The Phoenix Program, by Douglas Valentine

"Science," the Greek word for knowledge, when appended to the word "political," creates what seems like an oxymoron. For who could claim to know politics? More complicated than any game, most people who play it become addicts and die without understanding what they were addicted to. The rest of us suffer under their malpractice as our "leaders." A truer case of the blind leading the blind could not be found. Plumb the depths of confusion here.

Re: The Phoenix Program, by Douglas Valentine

Postby admin » Wed Jun 10, 2015 6:09 am

NOTES

CHAPTER 1: Infrastructure


1. "Vietnam Policy and Prospects 1970" (Hearings before the Committee on Foreign Relations, U.S. Senate, February 17-20 and March 3, 14, 17, 19, 1970), p. 723.

2. Stanley Karnow, Vietnam: A History (New York: Viking, 1982), p. 60.

3. Karnow, p. 76.

4. Karnow, p. 82.

5. Karnow, p. 87.

6. David Galula, Counter-Insurgency Warfare: Theory and Practice (New York: Praeger, 1964) p. 80

7. Robert Slater, "The History, Organization and Modus Operandi of the Viet Cong Infrastructure" (Defense Intelligence School, March 1970), p. 3.

8. Richard Harris Smith, OSS: The Secret History of America's First Central Intelligence Agency (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1972), p. 347.

9. Nguyen Ngoc Huy, Understanding Vietnam (The D PC Information Service, the Netherlands, 1982), p. 85.

10. Interview with Jack.

11. Edward Lansdale, In the Midst of Wars (New York: Harper & Row, 1972), pp. 70- 72.

12. Lansdale, p. 72.

13. Kevin Generous, Vietnam: The Secret War (New York: Bison Books, 1985), p. 94.

14. Generous, p. 66.

IS. Lansdale, p.211.

16. Huy, p. 85.

17. J. J. Zasloff, "Origins of the Insurgency in South Vietnam 1954-1960" (Rand Memorandum RM-5163), p. 8.

18. Noam Chomsky, Counter-Revolutionary Violence: Bloodbaths in Fact and Propaganda (A Warner Modular Publication, 1973, USA), p. 57-18.

19. Huy, p. 85.

20. Lansdale, p. 340.

21. Lansdale, p. 343.

22. Lansdale, p. 344.

CHAPTER 2: Internal Security

1. Graham Greene, The Quiet American (New York: Viking, 1956), p. 8.

2. Jeffrey Race, War Comes to Long An (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1972), p. 19.

3. Race, p. 67.

4. Race, p. 52.

5. Ralph Johnson, Phoenix/Phung Hoang: A Study of Wartime Intelligence Management (Washington D.C.: American University, 1985), pp. 37-38.

6. Lansdale, pp. 82-88.

7. Interview with Clyde Bauer.

8. Don Schrande, "Father Hoa's Little War, " The Saturday Evening Post, February 17, 1962, p. 76.

9. Schrande, p. 76.

10. Interview with Bernard Yoh.

11. Slater, pp. 38-39.

12. Slater, p. 56.

13. Johnson, A Study, p. 64.

14. Johnson, A Study, p. 72.

15. "Vietnam Policy and Prospects 1970," p. 724.

16. Karnow, p. 410.

17. Race, p. 196.

18. Interview with William Colby.

19. Karnow, p. 284.

CHAPTER 3: Covert Action

1. Interview with Stu Methven.

2. Ralph Johnson, Phoenix/Phung Hoang: Planned Assassination or Legitimate Conflict Management! (Washington D.C.: American University, 1982), p. 5.

3. Methven interview.

4. Ralph Johnson, Phoenix/Phung Hoang: A Study of Wartime Intelligence Management (Washington D.C.: American University, 1985), p. 441.

5. Methven interview.

6. Race, pp. 239-240.

7. "Vietnam Policy and Prospects 1970, " p. 245.

8. "Alleged Assassination Plots Involving Foreign Leaders" (94th Congress, 1st Session, Senate Report No.94-465: Church Select Committee, Senate Select Committee on Government Operations with Respect to Intelligence [U.S. G.P.O., 1975], p. 278.

9. "Alleged Assassination Plots, " p. 139.

10. "Alleged Assassination Plots, " p. 336.

11. "Vietnam Policy and Prospects 1970, " p. 722.

12. Interview with Frank Scot ton, July 1986.

13. Ngo Vinh Long, "The CIA and the Vietnam Debacle" in Uncloaking the CIA, ed. Howard Frazier (New York: The Free Press, 1978), p. 72.

14. Scotton interview.

15. Scotton interview.

16. Karnow, p. 281.

17. Huy, p. 97.

18. Huy, p. 101.

19. Huy, p. 110.

20. Scotton interview.

21. Interview with Walter Mackem.

CHAPTER 4: Revolutionary Development

1. Scotton interview.

2. Peer DeSilva, Sub Rosa (New York: New York Times Books, 1978), p. 249.

3. DeSilva, p. 247.

4. DeSilva, p. 245.

5. DeSilva, p. 250.

6. Lansdale, p. 75.

7. Seymour Hersh, Cover-Up (New York: Random House, 1972), p. 85.

8. Interview with Tom Donohue.

9. Huy, p. 123.

10. Buy, p. 123.

11. Scotton interview.

12. William A. Nighswonger, Rural Pacification in Vietnam (New York: Praeger, 1966), p. 298.

CHAPTER 5: PICs

1, Galula, p. 117.

2. Slater, p. 21.

3. Galula, p. 124.

4. Scotton interview.

5. John Marks, The Search for the Manchurian Candidate (New York: New York Times Books, 1979), p. 178.

6. Marks, p. 179.

7. Johnson, A Study, p. 400.

8. Major General Joseph McChristian, The Role of Military Intelligence 1965-1967 (Washington D.C.: Department of the Army, 1974), p. 14.

9. McChristian, p. 71.

10. McChristian, p. 50.

11. McChristian, p. 26.

CHAPTER 6: Field Police

1. Interview with William Grieves.

2. Letter to the author from Nguyen Van Dai.

3. Interview with Douglas McCollum.

CHAPTER 7: Special Branch

1. Interview with Nelson Henry Brickham.

2. Interview with Tom Donohue.

3. Warren Milberg, "The Future Applicability of the Phoenix Program" (Research Study, Report #1835-74, Air Command and Staff College, Air University, Maxwell Air Force Base, May 1974), pp. 33-34.

4. Galula, p. 120.

5. The Herald Tribune, October 21, 1965.

6. Anthony Herbert, Soldier (New York: Bolt Rinehart & Winston, 1973), pp. 105-106.

7. Berbert, p. 106.

8. Milberg, p. 50.

9. Milberg, p. 34.

10. Galula, p. 110.

11. Interview with James Ward.

12. Interview with Sam Drakulich.

CHAPTER 8: Attack on the VCI

1. The Pentagon Papers (Washington D.C.: U.S. Department of Defense, 1971),
Vol. V, p. 58.

2. Brickham interview.

3. The Pentagon Papers, Vol. V, pp. 120-122.

4. Nelson Brickham, "Attack on the VCI" (Saigon: November 1966), p. 1.

5. Brickham, "Attack," p. 1.

6. Brickham, "Attack," p. 4.

7. Brickham, " Attack," p. 4.

8. McChristian, p. 72.

9. McChristian, p. 72.

10. McChristian, p. 74.

11. Interview with Tulius Acampora.

12. Interview with Dang Van Minh.

13. Interview with Lawrence Tracy.

14. McChristian, p. 78.

15. Interview with Robert Wall.

CHAPTER 9: ICEX

1. Brickham interview.

2. Nelson Brickham, " A Proposal for the Coordination and Management of Intelligence Programs and Attack on the VC Infrastructure and Local Irregular Forces (Saigon: June 1967), p. 1.

3. Brickham, "Proposal, " p. 3.

4. Brickham, "Proposal, " p. 4.

5. Interview with Evan J. Parker, Jr.

6. Johnson, A Study, p. 174.

7. McChristian, p. 76.

8. Interview with Edward Brady.

9. Johnson, A Study, p. 110.

10. Ward interview.

CHAPTER 10: Action Programs

1. Johnson, A Study, p. 196.

2. Parker interview.

3. Acampora interview.

4. At Santoli, Everything We Had (New York: Ballantine Books, 1984), p. 202.

5. Johnson, A Study, p. 200.

6. Johnson, A Study, p. 200.

7. Brickham interview.

8. Interview with Robert Brewer.

9. Ward interview.

10. Johnson, A Study, p. 198.

11. Johnson, A Study, p. 197.

12. "Project Take-Off" (Saigon; U.S. Military Assistance Command, Vietnam, November 1967) p. 3.

13. Johnson, A Study, p. 391.

14. Letter to the author from Randolph Berkeley.

15. Milberg, p. 60.

16. Milberg, p. 61.

17. Interview with Robert Slater.

18. Milberg, p. 61.

19. Tran Van Truong, A Vietcong Memoir (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1985), p. 108.

20. Truong, p. 110.

21. "Project Take-Off, " p. 3.

CHAPTER 11: PRU

1. Scot ton interview.

2. Donohue interview.

3. Ward interview.

4. Raymond Bonner, Waltzing with a Dictator (New York: Random House, 1987) p. 75.

5. Interview with Robert Peartt.

6. The Pentagon Papers, Vol. V, p. 120.

7. Grieves interview.

8. McCollum interview.

9. David Welch, "Pacification in Vietnam, " Ramparts, October 1967, p. 39.

10. Milberg, p. 39.

11. Interview with John Wilbur.

12. Parker interview.

13. Brickham interview.

14. Santoli, pp. 203-204.

15. Santoli, p. 204.

16. Santoli, p. 205.

17. Santoli, pp. 217-218.

18. Interview with Louis Lapham.

CHAPTER 12: Tet


1. Brickham interview.

2. Acampora interview.

3. Lapham interview.

4. Lapham interview.

5. Interview with Renz Hoeksema.

6. Wilbur interview.

7. Interview with Howard Stone.

8. Karnow, p. 514.

9. Interview with Tom McCoy.

10. Interview with Warren Milberg.

11. Karnow, p. 523.

12. Interview with Rudy Enders.

13. Karnow, p. 532.

14. The Pentagon Papers, Senator Gravel edition (Boston: Beacon Press, 1971), Vol. IV, p. 578.

15. Slater, p. 48.

16. Buy, p. 129.

17. Interview with Robert Inman.

18. Letter to the author from Lionel Rosenblatt.

19. Interview with George French.

20. Slater, p. ix.

21. Brady interview.

22. Buy, p. 130.

23. Buy, p. 136.

24. Buy, p. 130.

25. "Status of Phoenix/Phung Boang for Period January-June 1968" (Saigon, MAC CORDS, Phoenix Fact Sheet, August 10, 1968, LTC Lemire).

