Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

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Re: Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

Postby admin » Tue Sep 24, 2019 4:55 am

Fritz Julius Kuhn
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 9/23/19

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Image
Fritz Julius Kuhn
Kuhn in 1938
Born Fritz Julius Kuhn
May 15, 1896
Munich, German Empire
Died December 14, 1951 (aged 55)
Munich, West Germany
Known for German American Bund
Spouse(s) Elsa
Children Walter, Waltraut
Parent(s)
Georg Kuhn
Julia Justyna Beuth

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Image
Madison Square Garden rally 1939

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Kuhn appearing on the street after leaving a courthouse in Webster, Massachusetts in 1939

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Kuhn speaking at a "Bund"-camp-rally

Fritz Julius Kuhn (May 15, 1896 – December 14, 1951) was the leader of the German American Bund before World War II. He became a naturalized United States citizen in 1934, but his citizenship was cancelled in 1943, and he was deported in 1945. He was an American supporter of the German Nazi government led by Adolf Hitler that ruled Germany from 1933 to 1945.[1]

Life and career

Kuhn was born in Munich, then the German Empire, on May 15, 1896, the son of Georg Kuhn and Julia Justyna Beuth. During World War I, Kuhn earned an Iron Cross as a German infantry lieutenant.[2] After the war, he graduated from the Technical University of Munich with a master's degree in chemical engineering. In the 1920s, Kuhn moved to Mexico. In 1928, he moved to the United States and, in 1934, he became a naturalized citizen of the United States.[3] He worked at a Ford factory in Detroit before assuming control of the Bund in Buffalo, New York, in 1936.[4]

A Congressional committee headed by Samuel Dickstein concluded that the Friends of New Germany supported a branch of German dictator Adolf Hitler's Nazi Party in the United States,[5] and the Friends of New Germany disbanded. However, in March 1936, the German American Bund was established in Buffalo as a follow-up organization.[6] The Bund elected the German-born American citizen Kuhn as its leader.[7]

Kuhn, while describing the Bund as "sympathetic to the Hitler government", denied that the organization received money or took orders from the government of Germany. Kuhn also denied that the Bund had any agenda of introducing fascism to the United States.[8][9]

Kuhn enlisted thousands of Americans by using what would be criticized as antisemitic, anticommunist, and pro-German propaganda. One of his first tasks was to plan a trip to Germany with 50 of his American followers. The purpose was to be in the presence of Hitler and to personally witness National-Socialism in practice.

At this time, Germany was preparing to host the 1936 Olympics. Kuhn anticipated a warm welcome from Adolf Hitler, but the encounter was a disappointment. This did not stop Kuhn from elaborating more propaganda to his followers once he returned to the United States about how Hitler acknowledged him as the "American Führer".[10]

As his profile grew, so did the tension against him. Not only Jewish-Americans, but also German-Americans who did not want to be associated with Nazis, protested against the Bund. These protests were occasionally violent, making the Bund front page news in the United States. In response to the outrage of Jewish war veterans, Congress in 1938 passed the Foreign Agents Registration Act requiring foreign agents to register with the State Department.[10] The negative attention to the American Nazis was not to Hitler's liking because he wanted the Nazi Party in the United States to be strong, but stealthy. Hitler needed to keep the U.S. neutral throughout the coming war and sought to avoid provoking Americans, whereas Kuhn was eager to stir media attention. On March 1, 1938, the Nazi government decreed that no German national (Reichsdeutsche) could be a member of the Bund and that no Nazi emblems were to be used by the organization.[6]

Undaunted, on February 20, 1939, Kuhn held the largest and most publicized rally in the Bund's history at Madison Square Garden in New York City.[11] Some 20,000 people attended and heard Kuhn mock President Franklin D. Roosevelt as "Frank D. Rosenfeld", calling his New Deal the "Jew Deal" and denouncing what he called Bolshevik-Jewish American leadership. Kuhn also stated:"The Bund is fighting shoulder to shoulder with patriotic Americans to protect America from a race that is not the American race, that is not even a white race ... The Jews are enemies of the United States." Most shocking was the outbreak of violence between Bund storm troopers and thousands of angry protesters in the streets. During Kuhn's speech, a Jewish protester, Isadore Greenbaum, rushed the stage and had to be rescued by police after he was beaten and stripped by storm troopers.[12][13][14]

Later in 1939, seeking to cripple the Bund, New York City Mayor Fiorello La Guardia ordered the city to investigate the Bund's taxes. It found that Kuhn had embezzled over $14,000 from the organization, spending part of the money on a mistress. District Attorney Thomas E. Dewey issued an indictment and won a conviction against Kuhn. On December 5, 1939, Kuhn was sentenced to two and a half to five years in prison for tax evasion and embezzlement.[15] Despite his criminal conviction for embezzlement, followers of the Bund continued to hold Kuhn in high regard, in line with the Nazi Führerprinzip, which gives the leader absolute power.

While in Sing Sing[4] prison, Kuhn's citizenship was canceled on June 1, 1943, on grounds of it having been obtained fraudulently as shown by his ongoing activity as a foreign agent of, and person with loyalty including oaths of military service towards, Germany and the Nazi Party.[3] Upon his release after spending 43 months in prison, Kuhn was re-arrested on June 21, 1943, as an enemy agent and interned by the federal government at a camp in Crystal City, Texas. After the war, Kuhn was sent to Ellis Island and deported to Germany on September 15, 1945.[3] Upon his arrival in Germany, he wanted to return to the United States,[16] but was imprisoned, then released shortly before his death.[17] While in prison, Kuhn reportedly sent a message to Jewish columnist Walter Winchell, who had helped lead media counterattacks against the Bund back in New York City. It read: "Tell Herr Vinchell, I will lift to piss on his grafe [sic]."[18]

He died on December 14, 1951, in Munich, Germany. The New York Times obituary said that he died "a poor and obscure chemist, unheralded and unsung".[1]

Appearance in media

In the alternative historical dystopian television series The Man in the High Castle, a high school on Long Island is named after Kuhn.

References

1. "Fritz Kuhn Death in 1951 Revealed. Lawyer Says Former Leader of German-American Bund Succumbed in Munich". The New York Times. Associated Press. February 2, 1953. Retrieved 2008-07-20. Fritz Kuhn, once the arrogant, noisy leader of the pro-Hitler German-American Bund, died here more than a year ago – a poor and obscure chemist, unheralded and unsung.
2. Riess, Curt. Total Espionage: Germany's Information and Disinformation Apparatus 1932-40, 2017.
3. "Fritz Kuhn, Former Bund Chief, Ordered Back to Germany". The Evening Independent. September 7, 1945.
4. O'Haire, Hugh (May 8, 1977). "When the Bund Strutted in Yaphankl". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
5. U.S. Congress, House Special Committee on Un-American Activities (1938). Investigation of un-American propaganda activities in the United States. United States Congress. p. 1090. Retrieved 11 October 2017.
6. Jim Bredemus. "American Bund – The Failure of American Nazism: The German-American Bund's Attempt to Create an American 'Fifth Column'". TRACES. Archived from the original on 18 May 2011. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
7. Cyprian Blamires; Paul Jackson (2006). World fascism: a historical encyclopedia, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 270. ISBN 0-8223-0772-3.
8. Says Hitler Group is 200,000 strong. Kuhn Denies Trying to Set Up Fascism in U.S. Associated Press in Reading Eagle, March 12, 1937
9. Kuhn Bares Bund Record Destruction. "Kuhn steadfastly denied that the German government had any connection with his organization." Associated Press in Reading Eagle, August 16, 1939
10. Nazi America: A Secret History (2000), History Channel (92 min)
11. Ratzis Fritz Kuhn and the Bund, 1939 by Jay Maeder Sunday, May 31st 1998[permanent dead link]
12. "Fight Nazis in Big N.Y. Rally" (February 21, 1939). Chicago Tribune Archive. Chicago Tribune News Service. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
13. Philpot, Robert (February 22, 2019). "Eighty years ago this week: the night the Nazis played Madison Square Garden". The Jewish Chronicle. London. Retrieved March 23, 2019.
14. Philip Bump, When Nazis rallied in Manhattan, one working-class Jewish man from Brooklyn took them on, 20 February 2017, The Washington Post
15. Adams, Thomas (2005). Germany and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History: A MultiDisciplinary Encyclopedia. G – N, volume 2. ABC-CLIO. p. 631. ISBN 1-85109-628-0. Retrieved January 11,2011.
16. Shaffer, Ryan (Spring 2010). "Long Island Nazis: A Local Synthesis of Transnational Politics". 21(2). Journal of Long Island History. Archived from the original on 2010-06-21. Retrieved 2010-11-19.
17. IMDb Biography
18. Bernstein, Arnie (May 28, 2017). "Walter Winchell, Nazi Fighter". The New York Times Book Review: 6. Retrieved 27 May 2017.

External links

• Talking History Archive - Recording of Fritz Kuhn's speech at the German-American Bund Rally, New York City, Feb. 20, 1939, at the University of Albany
• Fritz Julius Kuhn - Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
• "American Bund: The Failure of American Nazism; The German-American Bund’s Attempt to Create an American 'Fifth Column'" Article by Jim Bredemus on Traces.org
• Fritz Julius Kuhn on IMDb
• Newspaper clippings about Fritz Julius Kuhn in the 20th Century Press Archives of the ZBW
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Re: Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

Postby admin » Tue Sep 24, 2019 5:25 am

“Swastika Nation”: Fritz Kuhn and the German-American Bund (Book Review)
by Alex Constantine
October 23, 2013

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


The rise and fall of a small but threatening Nazi movement

Everyone is familiar with Adolf Hitler and the rise and fall of Nazi Germany. Few remember that in the mid- to late-1930s the United States experienced a Nazi crusade of its own, one led by Fritz Julius Kuhn (1896-1951), a radical anti-Semite who dreamed of a fascist America led by a Nazi president. Kuhn never realized his dream, but he did develop a national Nazi movement—complete with propaganda wing, youth group, and its own version of the Schutzstaffel (SS)—that inspired a concerted effort (among politicians, law enforcement and media alike) to destroy him and his organization.

But on February 20, 1939—the day Kuhn’s German-American Bund (Der Amerikadeutsche Volksbund) held a Nuremberg-style rally at New York’s Madison Square Garden—Kuhn and his rabid followers seemed a very real threat to order. Tens of thousands of protestors surrounded the Garden while Bundesführer Kuhn addressed 17,000 enthusiastic supporters—men and women who demonstrated their support by extending their right arms straight out, palms down, in that instantly-recognizable salute, all the while shouting “Free America! Free America! Free America!”

We believe in, and like, the American way of life: the liberty and freedom which generations before us have fought to create and preserve; the freedom to speak, to think, to live, to worship, to work, and to govern ourselves as individuals, as free men; the right to succeed or fail as free men, according to the measure of our ability and our strength.

-- Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of American Ideals, by Wikipedia


Yet that night would mark the peak of the Bund’s reach and influence, as the New York-based group was effectively marginalized later that year when Kuhn was convicted of larceny and forgery and sent to prison at Sing Sing, the state’s infamous maximum-security prison.

In the new book “Swastika Nation” (St. Martin’s Press), author Arnie Bernstein deftly chronicles the rise and fall of the German-American Bund, which emerged from the remnants of a group known as the Friends of New Germany. “Kuhn did a remarkable job of marshaling the movement,” says Bernstein. If Kuhn was running a corporation instead of a Nazi movement he would have been [considered] an astute businessman.”

The Bund maintained a diversified income stream derived from annual dues and various ancillary fees, as well as the mandatory purchase of uniforms, armbands, pins and badges. Uniforms for both the rank-and-file and the group’s Ordnungsdienst (“well-dressed bodyguards who undertook their duties with brutal seriousness,” according to Bernstein) had to be purchased from Bund-approved tailors. In fact, the Bund strongly encouraged its membership to spend their hard-earned dollars at Aryan-owned businesses that were a part of the Deutscher Konsum Verband (D.K.V.), or German Business League.


Image
Fritz Kuhn

Meanwhile, the organization’s publishing arm (the AV Publishing Company, the name derived from the initials of the Bund’s German name, Amerikadeutscher Volksbund), pushed out books and propaganda materials, and also published a weekly newspaper, The German Wakeup Call and Observer (Deutscher Weckruf und Beobachter). Members were obligated to subscribe to the newspaper, and to buy a copy of Hitler’s autobiography/manifesto “Mein Kampf,” among other propaganda materials.

There were various subsidiary organizatoons directly affiliated, or otherwise connected, with the German-American Bund. Among them were --

German-American Business League (Deutscher Konsum Verband): The German-American Business League was a subsidiary of the German-American Bund. Fritz Kuhn was head of both organizations. (See p. 3709 of the committee's hearings.) The committee has a complete membership list of the German-American Business League for New York and New Jersey.

