughes, Richard J., 611
Humphrey, George, 356
Humphrey, Hubert, 278
Hungary, 18, 19, 71
Hunt, Peter, 395
Hussein, King, 238
Hussein, Saddam, 475, 516,
544-45
Huston, Tom Charles, 430,
432
Huston Plan, 430-31
Hyland, John 1, 281

IBM, 580, 585, 593, 597,
603, 608, 610
Stretch computer of,
586-87
Ichthyic missions, 244
Ignatius, David, 451
imitative communications
deception (IMD), 306
India, 409, 433, 503, 574
industrial espionage,
422-27
Inman, Bobby Ray, 374-82,
393, 398, 399, 443,
470, 553-54, 564
alleged homosexuality
of, 380, 385-86
appointments, by, 376-77
CIA-NSA rivalry and,
383-85
Congress and, 377~79,
381, 384
defense secretary nomination
and, 385-86
Guerin and, 375, 382
media and, 379-81
public appearances of,
381-82
Safire's confrontation
with, 380-81
Inouye, Daniel, 383
Institute for Defense
Analysis, 591, 604
Intelink, 511-15, 563, 572,
606
Intelligence Advisory Committee,
356, 382
Intelligence Authorization
Act, 570
Intelligence Board, U.S., 101
Intelligence Systems Secretariat
(ISS), 512
INTELSAT, 404-11, 414,
616
Internal Security Act, 4
International Civil Aviation
Organization (ICAO),
86
Internet, 419, 457-59,
462, 479, 523-24,
546
NSA and, 463-65, 648
NSA's version of, 511-15,
565
Ipsaro, Anthony J., 486
Iran, 19, 44, 124, 149, 179,
384-85, 389, 391, 402,
408, 474, 503, 545,
555
China's missile deal with,
409-18, 421-22, 458
Iran-contra scandal,
390-91, 413
Iran-Iraq War, 544
Iraq, 19, 382, 402, 474-75,
544, 545
Israel, 154, 417-18, 475,
503
onset of Six-Day War
and, 190-91, 197
Suez crisis and, 39-41
see also Liberty, Israeli
attack on
Italy, 19, 134, 147, 358
Ivy Bells, 370
Izmeritel, 309-10
Izquierdo, Chary, 503

Jabara, Abdeen, 428
Jacobs, Michael J., 509, 559
Jacobsen, Walter L., 236
Jafari, Hossein, 416, 417
Jamestown, 187, 315, 316
Janson, Donald, 80
Japan, 16, 19, 124, 150,
155-56, 285, 312, 397,
402, 426
supercomputer development
and, 594-96,
598-99
Jarrah, Ziad, 618, 619
Jiang Zemin, 414, 416, 447
Jimmy Carter, 465
Jin Xuekuan, 409-10, 416,
417
Ji Yanshu, 416, 417
John Birch Society, 66, 79
Johnson, Lyndon B., 57,
132, 134, 137-38, 191,
270, 316, 323, 526
Liberty incident and,
222-26, 230
Pueblo affair and, 270,
278
Six-Day War and,
191-94
Vietnam War and, 284,
291, 299, 333, 337
Johnson, Tom, 355-56
Johnston, Thomas, 395-96
Joint Chiefs of Staff, U.S.,
28, 54, 57, 63, 64, 82,
103, 117, 122, 131,
186, 197-98, 226,
250, 271, 284, 330,
340, 342, 389, 393,
570
Bay of Pigs invasion
and, 71-75
and decision to send Liberty
to Middle East,
187-88, 190
JFK's first meeting with,
71-72
Joint Reconnaissance
Center of, 187-88,
197-98, 226, 245,
249
Lemnitzer appointed to,
67, 68-69
OPLAN-34A of, 291-93
"pretext" wars advocated
by, 84-88, 89,
90, 300-301
Pueblo mission and,
245-46
Senate investigation of
right-wing extremism
in, 80-81
Jones, David C., 385
Jordan, 191
Jumpseat satellites, 369
Justice Department, U.S.,
382, 428, 538