26. Johnson, A Study, p. 275.

27. John Cook, The Advisor (Philadelphia, Pa.: Dorrance, 1973), p. 195.

28. Wall interview.

CHAPTER 13: Parallax Views

1. Brewer interview.

2. Milberg interview.

3. Manzione interview.

CHAPTER 14: Phoenix in Flight

1. Milberg interview.

2. Milberg, p. 62.

3. Milberg, p. 44.

4. Milberg, p. 50.

5. Milberg, p. 51.

6. Milberg, p. 53.

7. Milberg, p. 57.

8. Interview with Douglas Dillard.

9. Letter to the author from Bruce Palmer.

10. Ward interview.

11. Santoli, p. 204.

12. McChristian, p. 100.

CHAPTER 15: Modus Vivendi

1. Dillard interview.

2. Slater, p. 56.

3. Interview with Jack.

4. Interview with Brian Willson.

5. Dinh Tuong An, "The Truth About Phoenix" (Saigon, Tin Sang, 1970-71).

6. An, "Truth."

7. An, "Truth."

8. An, "Truth."

9. An, "Truth."

10. An, "Truth."

11. An, "Truth."

12. An, "Truth."

13. Milberg interview.

14. An, "Truth."

15. An, "Truth."

16. An, "Truth."

17. Dillard interview.

18. An, "Truth."

19. An, "Truth."

20. Truong, p. 113.

21. Truong, p. 117.

22. Truong, p. 117.

23. Frank Snepp, Decent Interval (New York: Random House, 1978), p. 31.

24. Snepp, p. 38.

CHAPTER 16: Advisers

1. Dillard interview.

2. Ward interview.

3. Letter to the author from George Dexter.

4. Milberg, p. 46.

5. Interview with Henry McWade.

6. Johnson, A Study, p. 265.

7. Brady interview.

8. Truong, p. 136.

CHAPTER 17: Accelerated Pacification

1. "Vietnam Policy and Prospects 1970, " p. 716.

2. Thomas Thayer, A Systems Analysis of the Vietnam War 1965-1972, Vol. 10: Pacification and Civil Affairs (Washington D.C.: Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense, 1975), pp. 40-43.

3. Peartt interview.

4. Wilbur interview.

5. William Colby, Honorable Men (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1978), pp. 260-263.

6. Huy, p. 141.

7. Cook, p. 113.

8. Race, p. 239.

9. Race, p. 239.

10. Race, p. 240.

11. McCoy interview.

12. Letter to the author from Frank Walton.

13. Colby, pp. 207-208.

14. Dillard interview.

15. Interview with Richard Bradish.

16. Interview with Walter Kolon.

17. Cook, p. 208.

18. Race, p. 238.

19. Brickham and Ward interviews.

20. Colby, p. 269.

21. Jack interview.

CHAPTER 18: Transitions

1. Brady interview.

2. Brickham interview.

3. Interview with Shelby Roberts.

4. John Berry, Those Gallant Men on Trial in Vietnam (Novato, Calif.: Presidio Press, 1984), p. 56.

5. McWade interview.

6. Dillard interview.

7. Interview with Ralph McGehee.

8. Ralph McGehee, Deadly Deceits (New York: Sheridan Square Press, 1983) p. 141.

9. McGehee, p. 142.

10. McGehee, p. 142.

11. "Hearing on the Nomination of William Colby" (Committee on Armed Services, U.S. Senate, July 2, 20, 25, 1973), p. 56.

12. The New York Times, November 10, 1984.

13. The Boston Globe, November 14, 1984, p. 10.

14. The Boston Globe, November 14, 1984, p. 10.

15. The New York Times, November, 21, 1984, p. B2.

16. "Hearing on the Nomination of William Colby," p. 57.

17. McGehee, pp. 127-128.

18. McGehee, p. 128.

19. McGehee, p. 84.

20. McGehee, pp. 82-83.

21. McGehee, p. 145.

22. Colby interview.

23. Colby, p. 266.

24. Johnson, A Study, p. 370.

25. Lapham interview.

26. Interview with Ted Shackley.

27. "Phoenix Reorganization" (Saigon, MACCORDS, February 6, 1969), cited in Johnson, A Study, p. 370.

28. Parker interview.

29. Johnson, A Study, p. 372.

30. Johnson, A Study, p. 304.

CHAPTER 19: Psyops

1. "Phung Hoang/Phoenix 1969 End of Year Report" (Saigon, MACCORDS, February 28, 1970), p. D-3.

2. Scott Breckenridge, The CIA and the US Intelligence System (Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1985), p. 170.

3. William Turley, Far East Asian Economic Review, May 2, 1985.

4. 1969 End of Year Report, p. B-6.

5. An, "Truth."

6. Ward interview.

7. 1969 End of Year Report, p. B-6-1.

8. 1969 End of Year Report, p. B-3-1.

9. "Phung Hoang Results Due Directly to Psyops" (Saigon, MACCORDS, Phoenix Directorate, December 6, 1970).

10. Cook, p. 182.

11. Johnson, A Study; p. 355.

12. 1969 End of Year Report, p. B-10-3.

13. An, "Truth."

14. "Phung Hoang Results Due Directly to Psyops."

15. "Phung Boang/phoenix Program" (Washington D.C.: The Joint Chiefs of Staff, Memorandum for the Secretary of Defense, JCSM-394-70, August 15, 1970, from Major General Frank B. Clay, Deputy Director, Joint Staff).

16. "Phung Hoang Results Due Directly to Psyops."

17. Joseph Treaster, "The Phoenix Murders, " Penthouse, December 1975, p. 147.

18. 1969 End of Year Report, p. B-I-2.

19. 1969 End of Year Report, p. B-2-1-6.

20. 1969 End of Year Report, p. B-2-1-6.

21. 1969 End of Year Report, p. B-l-l to B-I-3.

22. 1969 End of Year Report, p. D-7.

23. Treaster, p. 147.

24. Colby, p. 269.

25. Johnson, A Study, pp. 304-305.

26. "Special Collection Program BIG MACK" (Saigon, MACCORDS, MACJ212-2
Fact Sheet, December 8, 1970).

27. Dillard interview.

28. 1969 End of Year Report, pp. 8 and C.

29. 1969 End of Year Report, pp. 8 and C.

30. "Tracking of Arrested Individuals" (Saigon, CORDS Public Safety Fact Sheet, L. M. Rosen, November 27, 1970).

31. "National Police Redeployment Concept" (Saigon, CORDS Public Safety Fact Sheet, L. M. Rosen, December 8, 1970).

CHAPTER 20: Reforms

1. Johnson, A Study, p. 406.

2. Ministry of Interior Circular 757, "Classification and Rehabilitation of Offenders, " Saigon, March 21, 1969.

3. Johnson, A Study, p. 406.

4. Ministry of Interior Circular 2212, "Improvements of the Methods of Resolving the Status of Offenders," Saigon, August 20, 1969.

5. Interview with Lien Johnson.

6. Interview with Harry Johnson.

7. Interview with Lien Johnson.

8. Interview with Tom Polgar.

9. Brady interview.

10. Kamow, pp. 440-441.

11. Johnson, A Study, pp. 374-375.

12. Enders interview.

13. Cited in "The Phoenix/Phung Boang and Provincial Reconnaissance Units (PRU) Programs, " undated Memorandum for the Secretary of Defense, from General Abrams.

14. "The Phoenix/Phung Boang and Provincial Reconnaissance Units (PRU) Programs."

15. "The Phoenix/Phung Boang and Provincial Reconnaissance Units (PRU) Programs."

16. "The Phoenix/Phung Hoang and Provincial Reconnaissance Units (PRU) Programs."

17. Interview with Jack.

18. Interview with Michael McCann.

19. Interview with Fred Dick.

CHAPTER 21: Decay

1. Buy, p. 139.

2. Huy, p. 146.

3. Lansdate, p. 343.

4. Snepp, p. 15n.

5. Scotton interview.

6. "Bearing on the Nomination of William Colby," p. 58.

7. McGehee interview.

8. McGehee, pp. 153-154.

9. McGehee, p. 154.

10. McGehee, p. 154.

11. McGehee, p. 153.

12. Michael Maclear, The Ten Thousand Day War (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1981), p. 261.

13. "U.S. Assistance Programs in Vietnam" (Foreign Operations and Government Information Subcommittee, Committee on Government Operations, July 15, 16, 19, 21 and August 2, 1971), p. 105.

14. "U.S. Assistance Programs in Vietnam," p. 105.

15. Maclear, p. 263.

16. Snepp, p. 12.

17. Interview with Ed Murphy.

18. Erwin Knoll, "The Mysterious Project Phoenix," The Progressive, February 1970.

19. Knoll.

20. Georgie Anne Geyer, "The CIA's Hired Killers, " True, February 1970.

CHAPTER 22: Hearings

1. The New York Times, February 17, 1970.

2. State Department Telegram 024391 from Clayton McManaway to William Sullivan, Subject: "Senate Hearings, " February 17, 1970.

3. Grieves interview.

4. Letter to the author from Nguyen Van Dai.

5. "Vietnam Policy and Prospects 1970, " p. 200.

6. "Vietnam Policy and Prospects 1970, " p. 201.

7. "Vietnam Policy and Prospects 1970, " p. 201.

8. "Vietnam Policy and Prospects 1970, " p. 201.

9. "Vietnam Policy and Prospects 1970, " p. 201.

10. Geyer.

11. Colby interview.

12. Neil Sheehan, "An American Soldier in Vietnam, Part III: An All-Round Man," The New Yorker, June 20, 1988, pp. 54-55.

13. "Vietnam Policy and Prospects 1970, " p. 212.

14. "Vietnam Policy and Prospects 1970, " p. 118.

15. "Vietnam Policy and Prospects 1970, " p. 119.

16. "Vietnam Policy and Prospects 1970, " p. 120.

17. "Vietnam Policy and Prospects 1970, " p. 120.

18. Michael Drosnin, "Phoenix: The CIA's Biggest Assassination Program" (New Times, August 22, 1975), p. 19.

19. "Vietnam Policy and Prospects 1970, " p. 205.

20. "Vietnam Policy and Prospects 1970, " p. 205-206.

21. "Vietnam Policy and Prospects 1970, " p. 206.

22. "Vietnam Policy and Prospects 1970, " p. 206.

23. "Vietnam Policy and Prospects 1970, " p. 207.

24. "Vietnam Policy and Prospects 1970, " p. 104.