A.V. Development Corporation: The A.V. Development Corporation was also a subsidiary of the German-American Bund. Fritz Kuhn was president of the A.V. Development Corporation. (See p. 3709 of the committee's hearings.)

A.V. Publishing Corporation: The A.V. Publishing Corporation was a subsidiary of the German-American Bund. Fritz Kuhn was president of the corporation. (See p. 3709 of the committee's hearings.) The A.V. Publishing Corporation published the bund's New York newspaper, the Deutscher Weckruf und Beobachter.

Prospective Citizens' League: The Prospective Citizens' League was an auxiliary of the German-American Bund. (See p. 3755 of the committee's hearings.) The ostensible purpose of the Prospective Citizens' League was to provide a method whereby those who had not yet taken out their final citizenship papers could nevertheless be actively associated with the German-American Bund.

German-American Settlement League: The German-American Settlement League was the holding corporation for the German-American Bund's camp at Yaphank, Long Island. This camp was known as Camp Siegfried. Fritz Kuhn was one of the directors of the German-American Settlement League. (See. p. 3758 of the committee's hearings.)

German-American Bund Auxiliary: The German-American Bund Auxiliary was the holding corporation for the bund's camp in New Jersey, Camp Nordland. )See p. 3759 and p. 8265 of the committee's hearings.) August Klapprott, eastern leader of the bund, was president of the German-American Bund Auxiliary.

-- Investigation of Un-American Propaganda Activities in the United States: Appendix, Part VII: Report on the Axis Front Movement in the United States [Excerpt from pp. 59-85]


But what really drew the ire of the American public were the Bund’s camps and retreats—Camp Siegfried in Yaphank, New York, and Camp Nordland in Andover Township, New Jersey, for example—where thousands of Bund members gathered en masse to picnic and swim. Think summer camp with a Nazi twist.

The retreats were a key component of the Bund’s youth initiative, which was loosely modeled after Germany’s Hitler Youth and female counterpart, the League of German Girls. As in Germany, youth group retreats were sexually charged gatherings. “They encouraged the boys and girls to sleep with each other to produce good Aryan children for the day that they would take over,” notes Bernstein.

How quickly a German-American boy can become a part of the Hitler youth program was explained to a witness who appeared before the committee, by a woman bund member. She said, according to this witness, her youthful cousin scorned the camp idea at first, but after one visit came home singing Nazi songs and remarked that the German scouts were "real kameraden." After another visit, he became a member. Today, at 19, he is a fuehrer and has learned to speak German....

So closely related is the youth movement of the German-American Bund to that of the Hitler youth in Germany that they even sing the songs of the Hitler youth and reprint them in their song books…

Uniforms worn by the members of the youth groups, their camps and program of activities were similar in every respect to those of the Hitler youth movement, and that the Nazi salute was the accepted gesture of greeting.


-- Investigation of Un-American Propaganda Activities in the United States: Appendix, Part IV: German-American Bund: Three Documents on the German-American Bund, by Special Committee on Un-American Activities


Predictably, neighbors didn’t take kindly to the idea of Bund members goose-stepping the streets of Yaphank or Andover Township in Nazi-styled uniforms, and the pushback against the camps attracted media coverage coast-to-coast. Syndicated newspaper columnist Walter Winchell painted Kuhn and his followers in a particularly unflattering light, the former taking delight in referring to the Bund leader as Phffftz Kuhn, Fritz Kuhnfucious, or simply Fat Fritz Kuhn. In fact, Winchell became Kuhn’s chief antagonist, so much so that The German Wakeup Call and Observer declared Winchell “Kuhn’s worst enemy.” Worse yet, Kuhn promised to “blacken Walter Winchell’s eyes” (promise kept, courtesy of two thugs) and to piss on his grave (promise not kept).

Hitler and the rest of Germany’s Nazi leadership didn’t think much of Kuhn, either. In the summer of 1936, the Bundesführer and his lieutenants visited Germany and, via a mutual connection, managed to gain an audience with the Führer. “It was basically one of those grip-and-grin photo ops. Hitler shook Kuhn’s hand and said, ‘Go over there and continue the fight,’” recalls Bernstein, a statement that Kuhn viewed as an official endorsement. “Of course, Hitler meant nothing by it,” continues the author. In fact, Hitler was embarrassed by Kuhn, and Nazi officials wanted nothing to do with the German-American Bund, viewing the “stupid and noisy” group as damaging to the Third Reich’s image in America.

The German-American Bund followed closely the pattern of treason made familiar by the Nazis in such organizations as those of Norway's Quisling, Czechoslovakia's Henlein, Belgium's Degrelle, and Jugoslavia's Pavelic. Operating under the flimsy pretext of cultural objectives and general German-American welfare, the bund was always and everywhere a Nazi agency working for disruption, espionage, sabotage, and treason. The bund's pious pretenses were so shallow that it is impossible to believe that any considerable proportion of its membership was ever truly deceived concerning its objectives....

the committee found the following things:

1. That the bund was characterized by the same ruthless efficiency of the military set-up which characterized Hitler's machine in Germany.

2. That bund members were subjected to "absolute loyalty" and "blind obedience" to the bund's fuehrer.

3. That the bund demanded that its members be "fanatical fighters" for national socialism.

4. That the bund anticipated the necessity of violence in carrying out its program.

5. That the bund was characterized by extreme religious bigotry.

6. That the bund aimed at the establishment of a new kind of government in the United States, one which should incorporate the principle of Nazi religious bigotry.

7. That the bund kept a systematic record of its enemies.

8. That the bund specified that its meetings should be closed with the following declaration: "To a free, Gentile-ruled United States and to our fighting movement of awakened Aryan Americans, a threefold rousing 'Free America! Free America! Free America!'"

9. That the bund was an absolutely secret organization.

10. That the bund looked upon all Americans of German descent as owing loyalty to the Reich.

11. And that the bund was ideologically and organizationally tied to Nazi Germany....

Fritz Julius Kuhn was born in Munich, Germany, on May 15, 1896. According to his own testimony, he received his education in Munich, completing a university course there.

In the First World War Kuhn was a machine gunner in the infantry of the German Army. He states that he served 4-1/2 years with the German forces, and by the end of the war had attained the rank of lieutenant.

Kuhn's brother, Max, was appointed a member of the German Supreme Court by Hitler — sufficient evidence that the Kuhn family stands in well with the Nazi Fuehrer....

Mr. Fritz Kuhn became a member of the Nazi Party in 1921 and was active under the then Munich police commissioner, one of the first leading Nazi officials, Dr. Poehner....

When on November 9, 1923, in front of the Feldherrenhalle in Munich, Bavarian police shot at the Nazis marching under the leadership of Hitler and Ludendorff, Kuhn was among the marching Nazis....

After his entry into the United States, Kuhn proceeded directly to Detroit, where he obtained employment in the Henry Ford Hospital and later as a chemical engineer in the Ford Motor Co. Kuhn's employment in these Ford institutions lasted about 8 years....

In the Deutscher Weckruf und Beobachter, official bund newspaper, the visit of Kuhn and a delegation of German-American Bund storm troopers to Germany was described with obvious pride in both words and pictures. The accounts of this visit, which took place in 1936, are found in the Deutscher Weckruf and Beobachter for August 6, August 27, and September 10, 1936. When these bund storm troopers paraded in Berlin before Hitler himself, the Nazi Feuhrer stood on the balcony of the Chancellory. As Hitler stood there viewing this parade, Fritz Kuhn went to the balcony and, according to the words of the Deutscher Weckruf und Beobachter itself, "Bund Leader Fritz Kuhn reported to him."... It cannot be denied that Hitler in this manner gave the highest official recognition of the fact that the German-American Bund was a Nazi agency and that Bundesfuehrer Fritz Kuhn was a subordinate of Hitler himself. According to the report which was published in the bund's own newspaper, Hitler replied to Kuhn, "Now you go back and continue your struggle."

-- Investigation of Un-American Propaganda Activities in the United States: Appendix, Part VII: Report on the Axis Front Movement in the United States [Excerpt from pp. 59-85], Special Committee on Un-American Activities


Meanwhile, back in the U.S., powerful forces began amassing against the Bund. In August 1937 United States Attorney General Homer Cummings launched an FBI probe of Bund camps, and five months later issued his findings in a fourteen-volume report, Nazi Camps in the United States.

But the campaign to bring down Kuhn went into high gear shortly after the Madison Square Garden rally, when New York mayor Fiorello LaGuardia and prosecutor Thomas Dewey seized the Bund’s financial records, hoping to put Kuhn away on tax evasion charges. The plan worked: Kuhn was charged with grand larceny and forgery for embezzling from the Bund’s bank accounts. After being found guilty he was sent to prison, first to Sing Sing, then to Clinton Correctional Facility in Dannemora, New York, where he was incarcerated until being paroled on June 18, 1943. He spent the remainder of the war in the federal internment camp system for wartime enemy aliens, and was subsequently deported to Germany, where he spent the next several years in and out of prison.

Though the Bund attempted to soldier on under the leadership of Bund Führer Gerhard Wilhelm Kunze, “the movement flopped around like a fish on a deck for a couple more years,” quips Bernstein. “Then Pearl Harbor happened and that was that.”



But what might have been lost to history as an ugly curiosity has proven to be a Pandora’s box, as the Internet age has given Ford’s anti-Semitic literature a powerful new life. Today, a century after Ford purchased the Dearborn Independent and 72 years after his death, his legacy of hate is stronger than ever -- it flourishes on the websites and forums of white nationalists, racists and others who hate Jews.

Today, “The International Jew” by Henry Ford plays a significant role in fomenting resentment as the United States grapples with rising numbers of hate crimes and anti-Semitic incidents, ascendant white nationalism and a gunman armed with an AR-15-style assault rifle who massacred 11 people at a Pittsburgh synagogue in October. When he surrendered, the gunman told police he “wanted all Jews to die.”

An essay posted by the Anti-Defamation League on its website says that by resurrecting decades-old texts such as “The International Jew,” today's anti-Semites demonstrate the longevity of their beliefs, legitimizing them to both dedicated followers and potential recruits.

Because of Ford’s fame, “The International Jew” has been a “particularly powerful tool for haters trying to validate their hostile beliefs,” the essay adds.

Two examples of Ford’s influence online today: On Stormfront, a white nationalist online forum, a contributor has taken the screen name Dr. Ford and uses a photo of Henry Ford as a profile image. On the same forum, a participant whose screen name is AllisonRM wrote last year:


“I'm currently reading The International Jew: Essays from the Dearborn Independent (Ford)… Read these great books!...We, the white race, need to encourage ourselves and our children.”


Heidi Beirich, an expert on extremism in the United States at the Alabama-based Southern Poverty Law Center, said extremist websites contain thousands of references to Ford and “The International Jew.”

“In the world of the racist right, Henry Ford is almost a living, breathing human being, “ Beirich said in an interview. She added that extremist leaders use Ford “as an inspiration” and “validator” to impress people while enlisting them to join the movement.


-- 100 Years Later, Dearborn Confronts The Hate Of Hometown Hero Henry Ford, by Bill McGraw


McCarthyism is the practice of making accusations of subversion or treason without proper regard for evidence. The term refers to U.S. senator Joseph McCarthy (R-Wisconsin) and has its origins in the period in the United States known as the Second Red Scare, lasting from the late 1940s through the 1950s. It was characterized by heightened political repression and a campaign spreading fear of communist influence on American institutions and of espionage by Soviet agents.

-- McCarthyism, by Wikipedia


The Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of American Ideals (MPAPAI, also MPA) was an American organization of high-profile, politically conservative members of the Hollywood film industry. It was formed in 1944 for the stated purpose of defending the film industry, and the country as a whole, against what its founders claimed was communist and fascist infiltration.

-- Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of American Ideals, by Wikipedia


The Cold War was a period of geopolitical tension between the Soviet Union with its satellite states (the Eastern Bloc), and the United States with its allies (the Western Bloc) after World War II.

-- Cold War, by Wikipedia


Operation Paperclip was a secret program of the Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency (JIOA) largely carried out by Special Agents of Army CIC, in which more than 1,600 German scientists, engineers, and technicians, such as Wernher von Braun and his V-2 rocket team, were taken from Germany to America for U.S. government employment, primarily between 1945 and 1959. Many were former members, and some were former leaders, of the Nazi Party.

-- Operation Paperclip, by Wikipedia


Orville Liscum Hubbard (April 2, 1903 – December 16, 1982) was the mayor of Dearborn, Michigan for 36 years, from 1942 to 1978. Sometimes referred to as the "Dictator of Dearborn", Hubbard was the most outspoken segregationist north of the Mason-Dixon line. During his administration, non-whites were aggressively discouraged from residing in Dearborn, and Hubbard's longstanding campaign to "Keep Dearborn Clean" was widely understood to mean "Keep Dearborn White."