Kalugin, Oleg, 93, 275-76,
277, 281, 307-8
Kane, Jock, 162, 426-27
Kantor, Mickey, 426
Karadzic, Radovan, 445
Karin, Sid, 600
Karpov, Yevgeny, 155
Kassar, Monzer al-, 413
Kemper, Ronald, 453, 570
Kennedy, John Fitzgerald,
62, 87, 92, 287, 358
assassination of, 131-34
Bay of Pigs invasion
and, 72-75
Cuban missile crisis and,
101-2, 110, 113-14,
115, 116, 118
Cuba-U.S. rapprochement
and, 129-30,
137
inauguration of, 64-65,
69-70
U.S. military's distrust
of, 65-66, 69, 79-80
Vietnam conflict and,
287-88, 290, 291
Kennedy, Robert F., 78, 79,
83, 108, 125, 129
Cuban missile crisis and,
108, 119-22, 123
Kennedy administration,
79, 83, 126, 128
military's right-wing extremism
and, 79-80
Kera, Tiiu, 500
Kerr, Richard E., Jr., 315,
339
KG-14 cipher machine,
266, 277
KGB, 20-21, 23
Pueblo intelligence coup
and, 275-77
Khalil, Ziyad, 615
Khrushchev, Nikita S.,
45-46, 50-53, 59-60
Cuban missile crisis and,
116-17, 120-21, 125
Paris summit ended by,
54-55
U-2 revelations by,
50-51, 52-53
Killian, James R., Jr.,
356-57, 360, 582
Kim Il Sung, 281
King, Daniel, 536
King, Martin Luther, Jr.,
429
Kisler, Earl M., 252-53
Kissinger, Henry, 349
KL-47 cipher machine, 245
Klein, Joel, 386
Knebel, Fletcher, 67
Kokalis, David P., 462
Korea, People's Democratic
Republic of (North
Korea), 24-26, 42, 93,
155, 242, 244-45, 293,
333, 408, 503
RB-47 shootdown attempt
by, 246-48
Korea, Republic of (South
Korea), 25, 124,
245, 249, 261, 397,
402
Blue House raid in,
255-57
Korean War, 24-30, 182,
537
China's intervention in,
27-29
Korgie, Leonard, 26
Kosygin, Alexei, 193, 194,
225
Kullback, Solomon, 2, 582,
586, 587
Kura, 114
Kursk, 173-74
Kuwait, 474., 475, 516, 544,
545
KW-7 cipher system, 245,
254-55, 266, 276, 307
KW-37 cipher machine,
266, 277
KY-8 telephone, 305-6,
307, 352

La Belle discotheque
bombing, 390, 553
Lacy, Gene, 259, 264
Lansdale, Edward G.,
78-79, 83, 84
Laos, 62, 305, 322
Larson, Doyle, 320
Lebanon, 19, 167, 197, 203,
391
Lechuga, Carlos, 129,
136-37
Lee, Derek, 397
Lemnitzer, Lyman L., 63,
65, 67-72, 81-82
civilian command of
military opposed by,
81-82
congressional testimony
of, 68, 73, 88
Cuban invasion advocated
by, 70-71, 72,
74-75
JFK's first meeting with,
71-72
later career of, 88
Northwoods proposals
and, 84-88, 90
and Senate's investigation
of military's
right-wing extremism,
80-81
Lentini, Joseph C., 218-19
LeSchack, Leonard A.,
143-46
Levenson, Arthur, 13, 15,
585
Lewis, David E., 200,
211-12, 226
Liberty, 181-84, 185, 228,
241, 339
Liberty, Israeli attack on,
187-239, 494
alleged El Quseir confusion
in, 230, 234-35
casualties in, 226,
227-28
compensation payments
for, 228-29
cover-up of, 225-26, 228,
229-30
CRITIC message in,
221-22
and decision to deploy
Liberty in Middle
East, 187-88, 190
distress signal sent in,
210-11, 221, 224
Israeli reconnaissance
prior to, 199-200, 204,
206
Israel's El Arish atrocities
and, 201-3,
235-36
Israel's justification of,
229-51
by jet aircraft, 209-15
LBJ and, 222-26, 230
"mistake" theory of,
230-37
by motor torpedo boats,
215-20
NSA's airborne surveillance
of, 204-6,
212-13, 216, 220-21,
227, 231
NSA's safety concerns
prior to, 197-98
security concerns in,
223--24, 227
Sixth Fleet's response to,
221-22, 224, 226-27,
236
U.S. probes of, 230-38
U.S.-Soviet exchanges
and, 224-25
warning message foul-up
and, 198-99, 230,
236
Libya, 150, 182, 381, 390,
443, 553
Lighthizer, James, 5
Lightning, 582-90, 604
Lilly, James, 411-12
Lindauer, Edwin R., 392
Lin Piao, 28
listening posts, 139-74
at Adak, 148-49
in Aden, 161-62
in Arctic region, 139-45,
147-48, 546
in Australia, 402-3, 409,
547, 616
in Bahamas, 360-61
in Barents Sea, 167-72
in Canada, 139, 141-42,
394-96
at Cape Chiniak,
147-48
on Cyprus, 166--67, 187
deactivation of, 545-48
in Eritrea, 160-61
first in space, 367-68
in Germany, 150-54
in Great Britain, 174-75,
407, 616
in Iran, 149, 179
in Japan, 155-56, 407-8,
546
Kursk disaster and,
173-74
in Libya, 150
in New Zealand, 403,
409, 547
oceanic, 162-5, 167
at Okinawa, 156-59
at Rota, Spain, 194-95
in Turkey, 154-55, 179
see also spy ships
Littleton, Clay, 160
Lockwood, Bryce, 189-90,
208-10, 216-19
Lodestone computer system,
590
Long Beach, 343
Lord, Charles R., 523
Lovett, Robert A., 30-31
low-level voice intercept
(LLVI), 27
Lucent Technologies, 462,
612
Lukashevich, Yakof, 245
Lumumba, Patrice, 181
Lund, Howard R., 94