25. Buy, p. 141.

26. The New York Times, February 22, 1970.

27. "Phung Hoang/phoenix Program" (Washington D.C. : The Joint Chiefs of Staff, August 15, 1970, Memorandum for the Secretary of Defense from Major General Frank B. Clay, Deputy Director, Joint Staff) (hereafter called the Clay memo), p. 2.

28. Clay memo, p. 8.

29. Phung Hoang Adviser Handbook (Saigon, MACCORDS, November 20, 1970), p. 10.

30. Colby, p. 268.

31. Johnson, A Study, pp. 341-342.

32. Brady interview.

33. Murphy interview.

CHAPTER 23: Dissension

1. Karnow, p, 606.

2. Interview with Lucy Nhiem Bong Nguyen.

3. Kamow, p. 608.

4. Interview with Thomas P. McGrevey.

5. Karnow, p. 610.

6. Chomsky, p. 57-26.

7. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations: Cambodia, May 1970 Staff Report, p. 5.

8. Interview with Philip Agee in Playboy, March 1975, p. 60.

9. "Phung Hoang 1970 End of Year Report" (Saigon, MACCORDS, Phung Hoang Directorate, May 11, 1971), p. 43.

10. 1970 End of Year Report, p. 13.

11. Karnow, p. 611.

12. Karnow, p. 612.

13. Karnow, p. 634.

CHAPTER 24: Transgressions

1. McCollum interview.

2. Parker interview.

3. "Calley Defense Asks Disclosure of Top-Secret Data on Song My," The New York Times, August 25, 1970.

4. Wall interview.

5. Hersh, p. 87.

6. Hersh, p. 88.

7. Bersh, p. 88.

8. Hersh, p. 88.

9. Hersh, p. 88.

10. Myra MacPherson, Long Time Passing (New York: Signet, 1984), p. 625.

11. Joseph Goldstein, The My Lai Massacre and Its Cover-up (New York: The Free Press, 1976), p. 256.

12. Hersh, p. 93.

13. Hersh, p. 93.

14. Hersh, p. 95.

15. Goldstein, p. 145.

16. Hersh, p. 95.

17. Goldstein, p. 339.

18. Goldstein, p. 270.

19. Goldstein, p. 277.

20. Goldstein, p. 278.

21. Goldstein, p. 288.

22. Goldstein, p. 313.

23. Hersh, pp. 188-189.

24. MacPherson, p. 625.

25. Interview with George Davis.

26. Jeffrey Stein and Michael T. Klare, "From the Ashes: Phoenix," Commonweal, April 20, 1975, p. 159.

27. "U.S. Assistance Programs in Vietnam," p. 53.

28. Drosnin, p. 24.

29. Drosnin, p. 24.

30. Drosnin, p. 23.

31. Don Luce, Hostages of War (Indochina Resource Center, 1973) p. 26.

32. Luce, p. 27.

33. Luce, p. 24.

CHAPTER 25: Da Nang

1. Interview with Daniel Jerry Bishop.

2. Interview with Bill Taylor.

CHAPTER 26: Revisions

1. Clay memo, p. 2.

2. 1970 End of Year Report, p. v.

3. 1970 End of Year Report, p. 51.

4. "National Police Redeployment Concept."

5. Dillard interview.

6. Luce, p. 30.

7. 1970 End of Year Report, p. 19.

8. Thayer, p. 82.

9. Thayer, p. 99.

10. Grieves interview.

11. Thayer, p. 95.

12. Clay memo, p. 8.

13. Clay memo, p. 3.

14. Letter to the author from Harold Child.

15. Interview with Chester McCoid.

16. Kolon interview.

17. Interview with James Bunt.

18. Colby interview.

19. "Response to Ambassador Colby's Check List" (to William Sullivan, Deputy Assistant Secretary of State, from Richard Funkhouser, Office of the Deputy for CORDS, II Field Force Vietnam, December 1, 1970).

20. Interview with Walt Burmester.

21. Enders interview.

22. Interview with Donald Gregg.

23. Clay memo, p. 7.

24. "Internal Security in South Vietnam-Phoenix," December 12, 1970.

25. Interview with Paul Coughlin.

26. Acampora interview.

CHAPTER 27: Legalities

1. Johnson, Planned Assassination.

2. Interview with William Phillips.

3. The New York Times, April 17, 1971, p. 5.

4. "U .S. Assistance Programs in Vietnam," p. 206.

5. "U.S. Assistance Programs in Vietnam," p. 192.

6. "U.S. Assistance Programs in Vietnam," p. 194.

7. "U.S. Assistance Programs in Vietnam," p. 195.

8. "U.S. Assistance Programs in Vietnam," p. 195.

9. "U.S. Assistance Programs in Vietnam," p. 197.

10. "U .S. Assistance Programs in Vietnam," p. 206.

11.. "U.S. Assistance Programs in Vietnam," p. 207.

12. "U.S. Assistance Programs in Vietnam," p. 208.

13. "U.S. Assistance Programs in Vietnam," p. 208.

14. "U.S. Assistance Programs in Vietnam," p. 237.

15. "U.S. Assistance Programs in Vietnam," p. 251.

16. "U.S. Assistance Programs in Vietnam," p. 251.

17. "U.S. Assistance Programs in Vietnam," p. 252.

18. "U .S. Assistance Programs in Vietnam," p. 283.

19. "U.S. Assistance Programs in Vietnam," p. 313.

20. "U.S. Assistance Programs in Vietnam," p. 314.

21. "U.S. Assistance Programs in Vietnam," p. 315.

22. "U.S. Assistance Programs in Vietnam," p. 321.

23. "U.S. Assistance Programs in Vietnam" Additional Views of Bon. Paul N. McCloskey, Jr. (Concurred in by Bon. Benjamin S. Rosenthal, Bon. John Conyers, Jr., and Bon. Bella S. Abzug), pp. 105-107.

24. "U.S. Assistance Programs in Vietnam," p. 191.

25. Interview with Sid Towle.

26. Towle interview.

27. W. Gage McAfee, "End of Tour Report" (Saigon, CORDS PP&P, August 11, 1971), p. 5.

28. "End of Tour Report: W. Gage McAfee, Comments of Reviewing Officer" (Saigon, CORDS PP&P, undated, signed by Norman L. Sweet, Director, Plans, Policy and Programs), p. 2.

29. "An Tri Reforms-Saigon 19140" (Cable to William H. Sullivan from U.S. State Department Legal Adviser Robert I. Starr, December 13, 1971).

CHAPTER 28: Technicalities

1. Interview with Cornelius J. O'Shea, Jr.

2. Coughlin interview.

3. Interview with George Hudman.

4. "Recommended Reorganization of the Phung Hoang Program" (State Department Telegram 196060 from Secretary of State William Rogers to Ambassador Ellsworth Bunker in Saigon, in response to COMUSMACV 129816).

5. Interview with Rob Simmons.

6. Colby interview.

7. Wall interview.

8. "The Evolution of American Military Intelligence" (The U.S. Army Intelligence Center and School, Ft. Huachuca, Arizona, May 1973), p. 117.

9. Interview with Tom Polgar.

10. Enders interview.

11. Drosnin, p. 21.

12. Michael T. Klare, "Operation Phoenix and the Failure of Pacification in South Vietnam" (Liberation, May 1973), p. 25.

13. Interview with Lew Millett.

14. Interview with Stan Fulcher.

15. "An Tri Observations and Recommendations" (Saigon, MACCORDS, Phoenix Directorate, from John Tilton to the Director, CORDS PP&P, April 11, 1972), p. 1.

16. "An Tri Observations and Recommendations."

17. "An Tri Reform" (Department of State Telegram 02917 from Ambassador Bunker in Saigon to Secretary of State William Rogers in Washington, March 1972), p. 1.

18. "An Tri" (Draft Airgram from Saigon embassy political officer Steven Winship to the Department of State on April 27, 1972), p. 2.

19. "Special Phung Boang Campaign in the Delta" (State Department Telegram 271149Z, April 1972, Ambassador Ellsworth Bunker).

20. "Presidential Decree Law on Administrative Detention and An Tri Proceedings" (State Department Telegram 050556Z, January 1973, Ambassador Ellsworth Bunker).

21. "Phung Hoang Special Campaign (F6) Ends" (State Department Telegram 051334Z, January 1973, Ambassador Ellsworth Bunker), p. 3.

22. "Phung Boang Program" (Department of State Telegram 054228 from Secretary of State William Rogers to the Saigon embassy, March 1972), p. 2.

CHAPTER 29: Phoenix in Flames

1. Dillard interview.

2. Stein and Klare, "From the Ashes," p. 159.

3. "Ceasefire and Political Sitrep MR 1, X Plus 137, June 14" (Department of State Telegram 141435Z from Charles Whitehouse, June 1973).

4. Interview with Bruce Lawlor.

5. Thayer, p. 103.

6. Brady interview.

7. Huy, p. 155.

8. McCollum interview.

9. Fred Branfman, "South Vietnam's Police and Prison System" in Uncloaking the CIA, ed. Boward Frazier (New York: The Free Press, 1978), p. 103.

10. Grieves interview.

11. Interview with Philip Agee in Playboy, March 1975, pp. 48-60.

12. "Master of Deceit" (NACLA's "Latin America and Empire Report," December 10, 1974), pp. 13-15.

13. Robert Kaylor, UPI Bangkok, January 8, 1975.

14. "Phoenix Program-Another False UPI Report" (Department of State Telegram 111317Z from Ambassador Graham Martin to the Secretary of State, January 1973).

15. PVT interview.

16. Snepp, p. 456.

17. Snepp, p. 567.

EPILOGUE

1. Fulcher interview.

2. Huy, pp. 168-170.

3. Allan Nairn, "Confessions of a Death Squad Officer, " The Progressive, March 1986, pp. 26-30.

4. Jay Peterzell, "The CIA and Political Violence in El Salvador, " First Principles, Vol. 10, No. 2, November/December 1984, pp. 1-2.

5. "George Bush's Iran-Contra Albatross, " U.S. News & World Report, January 18, 1988, p. 23.

6. "George Bush's Iran-Contra Albatross."

7. Dennis Volkman, "Salvadoran Death Squads: A CIA Connection?," The Christian Science Monitor, May 8, 1984.

8. The Boston Globe, July 10, 1984.

9. Pamela Constable, "El Salvador Targets Rebels' Volcano Stronghold," The Boston Globe, January 1985.

10. James Dickey, With the Contras (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1985), pp. 254-256.

11. Dickey, pp. 254-257.

12. The New York Times, November 2, 1984.

13. "Aides: CIA Chiefs Didn't Okay Guide," The Boston Globe, October 24, 1984, p. 7.

14. "CIA Manual Said Based on Old Ideas," The Boston Globe, October 29, 1984, p. 3.