-- Orville L. Hubbard, by Wikipedia


As for Kuhn, his death attracted little notice; the news didn’t reach the United States until two years later. “Hitler’s U.S. Bund Chief Fritz Kuhn Died Friendless in Germany,” announced Winchell in his February 6, 1953, column for the Daily Mirror. Kuhn had fallen so far, so fast that the columnist had little to say about the disgraced Bundesführer. Winchell’s final words about Kuhn and his dream of a Nazi America were: “(End of shrug).”

Quotes from "Investigation of Un-American Propaganda Activities in the United States: Appendix, Part IV: German-American Bund: Three Documents on the German-American Bund, by Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House of Representatives

The three documents which are presented in this report speak for themselves…..

They attest the ruthless efficiency of the military set-up which characterizes Hitler's machine in Germany….

The discipline to which members of the German-American Bund are subject is clearly reflected in the endless rules and regulations which extend to the minute details of the Bund members' lives. The documents speak of "absolute loyalty" and "blind obedience."…

The German-American Bund organization clearly anticipates violence by its assertion that "the OD man gives assurance that our movement will, at the sacrifice of life if necessary, remain the inexorable opponents of Jewish Marxism….

According to Document #3, "anyone who is not filled with this unshakable faith and courage and cannot march along as a fanatical fighter does not belong in the OD; to have embraced the National Socialist view of things means definitively breaking off all ties with liberal halfway measures" (p. 1611). This is a clear espousal of the totalitarian, as opposed to the democratic, way of life….

The following quotations indicate something of the religious bigotry of the Germany-American Bund: "All OD men and OD Leaders in particular are required to procure a certificate of Aryan blood" (p. 1610). "We are looking for men who enter our organization not in order to procure personal advantages or to be allowed to play soldier pleasantly, but who intend with their whole power to eradicate the red Jewish pestilence in America"…

the defensive and offensive movement of the national consciousness of American Germanism dedicated philosophically (Weltanschaulich), national-socialistically, and politically to the service of an actually independent, aryan-governed United States of North America"…

Document #1 reveals the keeping of systematic records on "enemies" of the German-American Bund….Hitler explained to Rauschning his system of keeping just such a card file on "friends" and "enemies."….

Document #1 specifies the manner in which a meeting of the Bund shall be closed, as follows: "To a free. Gentile-ruled United States and to our fighting movement of awakened Aryan Americans, a three-fold rousing 'Free America! Free America! Free America!"….

These Nazi activities in the United States are traceable to and linked with Government-controlled agencies in Nazi Germany…

the official newspaper of the German-American Bund has had advance information on what was about to transpire in Germany and gave every evidence of intimate knowledge of events to come….

all of the Nazi activities here are on lines identical with those used abroad….

the German-American Bund can muster within its own ranks a uniformed force of 5,000 storm troops and it was testified that in time of necessity this force could be augmented with "strong-arm" detachments of allied groups, such as Italian Black Shirts, Silver Shirts, Ukrainians, White Russians, and similar organizations…

this storm-troop division of the Bund is patterned after the Hitler storm troops and its members are the political soldiers of a Hitler-inspired movement in the United States….

from the manpower of this force the Bund, working hand in hand with the German Government, can draft men for a sabotage, machine and spy net….

members of that organization in all parts of the United States have privately admitted that they are not American citizens but are German citizens and in many cases have boasted that they never intend to become American citizens….

elections were conducted along the lines of recent European plebiscites where everything is under such control that no one dares vote against the machine…

crews of German warships have been entertained by the storm troops of the Bund. German World War veterans are active in storm-troop ranks and help train and drill the men….

Members of the Nazi groups have been found to be working in some of the great aviation manufacturing companies of the United States. They were found working in the United States Navy shipyards where they had succeeded in securing positions which placed them in direct possession of secret plans for the construction of United States Navy battleships of the latest type. They have even been assigned to trial runs on the latest type of these ships…

the Foreign Institute of the Nazi Government at Stuttgart was one of the instrumentalities used in assisting the German-American Bund in spreading propaganda in this country…

German consulates in the United States have been the clearing houses for much of the Nazi activity here…

the groups operated in this country are directed by organizations in Germany which get their support and direction from the German Government itself….

In fact, the Foreign Institute at Stuttgart is being conducted by one Fritz Gissibl, a former leader of the Nazi group in this country and whose brother even now is a member and leader of the Nazi group in Chicago….

every effort is being expended by the bund's high command to instill in these boys and girls, most of whom have never even been outside the United States, the doctrines of racial and religious hatreds preached under the pagan German kultur …

a worship of Hitlerism is inculcated in these youthful unsuspecting minds….

Health, Hitler, Heils, and Hatred are the "4-H's" used by United States Nazis…

They must learn to speak fluent German and to understand the Nazi ideology. They listen to lectures on the Hitler philosophy and the policies of the Third Reich….

the camps are completely Nazi Germany….

The scouts eat, sleep, talk, and dream nazi-ism with the same fervor of the regimented youth of Germany. They are taught to avoid outside "contaminating influences."…

Youngsters are thrust into the Jungvolk organization when only 5 and 6 years old. They wear uniforms of brown and blue shorts or skirts, white blouses with Hitler-brown scarfs. Older boys wear brown shirts with Sam Browne belts, military trousers and boots, and are armed with long hunting knives and spears.

Youths graduate into the "Ordnungs Dienst," the storm-troop organization of the bund, and are trained mentally and physically to lead the troops when the often predicted "trouble" comes. Scouts are told they must be prepared to withstand the onrush of the coming "red" revolution….

At Siegfried and at other eastern bund camps, separate tent encampments for boys and girls are set back in the woods, away from the main building and cottages where their parents drink beer and dance…. Visitors — even parents of the scouts — are not permitted in the youth camps proper. Scouts on duty in the camps must come to the entrances to visit with their parents….

Commands and conversations among the scouts are entirely in German…

Heels click together and the right arm goes out in a Hitler salute when a scout, boy or girl, is addressed by a youth leader or any storm trooper in uniform….

the signs over Nazi youth camps: "You were born to die for Germany."…

Nazi propaganda was slyly worked into the public schools of that city in recent months under the guise of summer German-language classes; that ostensibly, the plan was to simply teach the German language and sing German folk songs, but before very long it became apparent this was not at all the real purposes of the classes. Instead, instructions drifted into Nazi doctrines….

After every Saturday class, trucks picked up some 50 of the children and carried them 55 miles to a Nazi camp near Stanton, Mo. This camp site is operated by the Deutsch-Amerikanische Berufgemeinschaft and is under the direction of Eberhard von Blankenhagen, former Consul Secretary of the German Embassy in Washington….

So closely related is the youth movement of the German-American Bund to that of the Hitler youth in Germany that they even sing the songs of the Hitler youth and reprint them in their song books…

One of the most alarming ways of Nazi propaganda along this line has swept through the ranks of exchange students to universities….

Take, for instance, the case of the Committee on American Youth Camp in Germany. This committee arranges trips and stays for American youths in Germany….

Dr. Colin Ross is a Nazi propagandist who spends his time between Germany and the United States. He has been one of the outstanding speakers for the German-American Bund and has been a writer for the Weckruf, official organ of the bund….

children six years old were shown with the swastika, regulation German Army steel helmets and spears…

Denials to the contrary notwithstanding, this committee was greatly impressed with the evidence presented showing that there is a relationship existing between the German Government and the German-American Bund through the activities of Nazi consuls in this country.

Fritz Kuhn, leader of the German-American Bund, informed this committee's investigator at a time when the latter was disguised as a storm trooper that not only did he have power over the Ambassador and consular set-up in the United States but that he also had a special secret arrangement directly with Adolf Hitler, of Germany.

Ramifications of this "arrangement," Kuhn declared, also included a secret relationship between the German-American Bund and Dr. Hans Heinrich Dieckhoff, present German Ambassador to the United States, and German consuls throughout the country. (See vol, 2, p. 1149.)

In his executive office on the second floor of the bund national headquarters at 178 East Eighty-fifth Street, New York City, on the night of August 16, 1937, this committee's investigator testified that he spoke with Kuhn concerning a trip he had made to the Pacific coast and told him of the difficulties the Los Angeles Post had had with the German consul there….

You see, I have a certain special arrangement with Hitler and Germany that whenever any of our groups have trouble with the consulates in their districts that they are to report it to me in full detail. I then take it up with the Ambassador. Germany is not to be troubled with it unless I get no satisfaction from the Ambassador.

That is exactly why there is a new Ambassador to the United States, and that is exactly why many consuls have been and still are being removed. All the new consuls are National Socialists and are under special instructions to give us the fullest cooperation in every way.


It should be pointed out that Dr. Hans Heinrich Dieckhoff, present Ambassador, was sent to the United States, May 14, 1938, to replace Dr. Hans Luther, whose policy, bund leaders said, did not coincide with those of the bund and the Nazi Party in Germany. There have been numerous consulate changes during the last 2 years, and bund leaders a year ago predicted that more would follow….

Consul von Killinger was also reported as stating that the activities against certain religious groups in this country, as practiced by the German American Bund, are "for the good of America."

The committee had before it evidence (vol. 2, p. 1151) that certain American citizens residing in California had made trips to Germany for the purpose of being schooled in the art of Nazi propaganda and enlightenment. In one instance the father of one of these men (vol. 2, p. 1151) told this committee's investigator that his son's expenses to Germany had been paid through a secret arrangement between the German-American Bund and the Nazi Government….

American Citizens have received Nazi propaganda by mail in packages carrying the imprint of the Nazi consulate at St. Louis…

Propaganda direct from the German Ministry of Propaganda and Enlightenment is distributed by bund officials and evidence was introduced showing definitely that printed propaganda material was shipped from Germany to United States citizens directly. These packages contained, according to the testimony, considerable Nazi propaganda which was printed in Germany for distribution in the United States, considerable Fascist propaganda which was printed in Great Britain for distribution here, and much material of antiracial and antireligious character which was printed here, shipped to German Government agencies, and then reshipped to the United States for distribution in this country….

The packages coming here from abroad contained printed material from the pen of Ernst Goerner, of Milwaukee, Wis.; pamphlets from the Knights of the White Camellia, an organization founded by George E. Deatherage, of Charleston, W. Va.; leaflets from the Russian National Union; and issues from the Christian Free Press, printed in Glendale, Calif….

many Germans living in the United States go abroad and take an oath of fealty to the Fuehrer of Germany…

Repeatedly we have been told that there is no connection between the German-American Bund and the Nazi Government or its political subdivisions, repeatedly we have been told that no allegiance to Adolf Hitler is required, and yet here we have an officially inspired newspaper published in Germany telling us that an oath of fealty was taken….

A target range was set up at Camp Siegfried, Yaphank, Long Island, and on one occasion Herman Schwarzmann, head of the Astoria, Long Island, group, announced that the men were to be "trained to shoot and to take care of guns"…

Bund fuehrers informed storm troops that the various German World War veterans in their ranks would train the younger men in the use of arms….

Within the past year one section of the Gestapo, service section No. 2, under the direction of Colonel Nicolai, has added three new departments, Nos. 23, 24, and 25, all three specifically devoted to espionage in the United States.

Department 23 specializes in economic espionage — the obtaining of American manufacturing and industrial secrets.

Department 24 specializes in military intelligence.

Department 25 specializes in Nazi propaganda….

the German-American Bund receives its inspiration, program, and direction from the Nazi Government of Germany through the various propaganda organizations which have been set up by that Government and which function under the control and supervision of the Nazi Ministry of Propaganda and Enlightenment….

In 1936 Fritz Kulin accompanied a large delegation of bund members to Germany ostensibly for the purpose of visiting the Olympic games. The group paraded in uniform of the Orderly Division (storm troops), and the parade was reviewed by Adolf Hitler. Following the parade, Fritz Kuhn and other officials of the German-American Bund were received by the German Fuehrer…

It was established through the testimony of Fritz Kuhn that the bund had worked sympathetically with other organizations throughout the United States and cooperates with them. Kuhn testified that some of these groups are the Christian Front, the Christian Mobilizers, the Christian Crusaders, the Social Justice Society, the Silver Shirt Legion of America, the Knights of the White Camellia and various Italian Fascist, White Russian, and Ukranian organizations. Kuhn testified that some of the leaders of these groups had addressed meetings sponsored by the bund and that representatives of the bund in turn frequently appeared as speakers at meetings and gatherings sponsored by the above-named groups. It was also established that the bund cooperated with some of these organizations and their leaders by exchanging literature and publications with them and by publishing material emanating from them in the official organ of the bund. Numerous articles have appeared in the bund newspaper expressing the bund's approval of the activities of the organizations already mentioned….

the following are standard reading in bund camps: Hitler's Mein Kampf, Pelley's booklets and publication, Liberation, the books of Julius Streicher (German propagandist), and the Rev. Charles E. Coughlin's publication, Social Justice….

uniforms worn by the members of the youth groups, their camps and program of activities were similar in every respect to those of the Hitler youth movement, and that the Nazi salute was the accepted gesture of greeting….

a group of 15 boys and 15 girls from various parts of the United States who were selected by the bund to be sent to Germany for special training….

there is a political agent on all German ships and that these political agents maintain contact with the Nazi representatives in foreign countries. They are intermediaries for transmission of instructions to the bund leaders in the United States and they receive reports from these leaders concerning the bund's activities, according to the witnesses….