McAdam, Gregor, 165
MacArthur, Douglas, 19,
26, 28-29
McCarthy, Richard,
318-19, 333-34
McCaslin, Tami, 531
McClintock, Ralph, 268
McCone, John, 100, 110,
112, 113, 115, 116,
126, 128, 132, 137,
340, 358
McConnell, J. Michael, 458,
523, 550, 552-55,
560-61, 562, 573
McFarland, Terry, 213
McGonagle, William L.,
185, 197, 200, 207,
209-10, 214-16,
219-20, 226, 229-30,
233
McGowan, Bill, 151
MacKenzie, 294
McNamara, Barbara,
458-59, 460, 467, 471,
497, 498, 564
McNamara, Robert S., 68,
79, 87-88, 89, 99,
131-32, 270, 292, 333,
502
Cuban missile crisis
and, 99, 100, 118, 122,
124
Liberty incident and,
222-23
Northwoods and, 86-88
Six-Day War news and,
193-94
Tonkin Gulf testimony
of, 299-300
Maddox, 295-98
Magnum program, 401
Mahon, George, 232, 384
Maine, 84
Major, John, 401
Mann, Thomas C., 75
Mansfield, Mike, 60
Mao Zedong, 27-28, 157
Marcos, Ferdinand E., 316
Marshall, Bill, 452
Marshall, George C., 8, 27
Martin, Frederick T., 512,
515, 563
Martin, Graham, 348-51
Martin, William H., 92-93,
96, 97, 543
Mashey, John, 599
Massey, 226
Massoud, Ahmed Shah, 615
Mattison, Hobart D., 247-48
Mauritius, 163-64, 165
Mayo, Reid D., 364-66
Mellon, Chris, 497
Memphis, 173-74
Menzel, Donald H., 362
Meredith, James, 79
Mexico, 19, 129, 133, 397
Microturbo, SA, 412, 413,
414-15:418, 421-22
microwave communications,
176, 366-69,
490
Midway Island, 162-63
Mielziner, Jo, 21
Military Assistance Command,
Vietnam
(MACV), 330-31
Military Intelligence Code
Number 11, 18
Millington, Henry, 263
Millis, John, 457, 463, 466,
467, 476, 650
Minaret program, 429
Minihan, Kenneth A., xiii,
422, 453, 471, 473,
494, 510, 523, 525,
526, 559, 561-64,
579
management style of,
567-72
MIT, 585, 610, 612
Mitchell, Bernon F., 92-93,
96, 97, 543
Mitchell, John, 430-31, 433
Mobutu, Joseph-Desire,
181, 182
Money, Arthur L., 496
Mongoose, 79, 83, 108, 125
moon-bounce antenna, 94,
101, 188, 207, 208
Moore, Brian, 547
Moore, Jim, 81
Moorefield, Kenneth, 350
Moorer, Thomas H., 109,
230, 237-38, 250, 271
Moqed, Majed, 617
Morris, Brent, 529
Morris, Coy R., 505
Morrison, John E., Jr., 119,
233, 263, 269, 523
Morton, George, 132
Moussa, Abdelsalam, 202
Moynihan, Daniel Patrick,
xiii
Muller, 103, 126, 130-31,
187, 246
Murphy, Ed, 259
Murray, Frank, 272
Murrow, Edward R., 66
Musketeer Foxtrot, 153-54
Myer, Charles R., 304,
306