15. "Reagan Now Says Manual Was Mistranslated, " The New York Times, November 4, 1984, p. 21.

16. Dickey, p. 257.

17. Beth Bawkins, "Pastora: North Was Behind Bombing," The Tico Times, San Jose, Costa Rica, May 15, 1987.
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Re: The Phoenix Program, by Douglas Valentine

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Index

AA (Air America), 48, 81, 153, 267
Abourezk, James, 413, 415
Abrams, Greighton, 129, 161, 181, 253, 278,
297, 302, 321, 323, 328-329, 365
366, 390
Abzug, Bella, 382
Acampora, Tulius, 121-123, 134, 137, 146
149, 174, 176, 180, 186-187, 319,
373n
"Action Program for Attack on VG
Infrastructure 1967-1968," 142-158,
160
Adams, Sam, 177, 271-274, 305, 369
Advisor, The (Cook), 191
Agee, Philip, 333, 414
Agent Orange, 217-218
Ahearne, Tom, 383, 384
AID (Agency for International
Development), 44, 51, 71, 81, 92-93,
96, 99, 125, 132, 217, 301, 366
Public Safety Division of, see Public
Safety
AIK (Aid-in-Kind), 81, 162, 299
Akins, Dick, 105
Allen, George W., 273
Allen, Herb, 390
Allende Gossens, Salvador, 333
Allito, Tony, 257
Almy, Dean, 139
Alsop, Joseph, 339
Anderson, Babe Ruth, 162
Anderson, Jack, 413
Anderson, William, 348
An Ninh, 40, 42
ANSESAL (Salvadoran National Security
Agency), 422
antiterrorism, counterterrorism contrasted
to, 426
APG (accelerated pacification campaign),
257-265, 281, 294
Apple, R. W., 68
APTs (armed propaganda teams), 43-44, 46
47, 54, 56, 65, 106
Aristode, 426
Arthur, John, 391
ARVN (Army of the Republic of Vietnam):
intelligence operations of, see MSS
modus vivendi of, 230-231
Vietcong superior to, 51-52
A teams, 210-211, 226
"Attack Against the Viet Gong
Infrastructure" (Brickham), 118-
120
Ayres, Drummond, 276

Babineau, Raymond, 32, 35, 41
Bable, Eugene P., 281
Bailey, William, 394n
Bao Dai, 23-24, 294
Barker, Frank, 344, 345
Barlow, Jack, 79-80
Bartolomucci, Tony, 78-79
Bauer, Clyde, 34-35, 217
Beamon, Mike, 170-171, 207
Becker, Tom, 123
Ben (intelligence), 80
Benitez, Antonio Flores, 333
Bennett, Josiah, 385, 391
Berkeley, Randolph, 152-153
Berry, John, 271
B-52 strikes, 211-212, 217-218
Biet Kich, 59, 83
Big Mack computer, 288-289
"Big" Minh, see Duong Van "Big" Minh
Binh Xuyen, 25, 29, 31, 156
Bishop, Jerry, 351-357, 359
Bissell, Richard, 47
Blackburn, Donald, 76, 298
black propaganda, 48, 49, 50, 339
Blanchard, George, 298
Blandon, Adolfo, 425
Bordenkircher, Donald, 292
Boston Globe, 425
Bradish, Richard, 261-262
Brady, Ed, 136, 146, 185, 230-235, 263,
265, 26-7, 295, 325, 406, 410-411
Brewer, Robert, 149-150, 193, 202-203,
207, 209
Brewster, Kingman, 166
Brickham, Nelson, 113, 122, 136, 138, 146,
168, 174, 254, 265, 267, 326
career of, 101-102
interviews with, 100, 102-112, 114-118,
124, 127-130, 132-133, 139-142, 148
VCI as studied by, 118-119, 130-132,
142-143, 151, 154, 291
Brogdon, James, 144, 182
Brown, Dean, 407, 417
Brown, Robert, 428
Brussell, Mae, 337
Buckley, Tom, 321
Buckley, William, 296, 424
Buckley, William, Jr., 339
Buddhist crisis, 38, 44, 305
Buddhists, Vietnamese, 46, 52, 61, 95, 143,
303, 304
Buhto, Junichi, 136-137, 144, 147
Bui Tu, 149-150
Bull, Kinloch, 105, 137, 139, 167-168, 172,
255
Bumgartner, Everett, 49-50, 54, 257, 320,
417
Bunker, Ellsworth, 127, 135, 297, 304, 322,
323, 386, 387, 391, 400-402
Burke, Tom, 105
Burmester, Walter, 368-369
Bush, George, 424, 428
Butterfield, Fox, 405

Calley, William, 342, 344
Cambodia, 34, 75, 90, 128, 210-211, 214,
253-254, 281, 314n
invasion of, 327-330
Can Lao Nham Vi, 24, 25, 27 , 28, 29, 31,
38, 41, 179, 303, 411
Cao Dai religious sect, 22, 25, 29, 62
Cao Minh Thiep, 329, 330
Cao Van Vien, 232, 303, 411, 417
Carey, Richard, 406
Carranza, Nicholas, 423n
Carver, George, 139-140, 159, 272-273, 391,
392
Case, Clifford, 319, 320
Casey, William, 426
Castro, Fidel, 47-48
Castro, Ricardo, 422-424
Cavanaugh, Steve, 330
CDs (civilian detainees), 126, 151-154, 381,
387
Census Grievance program, 63, 124, 179,
277
as intelligence operation, 70, 72-73, 99,
106-107, 167
original purpose of, 66-67
Chamorro, Edgar, 427
Chiang Kai-shek, 23, 37
Chieu Hoi (Open Arms) amnesty program,
98, 99, 107
defectors and, 51, 83, 109
successes ascribed to, 281-282
Child, Harold, 367
China, People's Republic of, 44, 102
Church Committee report, 48, 428
CIA (Central Intelligence Agency):
Cambodian invasion engineered by, 327
332
captured documents used by, 334-335
compromise and discreditation by, 332
334
contemporary counterterrorism of, 420
429
counterinsurgency organized by, 40-42
development of Phoenix program and,
114-116, 124-126, 128-136
domestic dissent suppressed by, 338-339
and end of Vietnam War, 391, 414, 417
419
interrogation models of, 73-88
My Lai massacre and, 342-347
"old-boy network" in, 420, 421, 428
police models of, 89-112
political warfare as practiced by, 43-51,
54-56
psychological warfare models of, 57-72
security networks established by, 24-37,
52-54
see also Colby, William; Komer, Robert
"Blowtorch"; MACV; Phoenix
program
CIA and the Vietnam Debacle, The (Long),
50
CIA Diary (Agee), 414
"CIA's Hired Killers, The" (Geyer), 314
CIDG (Civilian Irregular Defense Group)
program, 36-37, 45-46, 55, 64
CIO (Central Intelligence Organization), 41,
42, 74, 77, 78, 79, 84, 103, 121, 175,
176
Circular 757, 291-292, 316
Circular 2212, 293
Civic Action program, 27, 29, 33, 34, 36,
44, 49, 54, 70
Clarridge, Duane, 427
Clay, Frank, 321, 324, 363, 366
Clifford, Clark, 190
CMDC (Capital Military District
Command), 187-188, 269
Coburn, Judy, 312
Colby, William, 49, 71, 168, 268, 349, 410,
427
APTs as described by, 46-47
background and personality of, 144, 275
CIA operations directed by, 34-36, 104,
143, 188, 271, 274-275, 277-278,
291, 293, 296, 298, 324, 366, 368,
374, 377, 392, 414-415, 420
Phoenix program and, 19, 40-41, 119,
184, 301-302, 314-321, 334, 377-382,
385, 420
Vietnamization and, 254-265, 294
Collier, Bob, 105
colonialism, Vietnam ruled by, 20-22
Combat Police, 95"
"combat psywar" model, 25, 44
Combined Intelligence Center, 86-87, 120,
123, 147, 187
Communists, 22, 40, 43, 48, 51, 52, 90, 118
Diem and, 28-29, 42, 46
intelligence networks modeled on, 58, 99
see also VC; VCI
computer systems, 363
in psychological warfare, 288-290
"Concept for Organization for Attack on VC
Infrastructure, A" (Brickham and
Hansen), 130-131
Condon, Robert, 393
Conein, Lucien, 13
Cong An, see VBI
Conger, Russ, 203
Con Son Prison, 20, 21, 22, 32, 33, 153,
189, 348-349, 411-412
Constant, Tom, 298
contras, 426-428
Contre Coup doctrine, 44, 46, 59, 107, 313,
316, 335, 340-341, 427
see also counterterrorism, counterterrorists
Conyers, John, 382
Cook, John, 191, 257, 264, 271, 283
Cooper, Sherman, 319
Cooper, Wayne, 288
cordon and search operations, 91, 162, 189,
207, 343, 344
CORDS (Civil Operations and Revolutionary
Development), 127, 159, 167, 254,
266-267, 277, 300, 374, 390, 392
Phoenix program and, 116-117, 157, 175,
182, 230, 272, 278, 288, 316, 325
corruption, 396-397, 407, 411
South Vietnam blamed for, 276
Vietnamization and, 266-271
COSVN (Central Office of South Vietnam),
38, 109-110, 167, 174, 175, 280, 287,
305, 328-330
Coughlin, Paul, 373, 389, 390
Counter-Insurgency Warfare: Theory and
Practice (Galula), 21
counterterrorism, counterterrorists (CTs),
25, 27, 44-47, 49, 91, 106-107, 117,
172
interrogation models for, 73-88
psychological warfare models for, 57-72
see also specific organizations
covert action:
characteristics of personnel in, 106
political and psychological rationales for,
43-73
see also specific operations and programs
Cover-up (Hersh), 343
Cowan, Geoffrey, 312
Cowey, Bill, 357
CT IV (Cong Tac IV), 120-21, 123, 146
148, 176
CTs, see counterterrorism, counterterrorists
Cuc Nghien Cuu (Cenual Research Agency),
39-40, 305-306, 345
Cult of Intelligence, The (Marks), 414
Cushing, Robert, Jr., 355, 357, 384, 385