German agents engaged in espionage activities, contacted bund leaders in the United States and sought and received their cooperation. This witness also testified that he had heard discussions among bund leaders with reference to the manner in which the bund, through its members in various industrial plants, could effectively carry out a program of sabotage in case such action became necessary….

members of the bund had assisted German agents whose arrests were sought by officials in the United States in avoiding apprehension and had helped get them out of the United States with the cooperation of German ships….

Nazi propaganda agencies, through officials of the German Government in the United States, have attempted to propagandize educational institutions in this country. It was testified that a German consul general had offered, on behalf of the German Government to subsidize German departments in American universities provided the professors were "acceptable'' to the Nazis….

in August 1938 a so-called anti-Communist convention was held at the bund headquarters in Los Angeles…

the following persons participated in this convention:

Kenneth Alexander, Southern California leader of the Silver Shirts; J. H. Peyton, of the American Rangers; Chas. B. Hudson, of Omaha, Nebr., organizer and leader of America Awake, who accompanied General Moseley when he appeared before the committee; Mrs. Leslie Fry, alias Paquita Louise De Shishmareff, mysterious international figure who has since fled the country, then leader of the Militant Christian Patriots; representatives of Italian Fascist and White Russian organizations; and a number of others of similar point of view….

Bund literature mingled with that of William Dudley Pelley, Robert Edmondson, Mrs. Fry, and George Deatherage on the tables of this convention.

It is clear to the committee that this convention was in no real sense an anti-Communist convention but rather another of a series of attempts to unite some of the various forces of intolerance, racial hatred, Naziism and Fascism in order to achieve greater influence in the United States….

Allen went to Atlanta, Ga., to attempt to "buy the Ku Klux Klan" for Mrs. Fry for the sum of $75,000. He testified that he talked to Hiram W. Evans, head of the Klan, but that Evans "was not interested in the idea."…

-- Investigation of Un-American Propaganda Activities in the United States: Appendix, Part IV: German-American Bund: Three Documents on the German-American Bund, by Special Committee on Un-American Activities
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Investigation of Un-American Propaganda Activities in the United States: Appendix, Part VII: Report on the Axis Front Movement in the United States [Excerpt from pp. 59-85]
Special Committee on Un-American Activities
House of Representatives
Seventy-Eighth Congress
H. Res. 282

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GERMAN-AMERICAN BUND
(Amerikadeutscher Volksbund)


The German-American Bund followed closely the pattern of treason made familiar by the Nazis in such organizations as those of Norway's Quisling, Czechoslovakia's Henlein, Belgium's Degrelle, and Jugoslavia's Pavelic. Operating under the flimsy pretext of cultural objectives and general German-American welfare, the bund was always and everywhere a Nazi agency working for disruption, espionage, sabotage, and treason. The bund's pious pretenses were so shallow that it is impossible to believe that any considerable proportion of its membership was ever truly deceived concerning its objectives.

THE COMMITTEE'S INVESTIGATION

On August 12, 1938, this committee held its first public hearings. In an all-day session, the committee heard four witnesses who testified concerning the German-American Bund and its counterpart for German nationals, the German Bund.

The most important of the committee's first witnesses was Peter Gissibl, who had been active in the pro-Nazi organizations which preceded the formation of the German-American Bund and had later, for a period of more than a year, been the local leader of the bund in Chicago.

It was definitely established through the testimony of Gissibl that Fritz Kuhn had ordered the destruction of bund correspondence and membership lists in order to prevent their coming into the hands of this committee.
At the very outset of its investigations, therefore, the committee was faced with the defiance and recalcitrance of the bund leaders. Nevertheless, the very act of destroying its records strongly confirmed the widely held suspicion of the subversive character and aims of the German-American Bund

During the latter half of 1938, the committee employed as an investigator a man who had become a member of the bund in order to obtain evidence of the bund's character from the inside.

The committee heard 23 witnesses on the bund in public sessions. These included some of the outstanding leaders of the bund itself.

The following is a tabulation of the witnesses who appeared before the committee in public sessions and gave testimony on the German-American Bund, together with the dates of their appearance and the pages of the committee's hearings on which their testimony may be found:

Image
Witness
John C. Metcalfe.
Peter Gissibl
Frank Davin
James J. Metcalfe
John M. Sweeney
Roy P. Monohan
John C. Metcalfe
Arnold Gingrich
John C. Metcalfe
Bernhard Hoffman
LeRoy Schulz
John C. Metcalfe
Theodore Graebner
John C. Metcalfe
Fritz Kuhn
Helen Vooros
John C. Metcalfe
Henry D. Allen
Robert B. Barker
Gerhart H. Seger
Neil Howard Ness
Fritz Kuhn
Richard T. Forbes
Gerhard Wilhelm Kunze
August Klapprott
Arthur H. Bell
A. M. Young
Otto Hohner
Herman A. Ries
Richard W. Werner


In addition to the foregoing witnesses who were heard in public sessions of the committee, 56 other witnesses were heard on the bund in executive sessions of the committee.

For several months the committee employed special investigators who were acquainted with the German language. These investigators spent their entire time in examining the publications of the German-American Bund, particularly the Deutscher Weckruf und Beobachter, which was the bund's official organ.

THE COMMITTEE'S REPORTS ON THE BUND

In its first report to the House of Representatives in January 1939, this committee dealt at length with the German-American Bund. (See pp. 91-113 of that report.) The same was done in subsequent annual reports to the House.

In January 1941, the committee issued a special report of 178 pages dealing exclusively with the bund. This report is known as Appendix — Part IV. This report was introduced by the prosecution in the recent trial of bund leaders in New York, a trial which resulted in the conviction of all the defendants. In this report, based largely upon documents obtained from the personal effects of Gerhard Wilhelm Kunze, the committee found the following things:

1. That the bund was characterized by the same ruthless efficiency of the military set-up which characterized Hitler's machine in Germany.

2. That bund members were subjected to "absolute loyalty" and "blind obedience" to the bund's fuehrer.

3. That the bund demanded that its members be "fanatical fighters" for national socialism.

4. That the bund anticipated the necessity of violence in carrying out its program.

5. That the bund was characterized by extreme religious bigotry.  

6. That the bund aimed at the establishment of a new kind of government in the United States, one which should incorporate the principle of Nazi religious bigotry.

7. That the bund kept a systematic record of its enemies.

8. That the bund specified that its meetings should be closed with the following declaration: "To a free, Gentile-ruled United States and to our fighting movement of awakened Aryan Americans, a threefold rousing 'Free America! Free America! Free America!'"

9. That the bund was an absolutely secret organization.

10. That the bund looked upon all Americans of German descent as owing loyalty to the Reich.

11. And that the bund was ideologically and organizationally tied to Nazi Germany.


OUTLINE OF THE BUND's HISTORY

Tracing the organizational background of the German-American Bund briefly, we find the following stages:

(1) The first definitely Nazi group organized on American soil was formed in Chicago in October 1924. The group was known as Teutonia and its founder was Fritz Gissibl. Gissibl, who was an alien, at the time, later became a member of the National Socialist German Labor Party (the full English title of the Nazi Party in Germany). He was born in Nuremberg, Germany, and came to the United States in December 1923. A period of only 10 months elapsed between time of his arrival in this country and the time of his forming Teutonia. He made no secret of his allegiance to Adolf Hitler. Gissibl was a printer by trade and was employed on the Chicago Daily News until his Nazi activities were publicly exposed.
According to Gissibl's sworn statements, Teutonia never had more than 50 members in Chicago. In 1931, a branch of Teutonia was formed in Detroit. The Detroit branch was still smaller, having an approximate membership of 12. The leader of the Detroit branch of Teutonia was one Walter Hentschel. Hubert Schnuch succeeded Fritz Gissibl as leader of the Chicago branch of Teutonia. According to Gissibl, Teutonia was disbanded in 1932. Approximtely 1 year later, most of the members of Teutonia joined the Friends of New Germany. Peter Gissibl, Fritz's brother, and Hubert Schnuch both testified that Teutonia was the forerunner of the Friends of New Germany.

(2) Between the time of the dissolution of Teutonia and the time of the formation of the Friends of New Germany, approximately 1 year elapsed. During that interim of 1 year, locals of the National Socialist German Labor Party were organized in Chicago and Detroit. A local of the Nazi Party had previously been organized in New York City. In April 1933, on orders from Rudolf Hess, deputy leader of the Nazi Party in Germany, these American locals of the National Socialist German Labor Party were disbanded.

(3) In July 1933, the Friends of New Germany was formed in Chicago. According to Fritz Gissibl, "the left-overs of the former Nazi Party and their friends" sent delegates to Chicago for the purpose of setting up the Friends of New Germany.
The Chicago convention elected Heinz Spanknoebel as leader and Fritz Gissibl as deputy leader of the new organization. New York City was chosen as the seat of the organization's national headquarters. Spanknoebel, a photoengraver by trade, claimed that he was a clergyman at the time he entered the United States. At the public hearings of the McCormack committee (Special Committee on Un-American Activities) on June 6, 1934, a letter from Heinz Spanknoebel to Walter Kappe was introduced in evidence. This letter read, in part, as follows:

First of all, confidentially, for technical reasons my commission must continue as leader of the defense and enlightenment in the U. S. A., for which also the necessary funds have been appropriated. * * * Our office here leans closely on the consul general, and at present, I am occupied with negotiations and with furnishing the office. * * * Have full authorizations from the Supreme Party Office as well as from the Ministry for Propaganda.


This letter was dated July 6, 1933.

(4) On December 1, 1935, Fritz Kuhn became the head or fuehrer of the Friends of New Germany. In March 1936, in Buffalo, the Friends of New Germany became the German-American Bund and Fritz Kuhn was made its leader. Kuhn remained as leader until December 1939, when he was convicted of the misuse of the funds of the organization. Gerhard Wilhelm Kunze thereupon succeeded Kuhn as the bund's fuehrer.

FRITZ KUHN

Fritz Julius Kuhn was born in Munich, Germany, on May 15, 1896. According to his own testimony, he received his education in Munich, completing a university course there.

In the First World War Kuhn was a machine gunner in the infantry of the German Army. He states that he served 4-1/2 years with the German forces, and by the end of the war had attained the rank of lieutenant.

Kuhn's brother, Max, was appointed a member of the German Supreme Court by Hitler — sufficient evidence that the Kuhn family stands in well with the Nazi Fuehrer.

When Kuhn was a witness before the Special Committee on Un-American Activities, he stated that he had never at any time been a member of the National Socialist Party in Germany. However, his testimony on this point was in conflict with a statement which appeared in the official publication of the Friends of New Germany, the Nazi organization which preceded the German-American Bund. In this publication, a picture of Kuhn was carried in the issue of December 30, 1935. Kuhn, who had just become the recognized national leader of the Nazi element among Germans in this country, was introduced to his Nazi followers with the following statement:

Mr. Fritz Kuhn became a member of the Nazi Party in 1921 and was active under the then Munich police commissioner, one of the first leading Nazi officials, Dr. Poehner.


Kuhn further testified before the Special Committee on Un-American Activities that he had had no part in the Munich beer hall putsch of November 9, 1923. This, too, was in direct conflict with the statement which appeared under his picture in the Friends of New Germany paper of December 30, 1935, which declared:

When on November 9, 1923, in front of the Feldherrenhalle in Munich, Bavarian police shot at the Nazis marching under the leadership of Hitler and Ludendorff, Kuhn was among the marching Nazis.


Whether Kuhn committed perjury on the foregoing questions when he was a witness before the committee, or whether the Nazi newspaper deliberately falsified his record and background, the committee is not in a position to state. One thing is certain, however, and that is that the Friends of New Germany desired very much to present itself as a bona fide Nazi organization by correctly or falsely, as the case may be, introducing its fuehrer as one of the original and devoted followers of Adolf Hitler.

Kuhn entered the United States at Laredo, Tex., on or about May 18, 1927. Prior to that date, he claims to have had a residence of about 3 years in Mexico.