Nasser, Gamal Abdel, 186,
192, 225, 238
National Aeronautics and
Space Administration
(NASA), 51-52, 514
National Center for Atmospheric
Research,
598-99
National Cryptologic
School, 388, 524-26,
534
courses offered by,
408-9, 525
identification badges
used by, 489-90
National Reconnaissance
Office (NRO), 366,
367, 466-67, 511,
576
National Security Agency
(NSA),
A Group, 93, 100, 354,
355, 359, 370, 376-77,
500, 562-63
American Black Chamber
as predecessor of,
1-3, 4, 6
archives and records of,
519-20
background investigations
by, 535-36,
543
B Group, 93, 100, no,
246, 248, 500
biometric identification
system of, 507
budget of, 93, 146-47,
339-40, 341, 356-57,
383, 388-89, 456-57,
472-73, 475, 481-82,
549-60, 553, 557-58,
569, 574, 576, 584
CIA's relations with,
358-59, 382-85,
473-79, 500
civilian-military friction
in, 100, 341-42
computer crash of January
2000 at, 461-53,
454, 457
computer development
and, 579-82
congressional probes of,
357, 434-40
creation of, 31
cryptologic occupations
at, 618-21
CSS, 482, 498, 501, 541
declassification project
of, 520
defense industry lobby
and, 576-77
"defense" role of, 424-25
demarches to foreign
governments by, 420
digital cellular communicati
ons and, 463-65
disposal of classified materi
als by, 516-19
dissemination of names
by, 442-49
diverse workforce of,
528-31
domestic espionage by,
428-51, 434, 435,
44G-41
domestic telecommunications
companies'
agreement with, 153,
434-40
downsizing of, 549-52,
562, 573-74, 576
education at, 524-25,
532-33
Future Day program of,
568-69
G Group, 93, 178-79,
185, 187, 197, 217,
233, 239, 377, 429,
500
Hayden's reforms at,
470-73
headquarters of, see
Crypto City
hiring program of,
531-58, 542--43,
559-60, 574-75,
576
homosexual purge at,
543-44
industrial espionage and,
424-26
Inman's tenure at,
374-84
insular culture of,
582-85, 385, 587,
471-72
intelligence analysis routine
of, 418-20
Intranet of, 511-15
JFK assassination and,
135-36
K Group, 197, 240, 244,
248
law enforcement involvement
of, 449-51
linguistic capability of,
616-17
linguists shortage of,
555-57
management crisis of,
456-57, 467-71
management types at,
530-31
Martin-Mitchell defection
scandal and,
92-93, 96, 97, 543
mathematician shortage
at, 558-59, 561
M Group, 500-501
minorities and, 559-61,
564-66
National Security Operations
Center, 100, 490,
493, 501-2, 569
National Sigint Operations
Center, 501, 569
number of employees of,
482
outside contracts of,
522-23, 574--75, 577
partner agencies of,
394-405
polygraph program of,
536-42
post-Vietnam growth of,
339-40
post-World War II
growth of, 355-57
recruitment program of,
531-38, 542-43,
559-60, 574-75, 576
reorganizations of, 42,
93, 500-501, 549-50
Scientific Advisory
Board, 458, 462, 529,
605
secrecy obsession of, 5-5,
382-83, 385, 387,
471-72, 491-93,
507-10, 532
security classification
system of, 489-90
Suez crisis as test of,
59-42
Supercomputer Research
Center, 579, 598, 600,
602-3, 604, 607-8, 609
Support Services Opera
tions Center, 482,
492-93
surveillance navy developed
by; 178-80; see
also spy ships
technology revolution
and, 457-58, 479
wages at, 576
women and, 559-61,
564-66
World Trade Center
attack and, 646
Y2K problem and,
452-54
National Security Council
(NSC), 30, 31, 47, 54,
55-56, 58-59, 72, 112,
136, 288, 391, 543,
588
303 Committee of, 246
National SIGINT File,
515-16, 646
National War College, 79,
530
Nautilus, 104-6
Naval Research Laboratory,
362-63, 514
Naval Security Group, 98,
104, 166, 178, 222,
244, 250, 253, 257,
280-81, 292, 339, 408,
498, 520-21, 549, 580,
581
Detachment Key West
of, 104
Sigint patrols of, 292-93
Navy, U.S., 18, 103-4, 156,
197-98, 230, 250
bombe machine of, 587
Rota listening post of,
194-95
spyship program of, 240,
241-43
NEC, 598-99, 611-12
Neff, Paul E., 11-12
NESTOR voice encryption
machine, 352, 353
Netanyahu, Benjamin, 203
Netherlands, 19, 134, 462
New Enterprise Team,
470-71
Newsweek, 378, 464, 492
Newton, Frank, 566
New York Times, 378, 379,
380-81, 435, 492, 610
New Zealand, 403, 409, 547
New Zealand Combined
Signals Organisation,
403
Nguyen Cao Ky, 316
Nikolaevsk, 114
Nikolaj Burdenko, 76-77,
114
Nitze, Paul, 89-90, 246
Nixon, Richard M., 56, 60,
340, 429-34, 543
in 1968 election, 278
Norland, Selmer S., 13, 17
Normalizer computer system,
452-53
Norstad, Lauris, 81
North American Aerospace
"Defense Command
(NORAD), 622,
631-32, 634
North, Oliver L., 391, 392,
413
North Pole 8, 142-46
Northwoods, 82-91, 300,
301
Guantanamo scheme
and, 840-89
McNamara and, 86-88,
89
proposed bombings and
schemes for, 85-86,
89-91
Nowicki, Marvin E.,
195-96, 204-5, 213,
216, 221, 231
NSA Handbook, 531
NSA Newsletter, 131, 486,
544, 550
NSA SIGINT Digest, 515
NSA Technical Journa4
531, 560-61