Dai Viet party, 22, 38, 52, 53, 64, 304
Dam, Colonel, 395
Damron, James K., 227, 268, 270-271, 384
Da Nang, Phoenix operations exemplified in,
351-361
Dang Van Minh, 122-123, 156, 180-181,
188, 232
Dang Van Quang, 295, 296, 304, 394
Dao Ba Phuoc, 187
d' Aubuisson, Robert, 422
Dave (PRU adviser), 164-166
David Brinkley Show, 427
Davidson, Phillip B., Jr., 135, 146, 273
Davis, George, 346
Davis, Jefferson, 13
Davis, Rennie, 311
Deadly Deceits (McGehee), 272
Dean, Warren, 333
Death in Washington (Freed), 333
death squad operations, in El Salvador, 422
424
Decent Internal (Snepp), 221
Decree Law 280, 185n, 188-189
defectors, in political warfare, 48-49, 51, 83,
109, 112, 281-282
Defense, U.S. Department of:
Phoenix program reviewed by, 297-299
Depreeze, Donald, 337
Delta Program, 12, 75, 76
see also Phoenix program
Denunciation of the Communists' campaign,
28-29, 335
DeSilva, Peer, 59-60, 63, 71, 102
Dexter, George, 226
Dick, Fred, 300n
Dickey, James, 426
Diem, Ngo Dinh, see Ngo Dinh Diem
Dien Bien Phu, 24
Dillard, Douglas, 226, 288, 289, 302, 414
career of, 203
interviews with, 205-215, 220, 223-225,
261, 262, 271, 364, 405
Phoenix program as viewed by, 203-205
Dinh Tuong An, 217-221, 281, 284
Dinh Xuan Mai, 262
DIOCCs (District Intelligence and
Operations Coordination Centers),
131, 141, 157-158, 190, 225, 258,
284, 288, 300-301
purposes of, 125-126, 133, 138, 206, 325
disinformation, in political warfare, 47-48
Dix, Drew, 206
Doan Cong Lap, 178
Do Cao Tri, 214, 368
Dodds, Bill, 168, 171
Do Kin Nhieu, 267
Do Minh Nhat, 152
Donohue, Tom, 65-69, 70-72, 105-106,
116, 159, 298, 299, 320
Dooley, Tom, 26
Doolin, Dennis, 298, 313
Drakulich, Sam, 105, 110-111
Drosnin, Michael, 349, 394
DuJles, Allen, 25, 30
Dulles, John Foster, 25, 30
Dunn, Burke, 111
Dunwoodie, Bob, 373n
Duong Tan Huu, 186, 232, 233, 262
Duong Van "Big" Minh, 52-53, 303, 417
Duong Van Khanh, 53-54, 64
DuPuy, William, 298
Durbow, Elbridge, 41

Eckhardt, George, 205, 212
Ehrlichman, John, 337, 415
Ellis, Ace, 159
Ellsberg, Daniel, 334, 411
El Salvador, counterterror operations in,
421-425
Enders, Rudy, 180, 296, 351, 352, 369, 370,
394, 410, 424
Engel, Byron, 35, 92, 366, 413-414
Enough Crying of Tears, 425
Ervin, Sam, 337
Eschbach, Robert, 159
Escola, Albert, 302
eye of God, in psychological warfare, 61-62,
283

Falke, Dick, 84
Fall, Bernard, 89
Fallaci, Oriana, 179
Fallwell, Marshall, 312
Family Census program, 73-74, 269
Far Eastern Economic Review, 395
FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation), 104,
302, 366-368
Fenner, Claude, 137
Fernandez, Joe, 428
Field Police, 89-99, 124, 150-151, 208, 322,
325, 341
activities and objectives of, 93-99, 160
162, 173
need for development of, 89-92
First Indochina War, 23
Fisher, Sergeant, 125
F1ores, Tom, 408, 410
Forbes (Special Branch adviser), 124
forced relocation, 50-51
Force Recon Marines, 166
Ford, John, 123
Foreign Affairs, 140
Forsythe, George, 135
Fortin, Dick, 72
France, 20-25
Diem and, 25
Vietminh and, 22-24
Vietnam colonized by, 20-22
Frazier, Linda, 361
Freed, Donald, 333
Freedom Company, 26, 27, 48
French, George, 184, 186, 278, 373n, 406
Freund, John, 298
Fulbright, William, 312, 320, 321
Fulcher, Stan, 396-399, 400, 420-422
Fulford, C. I., 364
Funkhouser, Richard, 368, 369
"Future Applicability of the Phoenix
Program, The" (Milberg), 107, 201,
202

Gallagher, Phillip, 23
Galula, David, 21, 73, 74, 107-108, 112
Gambino, Robert, 120
Gavin, David, 345
Gene (administrator), 84
Generous, Kevin, 26
Geneva Accords (1954), 24, 27, 28, 34, 40,
42
Geneva Conventions, 13, 204, 312, 380, 382,
384, 386, 400
Article 3 of, 377-379
Gestapo, 192, 337, 353, 398
Geyer, Georgie Anne, 314, 317-318, 319
Gilardo, Bob, 394
Goldwater, Barry, 53
Goodwin, Richard, 48
Gore, Albert, 317
Gorman, Paul, 425
Gougleman, Tucker, 78-80, 102, 103, 109,
159, 256n, 294-296, 316-317, 417
418, 419
Gould, Robert, 349
Greaney, John, 342-343
Green Beret murder case, 297, 313, 315, 390
Green Berets, 10, 34, 85, 166
Greene, Graham, 26, 32
Greenwalt, William J., 144, 183, 184, 261
Gregg, Donald, 369-370, 371, 424-425, 428
Gregory, George, 313
Greyman, Ted, 205, 210, 212, 215, 288
Grieves, William "Pappy," 91-99, 161, 162,
231, 316-317, 341, 365, 413-414
Guevara, Che, 373
Guinn, William, 345, 346
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, 53
GVN (Government of Vietnam), see
Vietnam, Republic of

Habib, Philip, 298
Hacker, Gary, 396
Haeberle, Robert, 346
Hai, Colonel, 363, 418
Haig, Alexander, 405
Hamilton, Ben, 414
Hammer, Michael, 422
Hansen, John, 127-128, 130-131
Harkins, Tom, 348
Harper, Robert, 152
Harrell, Jack, 394, 405
Harris, Stewart, 179
Harrison, Reed, 343n
Hart, John, 79, 106, 117, 121, 122, 136,
139, 146, 148, 174, 277
ICEX developed by, 127-129, 134, 135,
151, 347
personality of, 102-103
Ha Van Tien, 262
Hawkins, Augustus, 348
Haynes, Robert E., 261
Healy, Michael, 399, 400
Helms, Richard, 135, 139, 176, 184, 273,
313, 414, 415
Herbert, Anthony, 107-108
Herrmann, William, 337
Hersh, Seymour, 62, 342, 343, 344
HES (Hamlet Evaluation System), 257, 259
260, 277, 280-281, 301
Heyman, Vince, 116
Hill, Bob, 81
Hilsman, Roger, 73
Himmler, Heinrich, 192
HIP (Hamlet Informant program), 104, 107
108, 284
Hider, Adolf, 192
Hoa Hao religious sect, 22, 25, 29, 55
Hoang Duc Nha, 304
Hoang Xuam Lam, 189
Ho Chau Tuan, 394
Ho Chi Minh, 22-23, 38, 74, 175
Ho Chi Minh Trail, 34, 61, 128, 277
Hodges, Paul, 78
Hoeksema, Renz, 116-117, 149, 160, 175
Hoffman, Abbie, 311
Hollingsworth, General, 370-371
Honduras, political assassinations in, 423
Ho Ngoc Hui, 343
Ho Ngoc Nhuan, 392
Honorable Men (Colby), 275
Hoover, I. Edgar, 367, 368
Hopper, Sam, 78
Hop Tac (Pacification Intensive Capital
Area), 74-75, 120
Horgan, Jack, 124, 139, 141, 198-199, 201,
298
Horus, 62
Hostages of War (Luce), 347, 349
Houle, David, 12
Hubbard, Bob, 178
Hudman, John, 390
Hue, Tet offensive and, 178-180
Hugo, Victor, 62
Humphrey, Hubert, 71, 186
Hunt, Howard, 334, 337-338, 339
Hunt, James, 368n, 377
hunter-killer teams, 9-10, 12, 46, 207
Huston, Tom, 337
Huy, Nguyen Ngoc, see Nguyen Ngoc Huy
Huynh Thoi Tay, 393
Huynh Van Trong, 305
Hydle, Lars, 385, 392

ICEX (intelligence coordination and
exploitation), 127-142, 166, 171, 173,
180, 190, 204, 220, 232, 264, 326,
347
Ide, Richard, 217
Indochina War, First, 23
Inchin Hai Lam, 211
informant operations, 104, 107-108, 112,
119
Inman, Robert, 181-186, 188-189, 232
interrogation, 73-88
development of models for, 73-81
methods and processes in, 81-86, 88
see also PICs; Special Branch
In the Midst of Wars (Lansdale), 25
IOCCs (Intelligence and Operations
Coordination Centers), 230, 257
Israel, 220
Ivey, Ashley, 182

Jack (Vann's deputy), 215, 265, 299-302,
332, 344, 363, 366-368, 391
Jackson, Larry, 396-400
Jacobsen, George "Jake," 114, 374, 377,
382, 385, 390, 406
Jacqueney, Ted, 380-381
James, Hatcher, 188, 267, 268
Jantzen, Red, 329
Jenkins, Oscar L., 217
Johnson, Bill, 417, 419
Johnson, Chester, 329
Johnson, Harry "Buzz," 257, 295, 348
Johnson, Johnny, 370
Johnson, Lyndon B., 53, 90, 113-116, 129,
134-135, 146, 160, 177, 181, 186,
191, 254, 273
Johnson, Ralph, 33, 39-40, 51, 58, 84, 135,
147-148, 150, 191, 230, 276, 278,
281, 291, 294, 427
on counterterrorism, 44, 335, 376
covert operations of, 44-45, 55, 60, 256
Johnson, Wayne, 168
Johnstone, Craig, 152, 190, 417, 419
Jones, Robert E., 261
Jorgenson, Gordon, 71, 102, 320
Joy, D. Duncan, 384

Kaiser, Robert, 314, 315
Kann, Peter, 264, 276, 314
Karhohs, Fred, 298, 366, 391
Karnow, Stanley, 20, 21, 40, 41, 79n, 176
177, 179, 180, 296, 328, 330, 338
Kaylor, Robert, 415
Kelly, Paul, 299
Kelly, Robert, 57, 59, 70
Kennedy, John F., 42, 52-53, 334
Kerwin, Walter, 135
Khiem, Mrs., 303
Khiem, Tran Thien, see Tran Thien Khiem
Khien, Colonel, 346
Khrushchev, Nikita, 42
Kieu (Special Branch chief), 345n
Kim Chong Pil, 77
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 338
Kirkpatrick, John, 426-427
Kissinger, Henry, 253, 254, 257, 313, 314n,
366-367, 406, 417
Kizirian, John, 141
Klare, Michael, 394
Kline, Jacques, 198
Knoll, Erwin, 313
Knowlton, William, 116
Kolon, Walter, 262-263, 368n
Komer, Robert "Blowtorch, " 123, 130, 133,
137, 142, 149, 152-153, 176, 254,
259, 265, 275, 298
assessments of, 146, 148, 191
mandate and methods of, 127, 128-129,
134-135, 143, 161-163, 184, 205,
258, 299-300, 427
military control favored by, 114, 115
personality of, 144
Phoenix program criticized by, 321-323
Korea, South, CIA operations in, 76-77
Koren, Art, 116
Koslowski, Peter, 357-360
Kotouc, Captain, 344-345
Kramer, Fritz, 366
Krogh, Egil, 337, 338
Krulak Victor, 53
Kuomintang, 23, 186
Ky, Nguyen Cao, see Nguyen Cao Ky