After his entry into the United States, Kuhn proceeded directly to Detroit, where he obtained employment in the Henry Ford Hospital and later as a chemical engineer in the Ford Motor Co. Kuhn's employment in these Ford institutions lasted about 8 years.

In addition to scheming to overthrow the Soviet Union in league with National Socialists, Aufbau played a pivotal role in coordinating Hitler's preparations for a putsch against the Weimar Republic. Aufbau helped the National Socialist Party to build a substantial war chest for its intended coup by contributing funds from Aufbau members or allies such as Kirill as well as by channeling funds from Henry Ford, the wealthy American industrialist and politician....

Some White emigre Aufbau members possessed valuable American connections. Colonel Boris Brazol resided in New York, where he played a leading role in the Russkoe natsionalnoe obschestvo (Russian National Society). This organization supported Grand Prince Kirill Romanov's candidacy for Tsar. As we shall see, Aufbau increasingly backed Kirill for Tsar. Brazol also worked on the staff of the American industrialist and politician Henry Ford's anti-Semitic newspaper, The Dearborn Independent. In particular, Brazol provided information on the "Jewish question." Scheubner-Richter praised Brazol as "one of the leading personalities in the Russian emigre circles of America."...

The primary American connection to the German far right was most likely the anti-Semitic industrialist and politician Henry Ford.

-- The Russian Roots of Nazism: White Emigres and the Making of National Socialism, 1917-1945, by Michael Kellogg


Kuhn was naturalized in Detroit on December 3, 1934.

Prior to his naturalization, Fritz Kuhn became a member of the Friends of New Germany, the Nazi organization which was the predecessor of the German-American Bund. Kuhn was, in fact, the local unit leader of the Friends of New Germany in Detroit. It is, therefore, apparent that, wholly apart from other evidence, Kuhn's loyalty was to Nazi Germany at the very time that he took out his final citizenship papers in the United States. Almost 3 years later, Kuhn made it unequivocally clear that his American citizenship had not interfered with his loyalty to Nazi Germany. In his bund newspaper, Deutscher Weckruf und Beobachter, for April 22, 1937, Kuhn wrote as follows:

We may have various citizenship papers in our drawers, but we are all Germans and part of the great German nation of a hundred million people.


The German-American Bund was formally launched at a national convention held in Buffalo, N. Y., in March 1936. Kuhn testified before the Special Committee on Un-American activities that he personally called this convention together. He was made bundesfuehrer (bund leader) of the new organization. Subsequently, Kuhn became head of three subsidiary or affiliated organizations. They were the German-American Business League, the A. V. Publishing Corporation, and the A. V. Development Corporation. (The initials A. V. Stand for the German title of the bund which is Amerika-deutscher Volksbund).

In the Deutscher Weckruf und Beobachter, official bund newspaper, the visit of Kuhn and a delegation of German-American Bund storm troopers to Germany was described with obvious pride in both words and pictures. The accounts of this visit, which took place in 1936, are found in the Deutscher Weckruf and Beobachter for August 6, August 27, and September 10, 1936. When these bund storm troopers paraded in Berlin before Hitler himself, the Nazi Feuhrer stood on the balcony of the Chancellory. As Hitler stood there viewing this parade, Fritz Kuhn went to the balcony and, according to the words of the Deutscher Weckruf und Beobachter itself, "Bund Leader Fritz Kuhn reported to him." The German text of this episode is as follows: "Auf dem Balkon der Reichskanzlei stehend, nahm Reichskanzler Hitler den Vorbeimarsch ab, Bundesfuehrer Fritz Kuhn erstattet ihm Meldung." It cannot be denied that Hitler in this manner gave the highest official recognition of the fact that the German-American Bund was a Nazi agency and that Bundesfuehrer Fritz Kuhn was a subordinate of Hitler himself. According to the report which was published in the bund's own newspaper, Hitler replied to Kuhn, "Now you go back and continue your struggle."

Fritz Kuhn permitted himself to be described as "the American Henlein" in the Deutscher Weckruf und Beobachter of August 31, 1939. The treasonable role of Henlein in Czechoslovakia is, of course, a matter of public record. Kuln's career as leader of the German-American Bund and the record of the bund itself fit perfectly the pattern made familiar by Quisling in Norway, Degrelle in Belgium, and Henlein in Czechoslovakia.

From March 1936, until he was sent to prison, Kuhn occupied the position of bundesfuehrer in the German-American Bund. In the organization, his word was law. In November 1939, Kuhn was convicted of misuse of the funds of the German-American Bund and was committed to prison shortly thereafter.

Fritz Kuhn was a witness before the Special Committee on Un-American Activities on August 16 and 17, and October 19, 1939. The transcript of his testimony may be found on pages 3705-3889 and 6043-6124 of the committee's published hearings.

GERHARD WILHELM KUNZE

Gerhard Wilhelm Kunze was born in Camden, N. J., on January 10, 1906.

According to his testimony before the Special Committee on Un-American Activities, Kunze's formal education extended through high school. He also received electrical and mechanical training in various night schools.

By occupation, Kunze was a chauffeur-mechanic and electrician up until his full-time employment with the German-American Bund.

Kunze states that he joined the Friends of New Germany in September 1933 and that he was a member of the convention which founded the German-American Bund at Buffalo, N. Y., in March 1936. From the formation of the Bund until August 1937 Kunze was employed by the German-American Bund in Philadelphia. From November 1937 until April 1939 he worked with the German-American Bund in New York on a volunteer basis. From April 1939 until the entry of the United States into the war in December 1941 Kunze was employed on a salary basis by the German-American Bund.

Kunze's position with the bund prior to the imprisonment of Fritz Kuhn was that of national public relations director. After Kuhn was convicted and sent to prison, Kunze became acting national bundesfuehrer of the German-American Bund. His term of acting bundesfuehrer extended from December 5, 1939, to September 1, 1940. On the latter date, Gerhard Wilhelm Kunze became national bundesfuehrer of the German-American Bund and continued in that capacity until the entry of the United Slates into the war in December 1941.

After the United States entered the war, Kunze fled to Mexico with the alleged intention of making an escape to Germany. In July 1942 he was apprehended by the Mexican authorities, taken to the border, where he was picked up by United States authorities and flown to New York. Kunze has been convicted on several counts including espionage.


Gerhard Wilhelm Kunze was a witness before the Special Committee on Un-American Activities on October 1, 1940. The transcript of his testimony may be found on pages 8251-8283 in the committee's published hearings.

PETER GISSIBL

Peter Gissibl was born in Germany on October 2, 1900. He landed in the United States on May 10, 1923, and became a naturalized citizen of this country on April 29, 1929.

In February 1925 Gissibl joined the Teutonia Society, one of the Nazi predecessors of the German-American Bund. Gissibl was also a member and an official in the Friends of New Germany (organized in May 1933 and dissolved at the time of the formation of the German-American Bund in March 1936).

Peter Gissibl was president of the German-American Business League (Deutscher Konsum Verband), an auxiliary of the German-American Bund. He was also president of the Teutonia Publishing Co., and president of the Concordia Male Chorus.


From May 1, 1937, until May 18, 1938, Peter Gissibl was local unit leader of the German-American Bund in Chicago, a position which he states that he resigned on the latter date because of disagreements with Fritz Kuhn.

Peter Gissibl's brother, Fritz, was the founder of the Teutonia Society and later the national president of the Friends of New Germany.

Peter Gissibl was a witness before the Special Committee on Un-American Activities on the first day of the committee's taking testimony at public hearings, which was on August 12, 1938. The transcript of his testimony may be found on pages 47-72 and 84-86 of the committee's published hearings.

AUGUST KLAPPROTT

August Klapprott was born in Germany on September 4, 1906. He came to the United States in 1927 and was naturalized in 1934.

For 10 years after his arrival in the United States, Klapprott worked as a bricklayer. From May 1937 until January 1940 he operated a restaurant in Nordland, N. J. In January 1940 he became a full-time salaried employee of the German American Bund.

Klapprott states that he was a member of the Friends of New Germany for a period of 2 years prior to the formation of the bund. He joined the German-American Bund at the time of its formation in March 1936.

Klapprott's position in the bund was that of eastern department leader.
In the whole of the United States, the German-American Bund has three departments, the eastern, the middle western, and the western. Klapprott's territory extended from Maine to Florida and included the inland States of Vermont and West Virginia.

August Klapprott is now under indictment for conspiracy to interfere with the operation of the Selective Service Act.

Klapprott was a witness before the Special Committee on Un-American Activities on October 2, 1940. The transcript of his testimony may be found on pages 8285-8307 of the committee's published hearings.

MEETING PLACES OF THE BUND

Among the meeting places of the German-American Bund, located by the committee, were the following:

California:
Los Angeles, Deutsches Haus, 634 West Fifteenth Street.
Oakland, Hermannsohn's Park, Dublin Canyon.
San Gabriel, Grape Vine Cafe.

Connecticut:
Norwalk, South Norwalk Quartette Club, 11 River Street.
Southbury, Camp General von Steuben.
Stamford, Liedertafel Halle, 45 Greyrock Place.

Illinois:
Chicago, Germania Klubhaus, 108 Germania Place.

Maryland:
Baltimore, Deutsches Haus.

Pennsylvania:
Philadelphia, Philadelphia Turnhalle, Broad Street and Columbia Avenue.

New Jersey:
East Rutherford, Old Heidelberg Restaurant, Paterson Avenue.
Fairfield, "Deutsches Eck," Route No. 6.
Hackensack, Uhland Halle, 333 Main Street.
Irvington, Emanuels Church, Ney Avenue.
Newark, Apollo Hall.
North Bergen, Schuetzenpark-Saal, Hackensack Plankroad and Hudson Boulevard.
Passaic, Turn Hall, 240 Hope Avenue.
Riverdale, Edelweiss Restaurant, Riverdale Road.
Springfeld, Immergruen Park.
Union City, German American Bund Home, 754 Palisade Avenue.

New York:
Astoria, Broadway Tavern, 30-09 Broadway.
Astoria, Long Island Turnhalle, 44-01 Broadway.
Astoria, Steubenhaus.
Bardonia, Siegmund Restaurant.
Bronx, Ebling's Casino, One Hundred and Fifty-sixth Street and St. Ann's Avenue.
Brooklyn, O. D. Home, St. Nicholas Avenue.
Brooklyn, Prospect Hall, 261 Prospect Avenue.
Brooklyn, Woodward Inn, 675 Woodward Avenue.
Buffalo, Tanglewood Park.
College Point, Long Island, Columbia Hall, Eighteenth Avenue and One Hundred and Twenty-first Street.
Four Corners, Cardinal Lunch, Route No. 59.
Franklin Square, Long Island, Plattdeutscher Volksfest Park.
Grant City, Staten Island, Privacky's Grant City Park at Midland Avenue near Hylan Avenue.
Harrison, Scholz' Farm, 35 Harrison Avenue.
Hempstead, Long Island, Polish Hall.
Hewlett, Long Island, Castle Inn, 1218 Broadway.
Jamaica, Long Island, Jamaica Saengerbund Halle, 168-15 Ninety-first Avenue.
Kitchawan, Cuno Country Club.
Lindenhurst, Long Island, Washington Hall, North Wellwood Avenue.
New Hyde Park, Long Island, Brauhof.
New Rochelle, Alps Rest, 240 Huguenot Street.
New Rochelle, Welmot Inn, Welmot Road Corner.
New Rochelle, Grabs Hall, 18 Mechanic Street.
New York City, L, Armbruster, Inc., 1409 Third Avenue.
New York City, Jaeger's Turnhall, Eighty-fifth Street and Lexington Avenue.
New York City, Yorkville Casino, 210 East Eighty-sixth Street.
Ridgewood, Long Island, New Ridgewood Hall, 1880 Menahan Street.
Rockland County, North Mountain Casino.
Schenectady, Wenzel's Park, end of Campbell Avenue.
Stapleton, Staten Island, Atlantic Kotisserie, 191 Canal Street.
Stapleton, Staten Island, Stapleton Lyceum, 730 Van Duzer Street.  
Staten Island, Alma Guenther Restaurant.
Suffern, Fesel's Pavillion.
Trov, Germania Hall.
White Plains, 101 Main Street,
White Plains, Fritz Restaurant, East Post Road.
Woodside, Long Island, Steuben House.
Yonkers, Polish Community Center.

Washington:
Seattle, Deutsches Haus.

Wisconsin:
Grafton, Camp Hindenburg.
Milwaukee, Republican Hotel, Third Street and Kilbourne Avenue.