Observation Island, 504
Oceanarium, 606-7
O'Connor, Jim, 188
Odom, William, 389-93,
474
Odonovich, Paul, 27, 30
Office of Defense Mobilization,
356
Office of Naval Intelligence
(ONI), 115
Office of Naval Research
(ONR), 143, 581
Office of Special Operations
(OSO), 78-79
Office of Strategic Services
(OSS), 7
Ogier, Herbert, 295
O'Grady, Scott, 513
Oilstock software system,
505
O'Malley, Jerry, 323-24
Omand, David, 547-48
one-time pads, 20-21, "23,
303, 521
OP-20-G, 98, 580
Operational Plan 34A
(OPLAN 34A),
291-92, 293, 298
Operations Command, U.S.,
502
Organization of American
States (GAS), 89, 175
Orlov, Alexander, 45-46
Oswald, Lee Harvey, 132,
135, 137,
Oxcart aircraft, 149-50
Oxford, 94-95, 99-100,
101-3, 107, 109-14,
126, 175-80, 186, 197,
292, 295, 339
off China, 316-17
sent to Vietnam, 313-15,
333, 336
Seven Nations Conference
and, 315-16
Oxygen, 462

Pageler, Donald W., 217,
219, 228
Paige, Mitchell, 66
Painter, Lloyd, 207,
209-10, 214, 215, 219
Pak Chung Kuk, 253, 255
Pakistan, 43, 124, 402, 409,
412, 433, 503
Palladium system, 107-8
Palmer, Bruce, Jr., 341
Palmer, Charlie, 81
Parish, Harold L., 99-100,
101, 111, 113, 118,
119, 122-23
Park Chung Hee, 255-56
Parker, Barrington D., 61-62
Parks, David, 157, 158,
325-30, 334, 337-39
Payne, Robert, 548
Peacetime Airborne Reconnaissance
Program
(PARPRO), 246
Peak, James P., 513
Pease, Philip T., 539
Pendergrass, James T.,
581-82
Peres, Shimon, 40
Perry, 76
Perry, William 1, 562
Phillips, Cecil, 20-21
Phillips, Samuel C., 342,
346
Pike, John, 574
Pinchasy, Pinchas, 204
Pine Gap satellite base,
368-69
Platform computer network,
404, 592
Poindexter, John, 413
Poland, 134-35, 399
polygraph Assisted Scoring
System (PASS),
541-42
polygraph tests, 536-42
counterintelligence and,
538-39
espionage discovered
with, 540-41
for job applicants,
536-37
personal questions issue
and, 537-38
Poteat, Gene, 107-8
powers, Francis Gary, 43,
44-48, 51, 59, 62n,
107, 322, 365
PRD-1, 328-29, 337
Preparedness Committee,
57
President's Board of Consultants
on Foreign
Intelligence Activities,
356, 357
Prestel, Robert L., 405
Prettyman, Barbara, 551
processor-in-memory chips
(PIMs), 607
Project Alert, 66
Project X, 375
Pueblo, 243, 292, 339
spy equipment of, 254-55
Pueblo incident, 240-82,
333
A-12 overflights in,
273-75
Blue House raid and,
253-57
court of inquiry after,
278-79
crew's fate in, 268-69,
275, 277, 278
emergency destruction
of classified materials
in, 259-60, 261,
264-68
North Korean warnings
in, 252-54, 255, 280
NSA's warning message
prior to, 248-51,
269-70, 280
Pueblo fired upon in,
260-61, 262, 264
Pueblo's operations order
and, 251-52
Pueblo surrendered in,
266-68
secret materials compromised
in, 263-64, 266,
275-77, 307-8
U.S. casualties in, 264
U.S. military's response
to, 261-62
U.S. war preparations in,
270-72
Walker spy ring and,
276-77, 307-8
Purple code, 301, 312, 397,
526
Purple Dragon analysis, 311
Qaddafi, Muammar, 390
quantum computing,
609-12

Rabin, Yitzhak, 203
Radio Intelligence Companies,
19
Rafsanjani, Ali Akbar
Hashemi, 418
Rainess, Ira, 492
Rainfall, 359, 370
Rakfeldt, Harry A., 225,
273-75
RAMPART National Program
Office, 499
Rapid Analytical Machines
(RAMs), 579-81, 608
Raven, Frank, 96, 178-79,
185, 187, 188-89,
197-98, 217, 429
Ray, Bill, 96
RB-47 Strata-Spy, 32-35,
36, 37-38, 102, 119,
320-21
North Korea's attempt to
down, 246-48
Reagan, Ronald, 382, 387,
388, 389-90, 394, 399
Reno, Janet, 449, 567
Rhyolite satellite, 367-68,
400
Rich, Monty, 165
Richardson, Earl, 174
Ringe, Bobby, 182-83
Ripken, Cal, Jr., 492
Rissman processing system,
504-5
Rockefeller, Nelson, 435
Rogers, William P., 543
Rollwagen, John, 591
Roosevelt, Eleanor, 66
Roosevelt, Franklin D., 22,
357-58
Rosser, J. Barkley, 605
Rostow, Walt, 191-92, 222,
223
Rowe, William E., 332,
335
Rowlett, Frank B., 2, 6,
22-23, 136, 355, 477,
526
Rowley, Charles L., 208,
210, 215, 220
Rudman, Warren B., 476
Rusk, Dean, 100, 108, 120,
191, 194, 297
Russell, Richard, 103
Russell, Stu, 254, 257, 267,
269
Ryan, John, 319
Ryan 147 drone, 119, 321
RYCOM, 176
Rye system; 589