Laboon, John, 9-11
Laird, Melvin, 297, 299, 321, 366, 367
Lam Minh Son, 407-408
Landreth, Rod, 277, 294-296, 304, 348, 394
Lane, Randolph, 343
Langbien, Joe, 363
Lange, Keith, 270
Lansdale, Edward, 25-30, 31, 34, 44, 47-48,
62, 71, 113, 116, 159, 304, 339
Lao Dong Central Committee, Reunification
Department of, 38, 39
Laos, 12, 34, 37, 44, 60, 81, 90, 128, 195,
277
La Penca, bombing at, 427-428
Lapham, Lewis, 112, 116, 123, 172, 174
176, 188, 255, 277
Lapitosa, Phil, 310
Lathram, Wade, 115, 142
Latin America, CIA operations in, 77
Law, William, 144, 183-184
Lawlor, Bruce, 407-410
Lawton, Gilbert, 36
Leaping Lena program, 12, 61, 75
Ledford, Dick, 352, 354
Le Doan Hung, 262
Le Duan, 38
Legal Times, 428
Lemire, Lieutenant Colonel, 182, 189, 190
Lemoyne, Charles, 255, 339
Lemoyne, James, 339
Le Ngoc Tru, 187
Le Quang Tung, 52
Leslie, Mike, 123
Letelier, Orlando, 357, 361
Le Tri Tin, 407
Le Van An, 413
Le Van Thu, 292-293
Le Xuan Mai, 44, 59, 65, 67, 68, 72, 159
Liddy, Gordon, 337
Likert, Rensis, 129
LLDB (Luc Luong Duc Biet), 26-27, 52
Loan, Nguyen Ngoc, see Nguyen Ngoc
Loan
"local initiatives," 45, 54-55, 91
Lodge, Henry Cabot, 113, 115
Loi Nguyen Tan, 184-186, 189, 232-234,
262, 263, 322
Lombardi, Vince, 176
Lon No1, 327-328, 329
Loomis, Patry , 357, 394, 407
Lowe, Bob, 93
Luce, Don, 347-350
Lu Lam, 159, 303, 353, 355
Luu Kim Cuong, 187n
Lybrand, John, 152, 190
Ly Trong Song, 262, 374

MAAG (Military Assistance and Advisory
Group), U.S., 24, 31, 42, 45-46
McAfee, Gage, 386, 387
McCann, Michael, 300n
McCarthy, Emmett, 24
McCarthy, Eugene, 176, 177
McCarthy, John, 211
McCarthy, Roger, 355
McChristian, Joseph, 86-87, 120, 124, 135,
146, 176, 211, 267, 273
McCloskey, Pete, 377, 379, 382
McCoid, Chester, 367, 371-373, 374, 385,
390
McCoid, Dorothy, 371
McCollum, Doug, 97-98, 161-162, 341, 413
McCord, James, 415
McCoy, Tom, 177, 259
MacDonald, John E., 182
MacFarlane, Robert, 424
McGarvey, Pat, 62
McGehee, Ralph, 271-272, 274-275, 305
306
McGrevey, Thomas P., 329-330, 331
Mackem, Walter, 55-56
Mackin, Roger, 351, 352, 354
McLendon, Luther, 394n
McManaway, Clayton, 257, 314
McNamara, Robert, 177, 258
MACV (Military Assistance Command,
Vietnam), 42, 75, 94-96, 116, 118,
273, 300
Phoenix program and, 57, 86-88, 115,
126, 131, 135-137, 176, 182, 190,
204-205, 207 , 209, 211-212, 224,
276, 318, 355-356
MACV Directive 381-41, 137-139, 188
McWade, Henry, 227-230, 262, 263, 269,
271
Maddox, Gary, 394
Maddox, USS, 53
Magsaysay, Ramon, 25
Mai Huu Xuan, 53
Mai Vjet Dich, 262
Malaya, intelligence methods developed in,
73, 79, 92, 125, 299
Mandich, Ben, 296
Mann, Charlie, 93
Manopoli, John, 93, 136-137, 366, 391
Manzione, Elton, 9-13, 53, 60-61, 63, 170,
194-197, 202, 207, 285, 338, 340
Manzione, Lynn, 9
Mao, Major, 352, 355
March Against Death, 309, 312
Marks, John, 77, 414, 415
Martin, Graham, 412, 415-416
Mason, John, 278-279, 284, 308, 328-329,
367-368, 371, 373, 377
Matisse, Mr., 72
Mattson, Robert, 116
Melton, William, 180
Methven, Stu, 44-45, 55, 59, 63-64, 65, 320
Meyers, Ray, 400
Milberg, Warren, 107, 108, 144, 154-155,
163, 202, 203, 207, 219, 226
ideological convictions of, 193-194, 196
198
interviews with, 178-179, 181, 192-193,
194, 199-201
Manzione compared with, 195
Millett, Lew, 395, 396
Mills, Hawthorne, 314
Minh Van Dang, 371
Minneapolis Tribune, 264
Mitchell, David, 342
Mitchum, Robert, 76
Mitrione, Dan, 413
Monk, Harry "The Hat," 70
Monopoly, General, 267, 270
Montagnards, 44, 76, 106, 162
Moorehead, William, 376
Moran, Joe, 330
Morrison, John, 394
Morse, Lieutenant, 125
motivational indoctrination, 58, 75, 426
Mountain Scouts program, 44-46, 51, 60
Mountbatten, Lord Louis, 23
Moynihan, Daniel, 270
MSS (Military Security Service), 87, 99,
121, 123, 176, 212, 213, 301, 306,
308, 353
MSUG (Michigan State University Group),
31-32, 35
Muldoon, John Patrick "Picadoon," 76-86,
91, 104, 109
Murphy, Ed, 308-311, 312, 326, 338, 347
Mustakos, Harry, 201
My Lai massacre, 181, 297, 315, 342-347,
426, 428

Namath, Joe, 338
National Police, 92, 118, 353
MACV's relationship with, 95-96, 118
Phoenix program and, 261, 270, 363, 369
Phung Hoang and, 232, 322
PICs and, 81-82
PRU and, 294-296, 316
see also Field Police; Special Branch
National Revolution Movement, 28
National Security Action Memorandum 273,
53
National Social Democratic Front, 304
Navy, U.S., 164, 168
Nazis, 198
neutralization, neutralization rates, 13, 190
191, 287
Newman, James, 371
New Patterns of Management (Likert), 129
Newsweek, 313, 330
New Yorker, 275
New York Herald Tribune, 107
New York Times, 68, 276, 308, 321, 339,
342, 348, 363, 378, 386, 405, 412
Ngo Cong Duc, 217, 293
Ngo Dinh Can, 24
Ngo Dinh Diem, 47, 51, 62-63, 71, 121,
176, 213, 304, 332, 335
assassination of, 53, 334
CIA support for, 24-27
coups against, 38, 52-54, 179
internal security as concern of, 27-29, 31
32, 41-42
Ngo Dinh Nhu, 24, 27, 28, 29, 38, 41, 42,
50-53, 54, 213, 294
Ngo Dinh Thuc, 24, 52
Ngo Vinh Long, 50
Nguyen Bao Thuy, 187
Nguyen Be, 58, 70, 159, 262
Nguyen Cao Ky, 42, 54, 69, 71, 120, 121,
145, 148, 176, 179, 186-188, 265, 417
Niuyen Cao Thang, 304
Nguyen Chi Thanh, 90
Nguyen Duc Khoi, 355
Nguyen Duc Thang, 71, 159
Nguyen Hiop, 285
Nguyen Huu Tho, 90
Nguyen Khac Binh, 188, 295, 395, 419
Nguyen Khinh, 179, 189
Nguyen Loc Hoa, 37
Nguyen Mau, 123, 187, 305-306, 308, 393
Nguyen Minh Chau, 348
Nguyen Minh Tan, 352, 418
Nguyen Ngoc Buy, 24, 28, 29, 54, 64, 69,
181, 186, 187, 256, 303, 320, 411,
421
Nguyen Ngoc Le, 27
Nguyen Ngoc Loan, 87, 120, 156, 186-187,
188, 417
as National Police director, 69, 95, 141
notoriety of, 180
Phoenix program opposed by, 121-123,
135n, 145-147
Tet offensive predicted by, 148-149, 176
Nguyen Ngoc Xinh, 120, 187
Nguyen Nuoi, 287
Nguyen Psu Sanh, 292
Nguyen Thi Bah, 286
Nguyen Tien, 121, 187, 352
Nguyen Ton Roan, 54, 69
Nguyen Tuy, 51
Nguyen Van Dai, 96, 316-317, 356
Nguyen Van Giau, 374, 394, 414, 418
Nguyen Van Hong, 262
Nguyen Van Khoi, 200
Nguyen Van Kia, 285
Nguyen Van Lang, 256, 294, 316, 352, 394
Nguyen Van Loc, 148, 180
Nguyen Van Luan, 120, 187
Nguyen Van Phuoc, 212, 213, 224
Nguyen Van Tai, 221-222
Nguyen Van Thieu, 50, 64, 71, 74, 145,
295, 320, 322, 368, 411
CIA support for, 174, 176, 274, 385
Diem and, 41, 52-54
overthrow of, 417-419
Nguyen Van Thieu, cont.
political style of, 188-189, 256-257, 304
306
as president, 69, 148, 185-186, 294, 297,
303, 374, 393
repressive measures of, 394-395, 401-402,
406-407
Nguyen Van Ve, 348
Nguyen Van Vinh, 397, 399
Nguyen Van Y, 41, 53
Nha, Mr., 370
Nha Trang, 186
Nhu, Madame, 52
Nhu, Ngo Dinh, see Ngo Dinh Nhu
NIC (National Interrogation Center), 77, 78,
84, 85, 121, 176, 221
Nicaragua, antiterror operations in, 426-428
Nixon, Richard M., 186, 253, 313, 327, 328,
402, 411-412, 415
domestic dissent suppressed by, 336-338
Nixon Doctrine, 254, 327
see also Vietnamization
NLF (National Front for the Liberation of
South Vietnam), 38-39, 46, 52, 87,
283
Nooter, Robert, 366
North, Oliver, 425, 427, 428, 429
North Vietnam, see Vietnam, Democratic
Republic of
NPFF, see Field Police
NPIC (National Police Interrogation Center),
79, 103, 123, 149, 156, 186, 221
NSC (National Security Council), 31, 42,
301
Nunn, Sam, 427
Nuremberg War Crimes Trials, 312
Nutter, Warren, 298-299, 366
NVA (North Vietnamese Army):
casualties in, 223
and end of Vietnam War, 393, 415-419
intelligence operations by and against, 48,
55, 88, 175, 273
in Tet offensive, 178-179