LEADERS OF THE BUND

While it was impossible for the committee to obtain a complete list of the bund's membership because Kuhn had ordered the destruction of all membership lists, the committee has been able to identify many, if not all, of the leaders of the German American Bund. The following is a list of bund leaders from coast to coast who were publicly active in the organization's affairs:

Ach, Karl, group leader of the bund in local New York.
Adrian, Else, leader of the girls' section of the bund in local New York, and selected by the bund for training in Stuttgart, Germany.
Andling, Paul, leader of the bund in Schenectady, N. Y.
Bachman, Karl, leader of the bund in local Albany, N. Y.
Bauer, William P., leader of the bund in San Diego, Calif.
Biedl, Franz, bund treasurer in local New York.
Biele, N., head of the bund storm troopers in Philadelphia, and head of bund Camp Deutschhorst at Sellersville, Pa.
Boening, William, leader of the bund storm troopers in Astoria, Long Island, N. Y., and alternate leader of the storm troopers for the eastern district of the bund.
Bojes, Frank, leader of the bund, local Stapleton, Staten Island.
Borchers, Walter, leader of the bund, local South Brooklyn, N. Y.
Brauns, Georg, leader of the bund, local Hudson County, N. J.
Budelmann, John, local leader of the bund, Bergen County, N. J.
Claasen, Bernard, leader of the bund in Hammond, Ind.
Cyler, Leo, leader of the bund in Lindenhurst, Long Island.
Detleff, John, acting district leader of the bund in Hempstead, Long Island.
Diebel, Hans, member of the bund in Los Angeles, and head of the Aryan Book Shop in Los Angeles.
Dinkelacker, Mrs. Erna, head or the youth camps of the bund.
Dinkelacker, Theodor, youth leader of the bund.
Dittrich, Diego, leader of the bund orchestra in Seattle, Wash.
Duell, Elizabeth, member of the bund and leader of the girls' group of the bund in Newark, N. J.
Eigenberger, Frederick, leader of the bund in Sheboygan, Wis.
Faigle, Gotthief, leader of the bund in Yonkers, N. Y.
Faller, Mrs. Anna, leader of the bund girls' group in Kenosha, Wis.
Flick, Karl, leader of the storm troopers of the bund for the Brooklyn district.
Foch, Matthias, district leader of the bund in Santa Barbara, Calif.
Folger, Duncan, head of the bund in New Rochelle, N. Y.
Frischkorn, Paul, leader of the bund in Detroit, Mich.
Fritz, William Jacob, leader of the bund in Toledo, Ohio.
Froboese, George, head of the midwestern district of the bund.
Fuchs, Anton, head of the bund in Pittsburgh, Pa.
Funk, Rudolf, leader of the youth section of the bund in Astoria, Long Island, N. Y.
Gaenger, Peter, head of the propaganda section of the bund in Pittsburgh, Pa.
Gissibl, Fritz, founder of the Teutonia and national president of the Friends of New Germany, both of which organizations were predecessors of the German-American Bund.
Gissibl, Peter, head of the bund in Chicago, Ill., and president of the Deutscher Konsum Verband, a subsidiary of the German American Bund.
Gloeckler, Hedwig, district leader of the bund in Hudson County, N. J.
Goeppel, Allen, leader of the bund in Pittsburgh, Pa.
Goetz, Susie, chief of the bund's news service.
Greis, H., district leader of the bund in New Haven, Conn.
Haas, Hugo, leader of the bund in Brooklyn and active in the bund's youth section; went to Germany to work in the League of Germans Living Abroad.
Haertel, Mrs. Elli, leader of the German Language School of the bund in Staten Island, N. Y.
Hagebusch, Ereka, youth leader of the girls' section of the bund at Camp Nordland, N. J., and leader of the bund's youth section in Astoria, Long Island, N. Y.
Hartman, Alexander H., leader of the bund in Philadelphia, Pa.
Hauck, H., leader of the bund in Jamaica, Long Island, N. Y.
Hayser, Elizabeth, leader of the bund in Milwaukee, Wis.
Heimsoth, Henri, leader of the bund in Kenosha, Wis.
Hein, Gottlieb, district leader of the bund in Oakland, Calif;
Heise, Anna, leader of the women's section of the bund in Brooklyn, N. Y.
Heise, Kurt, district leader of the bund in Long Island, N. Y.
Heller, William, leader of the bund in Poughkeepsie, N. Y.
Hesse, Karl, district leader of the bund in Spokane, Wash.
Hoeflich, Hermann J., leader of the bund in Rockland County, N. Y.
Hutten, H., district leader of the bund in Staten Island, N. Y.
Kappe, Walter, recently resigned from the German Army in which he is a lieu- tenant in order to become the head of a sabotage ring for the United States, and formerly a member of the bund in New York where he was the editor of the Deutscher Weckruf und Beobachter, official organ of the German- American Bund.
Kessler, Martin, district leader of the bund in Cleveland, Ohio.
Klapprott, August, leader of the bund in New Jersey.
Klapprott, Mrs. August, leader of the girl's group of the bund in New Jersey.
Koch, Tilly, leader of the youth movement of the bund in South Brooklyn, N. Y.
Koehler, Konrad, business manager of the Deutscher Weckruf und Beobachter, official organ of the bund.
Kohler, Matthias, local leader of the bund in Newark, N. J.
Kuehn, E. F., leader of the bund in Petaluma, Calif.
Kuhn, Fritz, national leader (fuehrer) of the German American Bund and all of its subsidiaries.
Kullman, Paul, local leader of the bund in Wyomissing, Pa.
Kump, Fred, head of the bund in Glendale, Long Island, N. Y.
Kunze, Mrs. A., leader of the women's section of the bund in New Milford, Bergen County, N. J.
Kunze, G. Wilhelm, successor to Fritz Kuhn as national leader (fuehrer) of the bund and its subsidiaries.
Lage, Henry, head of the bund in San Francisco, Calif.
Lattemann, W., head of the bund in Schenectady, N. Y.
Lechner, H., district leader of the bund in Seattle, Wash.
Leibiger, Gustav, district leader of the storm troopers of the bund in Westchester County, N. Y., and Connecticut.
Liebler, Fred, local leader of the bund in Jamaica, Long Island, N. Y.
Liedertafel, P. Kohl, local leader of the bund in St. Louis, Mo.
Luedtke, Willy, national officer of the bund.
I.utz, John, local leader of the bund in San Diego and San Francisco, Calif.
Markmann, Rudolf, district leader of the bund for the eastern part of the United States.
Martin, Rudolph, district leader of the bund for the eastern part of the United States.
Martin, Theo, local leader of the bund in Philadelphia, Pa.
Mettin, Richard, part owner of the Deutscher Weckruf und Beobachter, official organ of the bund.
Meyer, Bans, leader of the storm troopers of the bund in New York.
Meyer, Lieselotte, head of the girl's section of the blind in Lindehhurst, Long Island, N. Y.
Muehlke, Frank, treasurer of the bund in San Diego, Calif.
Mueller, Albert, leader of the bund in St. Louis, Mo.
Mueller, Ernst, head of the bund in Camp Siegfried, Yaphank, Long Island, N. Y.
Munk, George, head of the bund in Stamford. Conn.
Nadler, Elly, leader of the girl's group of the bund in White Plains, N. Y.
Nuebeck, Hans, district leader of the bund in Buffalo, N. Y.
Nicolay, Carl, propaganda leader of the bund.
Nicolay, Franz, leader of the youth section of the bund in South Brooklyn, N. Y.
Orgel, Helen, head of the women's section of the bund in Los Angeles, Calif.
Othmer, Waldemar, leader of the bund in Trenton, N. J.
Pollmann, Mrs. M., head of the women's section of the bund in Hudson County, N. J.
Purwien, H., local leader of the bund in South Bend, Ind.
Rehfeldt, Anna, national leader of the women's group of the bund.
Reese, Edward, leader of the bund in Spokane, Wash.
Reisberger, George, treasurer of the bund in the Bronx, N. Y.
Rheinberg, Ulrich, dramatic director of the bund.
Rieper, Jacob, head of the bund in White Plains, X. Y.
Risse, Arno, district leader of the bund in Los Angeles, Calif.
Rompe, Hans, local leader of the bund in Lindenhurst, Long Island, N. Y.
Ruhnke, William, leader of the bund in Dayton, Ohio.
Sahling, Werner, head of the boys' section of the bund in New York.
Schaphorst, Henry, local leader of the bund in Fort Wayne, Ind.
Schattat, Fred, local leader of the bund in Gary, Ind.
Scheurer, Hans, local leader of the bund in Portland. Oreg.
Schnoes, E., treasurer of the bund in the Bronx, N. Y.
Schrader, Frederic F., editor of the Deutscher Weckruf und Beobachter, official organ of the bund.
Schreiber, John H., local leader of the bund in Detroit, Mich., and Toledo, Ohio.
Schrick, Michael, head of the storm troopers of the bund in New York.
Schuster, Josef, district leader of the bund in New York.
Schwarzmann, H., district leader of the storm troopers of the bund for the eastern part of the United States.
Schwinn, Hermann, district leader of the bund in Los Angeles, Calif.
Seegers, Henry, leader of the bund in West Reading, Pa.
Seidel, Erich, organizer of the bund in Glendale, Long Island, N. Y.
Stoll, Paul, local leader of the bund in Seattle, Wash.
Sturn, Erna, leader of the women's group of the bund in Astoria, Long Island, N. Y.
Toener, Rudolf, district leader of the bund in Los Angeles, Calif.
Ullrich, Reinhart, head of the bund in Pittsburgh, Pa.
Vandenberg, Frederick, youth leader of the bund in Camp Siegfried, Yaphank, Long Island, N. Y.
Van den Bergh, Bertha, head of the women's section of the bund in South Brooklyn, N. Y.
Vanderbergh, Frank, local leader of the bund in Brooklyn, N. Y.
Voch, Matthias, leader of the bund in Santa Barbara, Calif.
Von Holt, Henry, local leader of the bund in the Bronx, N. Y.
Von Nasse, Eberhard, founder of the youth section of the bund.
Wagner, Carl, leader of the bund in Passaic County, N. J.
Wagner, Henry, acting head of the bund in Brooklyn, N. Y.
Wax, M., local leader of the bund in Cleveland, Ohio, and Cincinnati, Ohio.
Wegener, Otto, head of the National News Service of the bund.
Weider, Ernest, youth leader of the bund in South Brooklyn, N. Y.
Weiler, Karl, district leader of the bund in Nassau County, N. Y.
Weis, August, treasurer of the bund's Camp Siegfried.
Wheeler-Hill, James, district leader of the bund in New York.
Wieda, A., treasurer of the bund in South Brooklyn, N. Y.
Willmovski, Albert, leader of the bund in South Bend, Ind.
Willumeit, Otto, head of the bund in Chicago, Ill. Winterscheidt, Clara, leader of the women's section of the bund in New York.
Wolter, A. H., secretary of the bund in Pittsburgh, Pa.
Wuest, Karl, group leader of the storm troopers of the bund in New York.
Zimmer, Albert, leader of the bund in Cincinnati, Ohio.
Zimmerman, Hans, head of propaganda section of the bund in New York.


There were various subsidiary organizations directly affiliated, or otherwise connected, with the German-American Bund. Among them were —

GERMAN-AMERICAN BUSINESS LEAGUE
(Deutscher Konsum Verband)


The German-American Business League was a subsidiary of the German-American Bund. Fritz Kuhn was head of both organizations. (See p. 3709 of the committee's hearings.)
 
The committee has a complete membership list of the German-American Business League for New York and New Jersey.

A. V. DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION

The A. V. Development Corporation was also a subsidiary of the German-American Bund. Fritz Kuhn was president of the A. V. Development Corporation. (See p. 3709 of the committee's hearings.)

A. V. PUBLISHING CORPORATION

The A. V. Publishing Corporation was a subsidiary of the German-American Bund. Fritz Kuhn was president of the corporation. (See p. 3709 of the committee's hearings.)

The A. V. Publishing Corporation published the bund's New York newspaper, the Deutscher Weckruf und Beobachter.

PROSPECTIVE CITIZENS' LEAGUE

The Prospective Citizens' League was an auxiliary of the German-American Bund. (See p. 3755 of the committee's hearings.)

The ostensible purpose of the Prospective Citizens' League was to provide a method whereby those who had not yet taken out their final citizenship papers could nevertheless be actively associated with the German-American Bund.

GERMAN-AMERICAN SETTLEMENT LEAGUE

The German-American Settlement League was the holding corporation for the German-American Bund's camp at Yaphank, Long Island. This camp was known as Camp Siegfried.

Fritz Kuhn was one of the directors of the German-American Settlement League. (See p. 3758 of the committee's hearings.)

GERMAN-AMERICAN BUND AUXILIARY

The German-American Bund Auxiliary was the holding corporation for the bund's camp in New Jersey, Camp Nordland. (See p. 3759 and p. 8265 of the committee's hearings.)  