SA-2 missile, 47, 49, 102,
106-7, 321-22, 324,
342-43, 370
Sabertooth, 289-90
Sadat, Anwar, 475
Safire, William L., 380-81,
386
Samford, John, 92, 93
Sample, Tim, 567
Samuel R. Aitken, 92, 94
Sandia National Laboratory,
593, 595
San Francisco Conference
(1945), 21-23
Sannes, Mike, 127
San Roman, Pepe, 77-78
Saratoga, 211, 212, 222, 224
satellites and satellite espionage,
359-69, 393,
460, 615
decline of, 549
giant antennas used for,
361-63
ground stations for,
368-69
INTELSAT, 404-11, 414
microwave communications
detected by,
366-69, 466
Solar-Rad, 365-66
technology revolution
and, 466-67
toxic experiment for,
360-61
training courses for,
408-9
Zircon, 400-40 1
Schatz, James R., 558, 559
Schlesinger, Arthur, Jr.,
116-17
Schlesinger, James R., 436
Schwartz, Frederick A. 0.,
438-39
Schwarzkopf, H. Norman,
512
Scorpion, 105, 246
Searchlight program, 509
Secret Intelligence Service
(MI-6), British, 421
Security Affairs Support
Association (SASA),
523
Seigrist, Connie M., 144-45
Semantic Forests program,
556
Senate, US., 60, 68, 231
Foreign Relations Committee,
55, 56, 58, 59,
60-61, 80, 300
Intelligence Committee,
377-78, 381, 384, 542
military's right-wing extremists
investigated
by, 80-81
Senghor, Leopold, 178
Sevareid, Eric, 66
Seven Days in May, 67, 80
Seven Nations Manila
Summit Conference
(1966), 315-16
Shamrock program, 133,
434, 436-40
Sharon, Ariel, 202-3
Sheck, Gene, 197, 240-41,
244, 248, 249-50,
258-59, 263, 268,
269-72, 280
Sheehy, Mary Ann, 565-67
Shelton, William, 44-45
Shkval, 111, 114
SIGABA code machine, 18
Sigint, 8
Sigint Communications
System, 588
SIGINT Summary, 515
Signal Intelligence Agency,
German, 15
Signal Intelligence Division,
U.S., 8
Signal Intelligence Service,
U.S., 1, 3, 526
Signal Security Agency
(SSA), 24, 426, 579-80
Language branch of, 19
Silicon Graphics, Inc.
(SGI), 599, 601, 602
Silkworth, 490
Simons, Howard, 380
Single-Scope Background
Investigation (SSBI),
535-36
Sinkov, Abraham, 2, 477
Six-Day War, 154, 190-97
El Arish and, 201-3,
236, 238-39
Israeli electronic surveillance
in, 237-38
Soviets and, 192-93,
208-9
see also Liberty, Israeli
attack on
"Six Point Program for Improved
Intercept," 360
Sixth Fleet, U.S., 211,
221-22, 226, 227, 236
Smith, Burton, 600, 602
Smith, James F., 140-41,
144-46
Smith, Melvin, 199
Smith, Walter Bedell, 30
Snepp, Frank, 350
Snider, L. Britt, 434-35,
436, 438, 439-40
Snyder, Sam, 582
Solar-Rad satellite, 365--66
Solomatin, Boris A.,
276-77, 307
Sone, Jun'ichi, 611-12
Sonntag, William J., 565
Soviet Union, 7, 18, 19,
23-24, 28, 42, 71,
93, 134, 153, 186,
352, 368, 402, 450,
492, 502, 540, 553,
555
Afghanistan invaded by,
389, 398, 399
arctic listening posts of,
142-43
arms shipments to Cuba
of, 76-77
Barents Sea surveillance
of, 167-70
computer development
in, 589-90
Homerun and, 35-37
Korean War and, 25, 27
manned space program
of, 154-55
microwave communications
used by, 366-67
one-time pad security
breach of, 20-21
Pueblo intelligence coup
and, 275-77, 307-8
Six-Day War and,
192-93, 208-9
Sputnik launched by,
360, 588
spy ship fleet of, 93,
308-9
Suez crisis and, 39, 42
tapping of submarine
cables of, 370-74
U-2 affair and, see U-2
crisis
Venona program against,
21, 23, 303, 355
Spain, 19, 23, 40
Special Collection Service
(SCS), 477, 479-80
Special Comint Committee,
356
Special U.S. Liaison officers
(SUSLOs), 498
Spoon Rest radar, 106,
117-18
Sputnik 1, 360, 588
spy ships, 94-95, 339
off Africa, 175, 180-84,
313
in Cuban missile crisis,
99, 100, 102-3,
107-12, 125-26
moon-bounce antenna
of, 94
Russian, 93, 308-9
off South America,
175-78
U.S., Navy program for,
240-43
in Vietnam War, 313-16
see also Liberty, Israeli
attack on; Pueblo incident
SR-71 Blackbird, 149,
273n, 318, 323-25
Stahr, Elvis J., Jr., 68
Stapleton-Gray, Ross, 511
Stassen, Harold, 41
State Department, U.S., 3,
31, 75, 147, 175, 192,
193, 225, 230, 235,
286, 287, 355, 409,
417, 420, 424, 502,
516
Steakley, Ralph, 249-50
Stephanopoulos, George,
386, 387
Stevens, Robert E., 522
Stevenson, Adlai E., 59-60,
128
Stimson, Henry, 3
Stockmeier, Mike, 147
Strategic Air Command
(SAC), 112-13, 117,
131, 308-9, 322
Stretch, 586-87
Stroiazzo-Mougin, Bernard,
413
Strott, Robert R., 5
Studeman, William 0., 5,
393-94, 411, 423-24,
425, 523, 544-45, 549,
550
STU-III security telephone,
482, 508-9, 573
submarine cables, tapping
of, 370-74
Suez crisis (1956), 38-41
Sugar Grove antenna,
362-63, 404-5
Sulzberger, A.D., 379
supercomputers, 578
Automated Cartridge
System for, 603-4
biological processes in,
612-13
Cray's development of,
590-93, 596-602
data storage and, 603-4,
606-7
Harvest system and, see
Harvest computer
Japan and, 594-96,
598-99
miniaturization and,
609-12
NSA's facility for, 579,
602-6
parallel processing and,
596-98
quantum computing
and, 609-12
speed measure used in,
592-93
speeds attained by,
607-8
Supercomputer Systems,
597
Supplementary Radio System,
396
Swordfish cipher machine,
14
SX-4 supercomputer,
598-99
Syria, 19, 40, 134, 191,
197
System-V intercept equipment,
44
SYSTRAN translation program,
555-56