OCO (Office of Civil Operations), 115-116,
118
Ogden, Keith, 205, 406
O'Keefe, John, 267-270
Operation MONGOOSE, 48
Operation Phoenix, 425
OPLANS, 12, 53, 60, 79n, 169
O'Reilly, John, 72, 320
"Origins of the Insurgency in South
Vietnam 1954-1960" (Zasloff), 28
Ort, David, 405
Orwell, George, 89
Osborn, Bart, 307-308, 347, 376, 382
O'Shea, Connie, 389, 395-396, 399-400, 403
Osiris, 62
Osnos, Peter, 388
Ott, David, 298
Owen, Dwight, 343n, 428
Owen, Robert, 428

PA&E (Pacific Architects and Engineers),
81, 310
pacification:
accelerated, see APC
differing philosophies of, 89-90
general staff for, see ICEX
see also specific operations
Palmer, Bruce, 204
Panay, Colonel, 330
Paris Peace Talks, 253, 257, 275, 280, 404
Park Chung Hee, 77
Parker, Evan, Jr., 133-140, 148, 152, 157,
175, 180, 183, 184, 232, 233, 235,
278, 323, 342, 424
background and career of, 133-134
interviews with, 135-137, 143-145, 147,
149, 150, 153-154, 167, 191, 257,
277, 281
Parks, Michael, 374
Pastora, Eden, 427-428
Pat (paramilitary), 80
PATs (Political Action Teams), 59, 63, 70,
74, 75, 124, 180
PCOC (phoenix Coordinators Orientation
Course), 261
Pearlman, Mark, 422
Pearson, William, 135
Peartt, Robert, 160, 254
Peck, Gregory, 338
Peers, William, 114, 342, 343, 344, 346
Pelton, Major, 399
penetration units, 109-112, 119, 370
Pennington, Lee, 415
People's Self-Defense Forces, 254
Personalist Labor party, see Can Lao Nham
Vi
Petty, Chuck, 94
Pham, Colonel, 417
Pham Ngoc Tbao, 42, 50, 52, 54
Pham Quat Tan, 269
Pham Tuong, 57-58
Pham Van Cao, 186, 189, 356
Pham Van Kinh, 285
Pham Van Liem, 352, 357, 409
Phan Huu Nhon, 184
Philippines, intelligence models developed
in, 25, 44, 62
Phillips, Rufus, 29
Phillips, William, 376-377
PHMIS (Phung Hoang Management
Information System), 259, 261
"Phoenix Murders, The" (Treaster), 285
Phoenix/Phung Hoang: A Study of Wartime
Intelligence Management (Johnson), 33
Phoenix program, 9-18, 57-429
atrocities aided by, 340-350
Cambodian invasion and, 328, 330-332
CIA-MACV conflicts in, 115, 176, 182,
190, 204, 209, 212
conflicting objectives in evolution of, 94,
98-99, 112, 115
contemporary implications of, 13-14, 420
429
cornerstones of, 32, 45, 108-109
Da Nang operations as example of, 351
361
differing perspectives on, 101-102, 203
205, 264-265, 316-317, 321, 326,
349, 371, 374, 392, 398
dissolution and final days of, 389-419
legality of, 376-388
objectives of, 13, 38, 39, 60
orientation materials for, 260-264
prototypes and models for, 12, 26, 40, 57
72, 111
reasons for mismanagement of, 308-310,
322-323
reorganizations of, 266-280, 362-375
Senate hearings on, 313-322
as synthesis of intelligence networks, 99,
101, 113-141
Phoenix Program: Planned Assassination or
Legitimate Conflict Management, The
(Johnson), 44, 376
Phong, Major General, 393, 394
Pho Quoc Chu, 187
"Phung Hoang Fiasco, The" (Komer), 322
323, 327
Phung Hoang program, 122, 148, 149, 181,
230, 232, 261-262, 283, 287, 304,
322, 355, 374, 393
see also Phoenix program
Phuoc Le interrogation center, as PIC
model, 80-81
Picard, Bernard, 182
PICCs (Province Intelligence Coordinating
Committees), 74, 79, 80, 86
PICs (province interrogation centers), 76-86,
99
operations and purposes of, 81-86, 109,
126, 151-157, 265, 316, 325-326
origin and development of, 76-81
as Phoenix program foundation, 108-109,
132, 234, 352
Pierce, Danny L., 188, 268
Pike, Otis, 273, 411, 428
Pineda, Major, 424
Pink Plan, 424-425
PIOCCs (Province Intelligence Operations
Coordination Centers), 142, 157, 160,
173, 181, 189, 190, 202, 206, 225,
296, 325
plausible denial, in political warfare, 47-48,
49, 60, 72, 133, 296
Playboy, 414
PLO (Palestine Liberation Organization),
424
Polgar, Tom, 295, 390, 394, 408, 417, 428
Poindexter, John, 428
political warfare, 43-51, 54-56, 160, 335
336
defectors in, 48-49, 51, 83, 112, 281-282
forced relocation in, 50-51
"local initiatives" and, 45, 54-55
objectives of, 46-47, 50
plausible denial in, 47-48, 49, 60, 72, 133,
296
propaganda in, 43-44, 47-49, 54
terrorism in, 44-46, 55-56
Popular Force, 36-37, 75, 86, 99, 189
Potter, Phil "Potts," 277, 294-296, 394
Prairie Fire operation, 90, 193
PRG (Provisional Revolutionary
Government), 280, 291
prison system, Phoenix program's creation
of, 347-350
Project 404, 90
Project Gamma, 211
Project 24, 76
propaganda, 43-44, 47-49, 54
PRP (People's Revolutionary Party), 19, 38
39, 138
PRU (Provincial Reconnaissance Units), 117,
141, 150, 177-178, 201-202, 207,
255-256, 272, 276, 277, 301, 314, 409
CIA management of, 294-296, 347, 369
370
counterterror activities of, 264, 267, 283,
285, 316-319, 351-361, 383
development and objectives of, 162-173
as Phoenix program foundation, 132, 160,
234, 265, 326
psychological warfare, 25-26, 34, 44-45, 57
73, 107-108
anti VCI operations in, 280-290
Census Grievance program and, 66-67,
72-73
eye of God in, 61-62, 283
terrorism and torture in, 59-60, 61-63,
65, 107-108
Psywar Groups, 292
Public Safety, 35, 36, 74-75, 82, 92, 93, 94,
97, 99, 152, 208, 300
PVT (PRU adviser), 179-180, 351, 352,
354-355, 409, 416-419

Quiet American, The (Greene), 32
Quinn, Ken, 404, 417
Quoc Dan Dang, 136

Race, Jeffrey, 32, 33, 41, 46, 258, 265
Radda, Ron, 156
Ramparts, 162
Ramsdell, Robert B., 343-344
RD (Revolutionary Development), 159-160,
166, 202-203, 218, 254-255, 277
development and purpose of, 57-59, 69
71
RDC (Revolutionary Development Cadre),
64-72, 95, 99, 112, 116-117, 123,
157, 159-60, 217, 262, 342
Reagan, Ronald, 337, 424, 427
Redel, William, 117, 166-167, 169, 255
Regional Forces, 36, 86, 99, 189
Reid, Ogden, 13, 376, 378-380
Reinhardt, George, 29
Reitemeyer, Francis, 311-312, 318
Renneisen, Daniel, 354, 355, 356, 357
Resor, Stanley, 297, 313
Resources Control Bureau, 74-75
Rhee, Syngman, 77
Rhodes, James, 336
Richardson, Warrant Officer) 126
rifle shot approach, in Phoenix operations,
206-207
Rimestead, Imer, 377, 378
Rivers, L. Mendel, 359
Roberts, Chalmers, 163
Roberts, Jay, 346
Roberts, Shelby, 267-271, 352
Rodriguez, Felix, 370-371, 394, 424-425,
428
Rogers, Andy, 205, 214
Rogers, William, 391
Romero, Oscar, 422
Rose, Colonel, 399
Rosen, L. M., 289
Rosenblatt, Lionel, 182, 417 , 419
Rosenthal, Ben, 382
Rosnor, Colonel, 354
Rosson, William B., 42
Rostow, Walt, 127, 146, 273
Rothwell, Gordon, 105
Rubin, Jerry, 311
Rural Construction program, see RDC
Rusk, Dean, 135
Rygalski, Frank, 84