August Klapprott, eastern leader of the bund, was president of the German-American Bund Auxiliary.
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FRIENDS OF NEW GERMANY

The Friends of New Germany (Bund der Freunde des Neuen Deutschland) was the immediate forerunner of the German-American Bund.

The Special Committee on Un-American Activities which was headed by the Honorable John McCormack made a complete investigation and exposure of the Friends of New Germany from its beginning down to 1934. This committee took up the investigation where the McCormack left off.

In March 1936 the Friends of New Germany became the German-American Bund. The change from the one to the other was effected at a convention held in Buffalo, N. Y.

NATIONAL SOCIALIST GERMAN LABOR PARTY

In 1932 and 1933, locals of the National Socialist German Labor Party were organized in a number of American cities — New York, Chicago, Detroit, Los Angeles, San Francisco, and Cincinnati.

In April 1933, Rudolf Hess, Deputy Fuehrer of the Nazi Party in Germany, ordered the dissolution of these Nazi locals in the United States.

Many of those who had been prominent in the formation of these Nazi locals in the United States met in Chicago in the summer of 1933 and formed the Friends of New Germany which in turn became the German-American Bund.

After Rudolf Hess dissolved the Nazi locals in America in 1933, it was believed by many that the Nazi Party, as such had disappeared from American soil. This belief was held for a number of years until 1940 when this committee uncovered documentary evidence of the existence of a well-organized and secret Nazi Party in the United States.

In November 1940 the committee published extensive evidence of the existence of this secret Nazi Party in America. (That evidence may be found on pp. 1034-1044 and 1262-1287 of appendix, pt. II, which is entitled "A Preliminary Digest and Report on the Un-American Activities of Various Nazi Organizations * * *'', etc.)

The committee discovered that F. Draeger who was consul in New York also bore the title of district leader (Kreisleiter) of the Foreign Organization of the National Socialist German Labor Party (Nazi).

GERMAN BUND

The distinction between the German Bund and the German-American Bund must be kept clearly in mind. The former was an organization of German nationals working exclusively in Chicago and vicinity. Inasmuch as the German Bund was composed exclusively of German nationals, there is no question about the organization's undivided loyalty to Hitler.

THE COMMITTEE'S INVESTIGATION

On the very first day of its public hearings in August 1938, this committee heard a witness who had been a member of the German Bund. On October 20, 1939, the same witness appeared once more before the committee to testify concerning the nature and activities of the German Bund. Also on October 20, 1939, the committee took the testimony of Fritz Heberling who had been the leader of the German Bund.

FRITZ HEBERLING

Fritz Heberling, leader of the German Bund, was born in Strasbourg (then a part of Germany), on May 29, 1903. He took up residence in the United States in 1930. At the time of his appearance before this committee, he was employed as a clerk in the German consulate in Chicago.

HISTORY OF THE GERMAN BUND

According to both of the witnesses who testified before the committee on the affairs of the German Bund, the organization was composed originally of those German nationals who withdrew of the Friends New Germany on orders from Rudolph Hess sometime in 1935. The membership of the German Bund appears to have been in the neighborhood of 300, made up chiefly of skilled workmen of German nationality who were residing in Chicago and vicinity.

The German Bund was dissolved in 1937 by order of the German consul in Chicago. According to Heberling, the consul deemed it inadvisable for the organization to continue in view of unfavorable publicity which it had received as a result of its appearance in public in the uniforms of storm troopers.

Immediately after the dissolution of the German Bund, however, a new organization composed of the same individuals was set up. This new organization was known as the German Citizens' League. Heberling translated the name of the new organization as the Alliance of German Nationals. Heberling was fuehrer or leader of the new organization as well as of the old German Bund.


PURPOSES OF THE GERMAN BUND

According to testimony received by the committee, the German Bund numbered among its purposes the planting of informers within other German and German-American organizations in Chicago and vicinity. In this manner the organization was able to report activities and trends among German nationals and Americans of German descent generally to the Nazis in Germany.

The German Bund also held joint affairs and meetings with other German organizations, including the German-American Bund.


GERMAN CITIZENS' LEAGUE

The German Citizens' League became the successor of the German Bund when the latter organization was dissolved in 1937.

On October 20, 1939, this committee heard the testimony of Fritz Heberling who was at that time the fuehrer or leader of the German Citizens' League.

Other officers of the German Citizens' League were Hugo Bamberg, treasurer, and Hendley Schickenger, secretary.

Inasmuch as the German Citizens' League was composed exclusively of German nationals, there is no question concerning the organization's absolute loyalty to nazi-ism.

KYFFHAUSERBUND

Since 1938 this committee has had under investigation an organization known as the Kyffhauserbund (League of German War Veterans). The Kyffhauserbund was organized under that name in August 1937, and incorporated in the State of Pennsylvania with headquarters in Philadelphia. It had posts in the following cities:

New York, N. Y.
Philadelphia, Pa.
Berlin, N. J.
Manhattan, N. Y.
Boston, Mass.
Scharnhorst, Chicago, Ill.
Erie, Pa.
Detroit, Mich.
Rochester, N. Y.
Houston, Tex.
Hartford, Conn.


NATIONAL OFFICERS OF THE KYFFHAUSERBUND

Karl Schumacher, national commander.
Emil Bruackner, national vice-commander.
Walter Kaeusler, national adjutant.
Karl Schultes, national treasurer.


THE COMMITTEE'S INVESTIGATION

In 1940 committee investigators made a thorough investigation into the activities of this organization in the State of Texas. All officers of the Kyffhauserbund in the State were subpenaed before the committee and gave testimony in executive session. The committee also subpenaed the records of the organization for that State and from an examination of the records and review of the testimony of the organization's various officers, it is apparent that the Kyffhauser bund was another example of a legitimate organization being prostituted by the Nazi cause of Hitler.

HISTORY OF THE KYFFHAUSERBUND

Prior to the formation of the Kyffhauserbund in 1937, there were in operation in the United States several German organizations made up of German World War veterans. Most notable of these were the Stahlhelm (steel helmet) and the Kriegerbund, both of which had their headquarters in Germany. The Stahlhelm was founded November 13, 1918, by Franz Seldte, a factory owner in Magdeburg, Germany, who remained the head of the Stahlhelm until its absorption by the Nazi Party in the early summer of 1933. The purpose of the Stahlhelm was both social and political. Its political activities aimed at fighting against the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. Branches of the Stahlhelm were set up in this country and were later merged into the Kyffhauserbund. Following the formation of the latter organization in 1937, the committee has evidence that units of the Kriegerbund have also affiliated with the Kyffhauserbund.

It is now quite clear that what Nazi Germany did was to consolidate all German veterans' organizations into the Kyffhauserbund, and thus made use of it as an arm of the Nazi espionage and propaganda machine in North America.


AIMS OF THE ORGANIZATION

The committee has in its possession an original membership book of the Kyffhauserbund, dated February 1, 1939. The title of page 4 of this book, which is printed in German, will furnish an insight into the true nature of the organization. It reads as follows:

Recommendation of Organization Leader as to Members ability of being trusted with confidential work.


The aims and purposes of the Kyffhauserbund in North America are set forth on page 10 of the membership book as follows:

Aims and Purposes of the Kyffhauserbund in North America

Promote fellowship. Induce our members to become Good American-Citizens, and hold in honor our German name.

Promote and practice German Language and Culture. Work for a better understanding and good will between our homeland and the United States.

Promote Good fellowship, and work for the social welfare of our members and their families.

Promote rifle and pistol practice.


KYFFHAUSERBUND IN TEXAS

In an effort to determine whether or not the members of this organization were pro-Nazi and working in the interest of Hitler, the committee ordered a detailed investigation of the Houston, Tex., post and all of its members. This investigation showed that the fuehrer of the Houston post was one Herman Koetter of 537 Hofman Street, Houston, Tex., a German citizen who had resided in this country 17 years without becoming a citizen, and when questioned under oath by the committee's chairman he stated that he had never made up his mind as to whether or not he wanted to become an American citizen. The committee learned that Koetter had met and conferred with the captain and crew of a number of German ships when they docked in the port of Houston. Koetter is now interned in an alien concentration camp in Texas.

Another member of the Houston post of the Kyffhauserbund was Hans Ackermann, of Taylor, Tex., publisher of the pro-Nazi German language newspaper, the Texas Herold, which was exposed by this committee in 1940. A subcommittee of this committee spent 3 weeks in Austin, Tex., studying the records and files of Hans Ackermann and his newspaper, the Texas Herold. Also a number of witnesses, including Hans Ackermann and his wife, Frieda, were called to testify concerning their activities. This hearing and investigation by the subcommittee revealed that Hans Ackermann and his wife, Frieda, were given a free trip to Germany in 1939 at the expense of the Nazi government. They admitted under oath that they had met and conferred with Rudolph Hess at the Brown House in Munich and that during their stay in Germany they had sent back pro-Nazi articles and editorials concerning their visit which were printed in the Texas Herold. While they were in Germany, war broke out and it was necessary for them to go to Italy and return to the United States on the Italian steamship Rex. An examination of the issue of the Texas Herold clearly showed that it was simply a propaganda sheet for Nazi Germany, being used in an effort to influence the German population which is concentrated in and about Taylor, Tex. The personal files of Hans Ackermann contained numerous letters and communications from Wendler, former German Consul General in New Orleans, and his successor, the notorious Baron Von Spiegel. Both Wendler and Von Spiegel had made trips from New Orleans to Taylor, Tex., some 700 miles to confer with Ackermann from time to time. From the evidence before the subcommittee is was clear that Ackermann was pro-Nazi and working in the interest of Hitler's Germany.
On September 28, 1942, Hans Ackermann went on trial in Austin, Tex., before Federal Judge W. A. Keeling, where the Federal Government seeks to revoke his United States citizenship. The Government charges Ackermann with remaining loyal to Germany and with "doing all in his power to aid the German Reich in its causes."

While there were only 25 members of the Kyffhauserbund in Texas, the books and records of the organization show that it was a very active group constantly engaged in collecting money for German winter relief and other campaigns in behalf of Germany. It was brought out in the testimony of Herman Nester, secretary and treasurer of the Houston Post of the Kyffhauserbund, tha t on a number of occasions the Kyffhauserbund entertained the captain and crew of German boats which docked at Houston, Tex., and at these affairs a Nazi swastika was displayed and the meeting was opened by singing the Horst Wessel. Nester further admitted that on some occasions literature was given them by the captain of the boat. The committee also learned that several times Wendler, Consul General at New Orleans, had come to Houston, some 500 miles distance, to meet with the Kyffhauserbund. In order to determine the true nature of the organization, there is quoted here the testimony of Herman Nester, secretary and treasurer of the bund, which appears on pages 1102-1104 of the committee's hearings in executive session:

Mr. Stripling. At any meetings of the Kyffhauserbund, social or otherwise was the swastika ever displayed?

Mr. Nester. Yes.

Mr. Stripling. Is it always displayed?

Mr. Nester. No, sir.

Mr. Stripling. When was it displayed?

Mr. Nester. It was displayed twice.

Mr. Stripling. Whenever German ships came in?

Mr. Nester. Yes.

Mr. Stripling. At any other times?

Mr. Nester., There may have been other times. I believe it was when this Nazi movement came about in Germany; it may have been displayed a few times, but later on we didn't do it any more.

Mr. Stripling. Have you ever sung the Horst Wessel?

Mr. Nester. Yes; we have.

Mr. Stripling. You sing it at every meeting?

Mr. Nester. No. We sang it possibly when some of the boys from the boat was here.

Mr. Stripling. You said you received from the German ships Literature and pamphlets?

Mr. Nester. Yes.

*******

Mr. Stripling. How about Dr. Wendler?

Mr. Nester. Dr. Wendler, I know him personally, and I think he was once or twice at one of our meetings.

*******

The Chairman. Didn't you feel from your long contact with the organization that it was very much pro-Nazi; that is, the national organization; didn't it have that appearance to you?

Mr. Nester. I believe they was to a certain extent. I wouldn't say exactly pro-Nazi; they are for the new Germany more or less.

The Chairman. When you say pro-new Germany, you mean pro-Nazi Germany?

Mr. Nester. About the same; yes.

* * * * * * *

Mr. Stripling. Do you know Hans Ackermann?

Mr. Nester. Yes; I do.

Mr. Stripling. Did you ever read his paper, the Texas Herold?

Mr. Nester. I do.

Mr. Stripling. You subscribe to it?

Mr. Nester. Yes.

Mr. Stripling. Do you think his paper is pro-Hitler?

Mr. Nester. I think it is. I think he is trying to bring out the other side, the German side of the picture.

The Chairman. Do you see the possibility of an organization such as yours being used for espionage purposes, even though many of its members would have no such intention or no such purpose. In other words, to make myself clear, there will be an organization that is modeled very much along the lines of a legal and legitimate organization, and assuming that a great many of the members were only actuated by a perfectly legal and legitimate design to belong to it can you not see the danger that an agent of the foreign government could utilize that organization, or attend meetings of the organization for the purpose of gathering important information to transmit to his government?