Takkoush, Abed, 238
Talbott, Strobe, 386
Tall King missile system,
149-50, 154
Tattletale, 364-65
Taylor, James R. (Rich),
499-500
Taylor, Keith, 113
Taylor, Maxwell, 69, 87,
118, 131
Taylor, William, Jr., 278
Teaball warning system,
319-20
Technical Extracts of Traf
fic Analysis (TEXTA),
112
Tellman processing system,
504
Tempest emissions, 1to
Tenet, George J., 418,
476-77, 496, 542
Tera Computer, 600, 602
Terek, 111, 112
Tester, Ralph, 15
Tet offensive, 284, 332-40
casualties in, 336
growth of NSA and,
339-40
warnings of, 332-33
Thailand, 19, 322, 325
Thatcher, Margaret, 398,
399, 400
Thinking Machines Corporation,
597
3rd Radio Research Unit,
U.S., 288-91, 318
Thompson, Terry, 464,
465, 481, 533,
554, 557, 574, 575,
576-77
Thorn, Larry B., 220
303 Committee, 246, 250
TICOM (Target Intelligence
Committee)
missions, 8-12,
583
cryptologic targets
and objectives of,
9-10
Nazi codebreakers interrogated
by, 17-18
Russian Fish machines
discovered by, 15-17,
18
Ticonderoga, 298-99
Time, 378, 590
Tonkin Gulf Resolution,
299
Tooma, Sam, 242
Top Secret Intranet, 515
Tordella, Louis, 97-99, 103,
136, 222, 223, 232-33,
235, 269, 299, 377,
407, 428, 430-33, 526,
578
NSA's computer development
program and,
580-83, 588-89
Shamrock scheme as
outlined by, 436-38
Tordella Supercomputer
Facility, 579, 602-3
Torii Station, Okinawa,
156-57, 159
Torricelli, Robert, 446
Tour, James, 611
Tourney, Phillip F., 219-20,
233
Tovey, Brian, 398-99
Tower, John, 435
Trinidad plan, 74
Truman, Harry S., 7, 28,
30, 66, 286, 337,
436
TRW, 367, 523, 552
Turing, Alan, 485-86
Turkey, 19, 44, 48, 49, 51,
120-21, 124, 134, 147,
154, 179
Turner, Stansfield, 383-85,
479
Turner Joy, 297, 346
Twining, Nathan, 54, 57