Saigon:
bureaucracy in, 200
corruption in, 266-271
Saigon Metropolitan Police, 270, 271
Sam, Colonel, 78
Sammers, Ian "Sammy," 78
Sang, Colonel, 322
Sanh, Colonel, 95
Santoli, Al, 146
Sartiano, Joe, 144, 182, 232, 261, 371
SAS (British Special Air Service), 166
Saturday Evening Post, 37
Sauvageot, jean, 71, 72, 159
Schlacter, Ed, 96
Schrande, Don, 37
Scigliano, Robert, 35
Scot ton, Frank, 49-51, 54-55, 57-59, 69-71,
75-76, 159, 257, 304, 317, 318, 417,
426
Scove, Peter, 231
Seal, Al, 408
SEALs (Sea-Air-Land forces), U.S. Navy,
60-61
objectives and procedures of, 9-11
PRU assisted by, 164-166, 168, 172
Search for the Manchuria" Candidate, The
(Marks), 77
Sea Swallows, 37, 50, 55
Seberg, Jean, 334
Secord, Richard, 329
selective terrorism, 21-22, 41, 44
see also counterterrorism, counterterrorists
Sells, Doc, 172, 214
Senate, U.S., 47-48
Foreign Relations Committee of, 19, 311,
312, 313-322
Serong, Ted, 92-95, 231, 406, 416
Shackley, Ted, 277-278, 295, 305, 306, 325,
348, 368, 369-370, 373, 390, 393,
410, 417
Shaplen, Robert, 275-276
Sherwood, John, 103
Shipler, David, 412-413
SIDE (screening, interrogation, and
detention of the enemy) program, 152
Sihanouk, Norodom, 211, 253, 327
Silkwood, Karen, 357
Simmons, Rob, 391, 407
Singer, Ray, 299
Singlaub, John, 428
Singleton, William, 183, 188, 268, 270
Sinh, Colonel, 370
Sirik Matak, 327, 417
Sizer, Henry, 385
Slater, Robert, 39, 155-156, 181, 185, 215,
262
Smith, Daniel L., 271
Smith, Jim, 363
Smith, Paul, 115
Smith, Terrence, 308
snatch and snuff operations, 46, 56, 207
Snepp, Frank, 221-222, 304, 306-308, 406,
419
Snowden, Walter, 355
SOG (Special Operations Group), 53, 60,
74-76, 107, 121, 175, 211, 253
Soldier (Herbert), 107
Soldier of Fortune, 285, 428
Song, Colonel, 389, 393
SOP (standard operating procedures)
manuals, 230, 263
Sophon, Colonel, 330
South Korea, CIA operations in, 76-77
South Vietnam, see Vietnam, Republic of
Soviet Union, 69
CIA surveillance in, 101-102
Special Branch, 74, 78, 81, 99, 118, 228,
232, 296, 298, 355
development and management of, 104
112, 267, 269, 277-278, 300-301, 373
functions of, 97, 102-104, 136, 212
lack of coordination in, 288, 323, 370,
390
Spiers, Del, 207-208
Spock, Benjamin, 311
Sputnik, 101
Start, Robert, 387-388
State Department, U.S., 115, 177, 206
Office of Research and Intelligence in, 73
Stein, Jeffrey, 343-344, 346, 347, 405
Stemme, Bob, 311
Stent, Jack "Red, " 78, 102-103, 110
Sterba, James, 321
Stewart, Kelly, 263
Stilwell, Richard, 329
Stone, Howard "Rocky," 110-112, 116, 117,
118, 176, 184, 391
Stout, Gerald, 343
strategic hamlet program, 50, 54
Strathern, Cliff, 45, 65
Sub Rosa (DeSilva), 59
Suddath, Leroy, 209-210
Sullivan, William C., 338, 366
Sullivan, William H., 135, 387
suppletifs, 21, 25, 74
suppressive terrorism, 41
Surete, 25, 31-32, 104
Swetz, Eddie, 9-11
Systems Analysis of the Vietnam War 1965
1972, A (Thayer), 254, 365
systems approach, in intelligence operations,
101-102

Tacloban Hotel, The (Valentine), 12
Taiwan, 220
Task Force Barker, 342, 343, 344, 346
Tayacan: Psychological Operations in Guerrilla
Warfare, 426-427
Taylor, Telford, 386
Taylor, William J., 357-361
10/59 law, 33-34, 36
Ten Thousand Day War, The (Maclean), 306
Terjelian, John, 124
Territorial Security Forces, 254, 277, 282,
284
terrorism:
as psychological weapon, 21-22, 25-26,
44-45, 55-56, 59-60, 61-63, 65
suppressive, 41
see also counterterrorism, counterterrorists
Tet offensive, 124, 148-149, 156, 176-180,
200, 206, 208, 218, 221, 257, 275,
343
significance of, 173, 181, 186, 253, 266
Thai Khac Chuyen, 328
Thayer, Thomas, 254, 365-366, 409"
Thich Tri Quang, 52
Thiep, Colonel, 322, 354, 355, 356
Thieu, Mrs., 303
Thieu, Nguyen Van, see Nguyen Van Thieu
Thompson, Major, 357
Thompson, Robert, 73, 74, 79, 85, 92, 299
301, 345, 363, 391, 406
Thornton, Frank, 285, 294
Those Gallant Men on Trial in Vietnam
(Berry), 271
Thuong Xa, Phoenix operation at, 202-203
Tidwell, William, 262, 267
Tiege, Ian, 57, 59
Tilton, John, 373-374, 382, 385, 389, 390,
391, 393, 400-401, 403
Time, 104, 342, 395
Times (London), 179
Tin Sang, 217, 293, 348
Ton That Dinh, 52, 53
torture, 59, 63, 84-85, 350
Towle, Sid, 382-385
Tracy, Larry, 123
Tran Ahn Tho, 405
Tran Huu Thanh, 411
Tran Kim Tuyen, 29, 41, 52, 54, 294
Tran Ngoc Chau, 49-50, 55, 71-72, 159,
304-305, 320, 332
Tran Ngoc Hien, 304, 320
Tran Ngoc Tan, 345
Tran Quoc Buu, 63-64
Tran Si Tan, 373n, 419
Tran Thanh Phong, 214, 363
Tran Thien Khiem, 186, 262, 293, 302, 322,
348, 385, 411, 419
Diem and, 41, 52-54
as interior minister, 126, 184-185, 187
188, 291, 292
as prime minister, 257, 355, 356, 392,
393, 402, 404, 417
Tran Tran Phong, 232
Tran Tuan Nham, 412
Tran Van Don, 52, 53, 136, 174, 265, 295,
417
Tran Van Dzu, 145
Tran Van Hai, 187, 316
Tran Van Huong, 187, 257, 418, 419
Tran Van Pham, 187
Tran Van Thua, 95
Tran Van Truong, 156-157, 221, 222, 234
Treaster, Joseph, 285, 288
Trinquier, Roger, 133
Truong Buu Diem, 217
Truong Dinh Dzu, 187, 265, 320
Truong Son, 55
"Truth About Phoenix, The" (Dinh Tuong
An), 217-221, 281, 284, 288
T'Souvas, Robert, 346
Tu Thanh, 369

Uhl, Mike, 311, 381
Uncounted Enemy: A Vietnam Deception, The
(Adams), 272
unilateral penetrations, 110-112, 174-175,
190, 212, 265
USIS (U.S. Information Service), 27, 49,
206, 281, 318
U.S.-Vietnamese relations:
duplicity in, 50
ideological problems in, 185-186
value conflicts in, 214, 233-234

Vacarro, Joe, 70-71, 255
Valentine, Ray, 77
Van Fleet, James, 121
Van Lesser, Kenny, 53
Vann, John Paul, 49-50, 51, 54, 89, 115,
215, 265, 299, 300, 304, 314, 319,
320, 382, 384, 399, 400
Van Van Cua, 187
VBI (Vietnamese Bureau of Investigations),
32-33, 35, 38, 41, 48, 56, 74
VC (Vietcong):
ARVN inferior to, 51-52
cruelty and ruthlessness ascribed to, 59,
107-108, 194
modus vivendi of, 196, 213-222, 230-231
VCI (Vietcong infrastructure), 13, 19-404,
424, 427
background and origins of, 19-38
covert action programs of, 43-44, 46-47,
56
and end of Vietnam War, 390-391, 406
infiltration and penetration by, 109-112,
335-336
modus vivendi of, 213-223
organization of, 38-40
PICs and, 73-74, 80, 82, 83, 85, 87-88
psychological warfare and, 280-290
publications of, 334-335
systematizing of operations against, 113
142
VCIIS (Viet Cong Infrastructure Information
System), 258-259
Vien, Mrs. , 303
Viera, Jose Rodolfo, 422
Vietcong Memoir, A (Tran Van Truong), 156,
234
Vietminh, 22-29, 58, 74
colonialism opposed by, 22-24
Diem and, 27-29
see also VC; VCI
Vietnam:
colonial rule of, 20-22
political demarcations of, 20, 22, 24
Vietnam: A History (Karnow), 20
Vietnam, Democratic Republic of (North),
53, 90, 128, 194, 195
Vietnam, Republic of (South), 34, 39, 41,
47, 60, 90, 220, 280, 399
ceasefire and last days of, 404-419
Diem's downfall and, 51-56
and end of Vietnam War, 404, 411, 413,
417-419
"infrastructure" as understood by, 185
186
interrogation networks in, 73-88
modus vivendi of, 213-215
"nation building" strategy in, 160
as prison regime, 221, 349
as scapegoats, 276
Soviet Union compared with, 69
U.S. support of, 47, 148-149, 174, 186
188, 256-257 , 303-305, 387, 391
Vietnam: The Secret War (Generous), 26
Vietnamese History from 1939-1975 (Huy), 24
Vietnamization, 254-279
corruption and, 266-271
intelligence networks restructured in, 266
279
policies and implementation of, 254-265
reforms in, 291-302
Vietnam War:
end of, 404-419
new breed of officers in, 163
northern bombing as beginning of, 53
suppression of dissent against, 336-339
Village in Vietnam, 105
Village Voice, 312
Vincent, Vance, 357
Vinh, Major, 407, 409
Vinh Lac, 189
VIS (Vietnam Information System), 51, 282
VNQDD (Vietnam Quoc Dan Dang), 22,
64, 67, 344
VNTF (Vietnam Task Force), 298-299
Volkman, Dennis, 425
Vo Nguyen Giap, 22
Vung Tau program, see RDC
Vu Nhoc Nha, 305

Wall, Bob, 124-126, 139, 140-141, 184,
191, 208, 373, 390, 393, 424
Waller, Efram E., 384
Wall Street Journal, 264, 276, 314
Walt, Lou, 124-125
Walters, Howard, 51
Walton, Frank, 35, 260, 348
War Comes to Long An (Race), 32, 258
Ward, Jim, 160, 169, 173, 208, 225, 254,
265, 321
interviews with, 109, 137-138, 150, 163,
172, 205-207, 278-279, 281-282
Washington Monthly, 179
Washington Post, 163, 314, 388
Weidhas, Al, 329
Weisz, George, 278
Welch, David, 162-163
West, Dave, 127, 136, 156, 371
Westbrook, Colston, 337
Westmoreland, William, 91, 118, 146, 253
libel suit of, 272-273
as MACV commander, 57, 64, 113, 116,
127, 135, 152-153, 181, 342
on pacification, 89
Wheeler, Earle, 135, 297
Wilbur, John, 163-173, 176, 177-178, 255
256
Williams, Ogden, 57, 281
Willson, Brian, 215-216
Wilson, "Coal Bin" Willie (Wilber), 208
209, 382, 385
Winne, John, 77
Wisner, Frank, 406, 417
With The Contras (Dickey), 426
Woodsman, John, 72, 106
World War I, 22, 62, 100, 338
World War II, 12, 47, 69, 90, 91, 143, 192,
198, 300

Yarborough, William, 91, 338
Yoh, Bernard, 37
Yoonchul Mo, 357
Yothers, Charlie, 319
Young, Stephen, 107

Zasloff, J. J., 28, 33
Zinman, William, 311-312
Zorthian, Barry, 71
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