U-2 crisis, 116-17, 322
congressional investigation
of, 53-62
Eisenhower's role in, 43,
49-50, 51, 52, 53-54,
55-60, 62
Khrushchev's revelations
to Supreme Soviet in,
5G--'S1, 52-53
Northwoods and, 82-83
Paris summit in, 54-55,
57
perjured testimony in,
60-62
Powers shot down in,
46-48
U-2 spy planes, 37, 43--44,
77, 90, 108, 318
in Cuban missile crisis,
109, 117, 118-19, 120,
122
successor to, 149-50
in Vietnam War, 322-24
Ultra, 8-9
Unified Cryptologic Architecture,
522
United Arab Republic
(UAR), 147, 186,
191-92, 209
United Kingdom-USA
(UKUSA) Communications
Intelligence
Agreement, 40,
394-405, 406, 409,
415, 420, 441
dissemination of names
by, 442--49
industrial espionage and,
422-24
key targets of, 407-8, 410
privacy issue and, 427-28
see also satellites, satellite
espionage
United Nations, 21-23, 83,
186, 426, 444, 447
JFK assassination and,
134
Korean War and, 25
U-2 crisis and, 50
United States Signals Intelligence
Directive
(USSID), 499
USSID 18, 442, 444, 449
Universe Computer system,
452
Urgench, 115, 116
Uruguay, 19, 147, 175
USA-512J, 194, 204, 216,
221, 227
"U.S. Identities in Sigint, "
442-43
Valdez, 132, 179-81, 182,
185, 259
Vallejo, Rene, 129-30
Van Fleet, James, 30
Vault Type Room (VTR),
507-8
Velasquez, Efrain Bamaca,
446
Venezuela, 19, 133, 511
Venona program, 21, 23,
303, 355
see also one-time pads
Vietcong, 288, 313, 315,
327-28, 329, 332
Vietnam, Democratic Republic
of (North Vietnam),
93
creation of, 284-85
Sigint efforts of, 303-4,
306-7
Vietnam, Republic of
(South Vietnam),
352
Vietnam War, 261,
283-353, 4-03, 429
airborne Sigint in,
317-25
Arc Light in, 308-10
CIA and, 331, 333,
337
classified materials abandoned
and lost in,
352-53
French colonialization
and, 284-86
jungle Sigint missions
in, 325-30
North Vietnamese cryptography
in, 288-89,
303-4, 306-7
NSA buildup in, 301-2
OPLAN-34A in, 291-92,
293, 298
Pueblo security breach
and, 307-8
Sigint in, 289-90,
292-93, 295, 301-6
U.S. bombing raids compromised
in, 308-11
U.S. evacuation from,
346-52
U.S. security shortcomings
in, 304-7, 311-12
see also Gulf of Tonkin
incident; Tet offensive

Vint Hill Farms Station
(Monitoring Station
Number 1), 19-20,
133
Vogt, John, 319
Volador, 273-75
von Neumann, John, 582
VQ-2, 195, 204

Walcott, John, 378
Walker, Edwin A., 66, 79
Walker, John (James
Harper), 244-45,
276-77, 307-8, 353
Walker, Walton H., 26
Wallace, F. Harrison,
152-53
Walsh, Lawrence E., 391
Ward, Joseph, 210-11, 224
War Department, U.S., 18
Confidential Code Num
ber 2 of, 18
Warren, Earl, 66, 69
Warren Commission, 135,
136
Washington-Moscow
Emergency Communications
Link,
192-93
Washington Post, 365, 378,
379-80
Watergate scandal, 431,
434
wavelength division multiplexing
(WDM), 461,
463, 465
Weaver, Larry, 200, 207,
209, 213-14, 217-18,
219, 228
Webworld, 512, 606
Weinberger, Caspar W.,
388, 389
Weisband, William, 24, 29,
30
Wescott, Gary, 344-46
Western Union, 22, 133,
434
Westmoreland, William,
284, 330-33, 334
Wetwash cable, 302
Weyand, Frederick C.,
334
Wheatley, Robert, 159
Wheeler, Earle G., 271
Whiff radar, 100
Whitaker, Paul K., 12-15
White, Lincoln, 53, 54
White, Stan, 208, 210-11,
214, 217, 219, 228
White Birch, 289
White Cloud satellite program,
165-66
Whitman, Ann, 53
Whitworth, Jerry, 277
Wieland, Daniel T., 182-83
Wigglesworth, Michael J.,
566
Williams, Penny Gamble,
561
Wilson, Craig L., 554
763
Wilson, Ralph, 66-67
Wilson, Robert L., 227-28
Winchester, Simon, 164-65
Winters, Robert C., 246-47
WLR-1 intercept receiver,
255
Wobensmith, John C.,
391-92
Woelk, Steven, 264
Wood, Jack, 155
Woodward, Bob, 379-80
Woodward, Gilbert, 278
Woolsey, R. James, 425
World Trade Center attack,
617-45
World War II, 160, 285,
312, 355-56, 397, 403,
486, 587
Wright, Beverly, 472-75
Wright, Wesley, 155

Xerox, 606-7

Y2K problem, 452-54
Yardley, Herbert 0., 3
Yasson, Phillip, 163
Yitzhaki, Aryeh, 202,
203
Yom Kippur War of 1973,
153
Yugoslavia, 19, 147, 554
Yurke, Bernard, 612

Zaslow, Milton S., 28,
269-70, 341
Zimmer, Jeanne Y.,
500-501
Zircon satellite, 400-401
ZR/RIFLE, 477-79
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