Mr. Nester. I would think there could be such a possibility, without a majority of the members knowing it.


From the foregoing testimony, it can be seen that this organization was in such close contact with the agents of Hitler that it could very easily have been one of the espionage units of the German Government. Listed below are the 10 most active members of the Houston post of the Kyffhauserbund:

Herman Koetter, 537 Hofman Street.
John Ritzen, 207 Henley.
Herman Nester, 14 Hyde Park.
Henry Becker, 1903 South Shepherd.
George Von Der Goltz, Route 7, Box 747.
Ernst Haardt, Post Office Box 1164.
Fr. P. Friedrich, T. 5, Box 538.
Richard Knorr, Needville, Texas.
Hans Ackermann, Box 191, Taylor, Texas.
Helmuth Von Bose, Box 245, Rosenberg, Texas.


The most recent campaign of the Kyffhauserbund was the collection of money to be sent to Germany for the ostensible purpose of providing relief for German soldiers. In order to do this it was necessary that they register with the State Department, which they did on November 27, 1939. This committee's investigators made a check of all of their financial transactions and it was determined that they collected $140,567.43, of which amount they have distributed $103,024.06 for relief to German soldiers in Germany and interned German prisoners of war in the British Empire. The majority of these funds, however, were sent to Germany. Beside the $140,567.43 collected they also collected $26,004.23 in kind, which was distributed in a similar manner. On February 1, 1942, the State Department canceled their registration and they have not been officially permitted to continue in furnishing Nazi Germany with money. At the present time there is an unexpended balance of $17,000 in their account.

As an indication of the sympathetic response given this undertaking of the Kyffhauserbund, the committee found, when it subpenaed the records of the Chicago "Fuehrer" of the Kyffhauserbund, one Nicholas Mueller, that he had in his possession a list of 2,834 individuals residing in Chicago, who had contributed money to the Kyffhauserbund's campaign in behalf of German soldiers. The list of these people is on file with the committee.

GERMAN-AMERICAN NATIONAL ALLIANCE

The committee, in conducting its investigation of the German-American National Alliance (Einheitsfront — translation: United Front), took testimony in executive session from the following officers of the organization: William H. Silge, head of the organization committee; Homer H. Maertz, one of the original directors of the Alliance and its first secretary; Otto Albert Willumeit, leader of the German-American Bund in Chicago; and Ernst A. Ten Eicken, also one of the original directors of the organization.

On November 18, 1940, the committee subpenaed all of the files and records of the German-American National Alliance from their headquarters in Chicago. These records were all in German and included the membership files, the list of delegates, minutes, financial records, and correspondence of the organization. They have all been translated and from an examination of these records and a review of the testimony of the officials of the organization the following facts have been determined:

The first regular meeting of the German-American National Alliance, Inc., also known as the Einheitsfront was held at 1301 Cornelia Avenue, Chicago, 111., on October 30, 1938. The following persons were elected as directors of the organization:

Homer H. Maertz.
Ernst A. Ten Eicken.
George Joesten.
Paul Warnholtz.
Otto Schwarck.


The directors then proceeded to adopt the bylaws [and constitution which appear in this section as exhibit 1. Following this action, the officers named below were elected:

President: Ernst A. Ten Eicken.
Vice president: Otto Schwarck.
Treasurer: George Joesten.
Secretary: Homer H. Maertz.


The main strength of the organization was in and about Chicago, reaching into Indiana and Wisconsin. In 1940, there were 524 delegates to the alliance representing 17 States. A tabulation of the number of delegates from each State is included in this section as exhibit 2. The membership of the alliance was about 18,000.

The official publication of the organization was the "News Letter," with a circulation of approximately 52,000.

The principal source of its income was from contributions, membership fees, and the sale of radio advertisements.

On October 23, 1939, the leaders of the German-American National Alliance set up an association known as the "National Federation of American Citizens of German Descent," and Ten Eicken, one of the directors of the alliance, reported to the delegates of the alliance that there "were now several thousand more than 2,000,000 persons behind us." Paul Warnholtz, one of the directors of the alliance, was president of the National Federation of American Citizens of German Descent.

The "Objectives and Aims" of the alliance are set forth in its constitution as follows:

1. To promote respect for the Constitution and to defend it, the laws, and the general welfare of the United States of America:

2. To oppose the formation by the United States of America of entangling alliances with foreign nations.

3. To assure to United States citizens of Germanic blood the enjoyment of the rights and liberties guaranteed to citizens by the Constitution.


In determining the true aims and purposes of the German-American National Alliance, the committee feels that at the outset of this report it is pertinent to consider the background and views of one of the original directors and first secretary of the alliance, Homer H. Maerz (Maertz).

This committee has had Homer Maerz before it as a witness on two occasions. He was first heard in executive session in Chicago, Ill., on October 2, 1939. He was later heard in Washington, D. C., on January 19, 1942, also in executive session. It might be stated at this point that Maerz and his activities during the intervening time between his first and last appearance were under surveillance by the committee.

From Maerz's own testimony, it can be stated that he is pro-Nazi, and anti-Semitic and has engaged in various forms of un-Americanism. His full name is Herman Homer Gustus Maerz, and his address as last given was 1160 North Dearborn, Chicago, Ill. On December 29, 1939, he was sentenced to serve a term of one to ten years in the Illinois State Penitentiary for malicious mischief growing out of his anti-Semitic activities.

Homer Maerz was the founder and head of the Dearborn Crusaders, a letterhead organization which engaged in anti-Semitic activity. Maerz has been responsible for the distribution of hundreds of thousands of stickers, leaflets, and booklets defaming the Jewish people.

In his book, I Knew Hitler, published here in 1938, the Nazi agent Kurt K.W. Luedecke tells of his first trip to America in 1924 for the purpose of obtaining funds from Henry Ford. He insists that he was sent on direct orders from Hitler. Luedecke got along well with Ford's editor. He writes:

"During my visit to America I found time for several talks with the editor of the Dearborn Independent. That publication has now embarked on an anti-Jewish campaign, with William J. Cameron writing most of its articles. ... Cameron, a capable journalist who successfully phrases Henry Ford's inarticulate racial uneasiness, was receptive when I went to see him. He appeared eager for outside assistance."


-- Facts and Fascism, by George Seldes, assisted by Helen Seldes


According to his own testimony, he has been in contact with and cooperated with most of the active fascists in the United States, such as William Dudley Pelley and George Deatherage. Maerz is quite frank about his rabid hatred for the Jews and he is equally frank concerning his pro-Nazi sympathies and admiration for Hitler and Mussolini. He also admitted that he approved of the German-American Bund, that he had spoken at their meetings, and attended them regularly. He also admitted frequent visits to the German and Italian consulates in Chicago.

To substantiate the above statements, the committee quotes below excerpts from the testimony of Homer Maerz, taken in Chicago, Ill., on October 2, 1939:

(Executive Hearings, vol. 4, p. 1660)

The Chairman. Are you sympathetic with nazi-ism?

Mr. Maerz. Well, in what respect?

The Chairman. I mean, do you admire Hitler and his achievements?

Mr. Maerz. Yes; I think he is doing a fine job in Germany.

The Chairman. You approve of his attitude toward the German people?

Mr. Maerz. Yes, sir.

The Chairman. What is it that you are seeking to do in the United States?

Mr. Maerz. What I am interested in in the United States is to place Christians at the head of our Government, our business, our education, our churches, our general economic structure.

The Chairman. Put them in complete control?

Mr. Maerz. Yes, sir.

(Executive Hearings, vol. 4, p. 1661)

The Chairman. Do you attend bund meetings?

Mr. Maerz. Yes. sir; I have been there.

The Chairman. Many times?

Mr. Maerz. Yes.

The Chairman. Do you speak at bund meetings?

Mr. Maerz. Yes; I have.

The Chairman. Do you approve of the bund?

Mr. Maerz. Yes; I approve of the bund, although I will admit that they made several mistakes.

(Executive Hearings, vol. 4, pp. 1663-1664)

The Chairman. Do you ever talk to the German consulate here? Do you know any of the German consulate?

Mr. Maerz. Yes; I do.

The Chairman. A pretty good friend of theirs?

Mr. Maerz. I know them well; yes.

The Chairman. You meet with them and you all talk about this subject?

Mr. Maerz. No, sir.

The Chairman. You never talked to them about your movement?

Mr. Maerz. In what respect?

The Chairman. What do you talk about when you meet with them?

Mr. Maerz. Well, various and sundry subjects. Usually I have had occasion to go up there.

The Chairman. You talk about Jews, don't you?

Mr. Maerz. I don't like the Jews; that is true.

The Chairman. I say, you and the counsel talk about the Jews, don't you?

Mr. Maerz. I wouldn't say.

The Chairman. How is that?

Mr. Maerz. I wouldn't say that.

The Chairman. What is it you talk about. Don't you talk about your movement, the crusade movement?

Mr. Maerz. Well, more or less. I talk about the lack of understanding that exists in this country today.

The Chairman. Toward Germany?

Mr. Maerz. That's right, toward Germany.

(Executive Hearings, vol. 4, pp. 1664-1665)

Mr. Maerz. Well, I like to read books, magazines, newspapers.

The Chairman. What is the name of the consul that you talk to?

Mr. Maerz. The consul general in Chicago is Dr. Vaer.

The Chairman. And you have talked to him, haven't you?

Mr. Maerz. Yes, sir.

The Chairman. How many times have you talked to him?

Mr. Maerz. I haven't seen him for quite some time.

The Chairman. When was the last time you saw him?

Mr. Maerz. Oh, it must be — Oh, gosh, it must be 2 or 3 months ago that I seen him the last time.

The Chairman. Did you ever talk to the Italian consulate?

Mr. Maerz. Yes; I have.

The Chairman. You talked to them about the same thing?

Mr. Maerz. No; I talked to them about the vicious propaganda that appeared in such publications as Ken. That is quite some time ago, however.

The Chairman. So that there is a sympathetic feeling between the consul, the Italian consul, the German consul and the bund and your groups, a sympathetic feeling between them all?

Mr. Maerz. Well, it all depends on what way one terms that.

The Chairman. You sympathize with Italy and Germany don't you?

Mr. Maerz. Yes. I think they are doing fine jobs.

(Executive hearings, vol. 4, pp. 1669-1670)

The Chairman. What about Deatherage; are you very friendly with Deatherage?

Mr. Maerz. Deatherage is doing a fine job.

The Chairman. Pelley is doing a fine job?

Mr. Maerz. Excellent.

The Chairman. Coughlin is doing a fine job?

Mr. Maerz. Yes.

The Chairman. Hitler is doing a fine job?

Mr. Maerz. Yes; in Germany.

The Chairman. Mussolini is doing a fine job?

Mr. Maerz. In Italy; yes.


Since Maerz was one of the founders of the German-American National Alliance, it is inconceivable that a man with his past record and views could found an organization which purported to "promote respect for the Constitution and to defend it, the laws, and the general welfare of the United States of America," as set forth in the objects of the alliance's constitution and which Maerz was instrumental in drawing up. It should be stated as this point, however, that on February 11, 1939, Maerz was removed as a director and secretary of the German-American National Alliance by action of the directors on the grounds that too many inquiries had been made concerning Maerz's background and past history.

From an examination of the confidential minutes of the alliance, it is apparent that the primary objective of the organization was to prevent America's participation in the war, which of course was exactly the line that Nazi Germany was attempting to put across in the United States of America during the period of 1939-41. The secondary objective was to promote and preserve what the organization referred to as "Germanism," and to combat anti-German propaganda in this country. It will be shown further in the report that the alliance enthusiastically supported the work of various antiwar and isolationist groups, such as the America First and Keep America Out of War Committee.


The purpose of the alliance was to unite the entire German-American segment of our population into a political bloc and pressure group which would exert itself politically in domestic politics to the best interest of Nazi Germany. It was composed entirely of people of German descent who naturally would entertain some sympathy one way or another with their German homeland. The fact that the alliance was not very successful in its endeavor is largely due to the consistent barrage of publicity and exposure which was leveled against it by this committee and the press in Chicago.

In detailing the efforts of the alliance in its neutrality and antiwar campaign, the minutes of the board of directors meetings will be referred to extensively. As an illustration of the manner in which the alliance was serving Germany, the committee includes as exhibit 3 a, letter from the president of the alliance to Senator Logan of Kentucky under date of March 6, 1939, and quotes also from a letter of Paul A. Warnholtz of September 1939:

Permit us to state that we are aiming to pledge all of our members and members of all organizations which are or may become affiliated with us, to assist in preventing by lawful means any person from ever again holding a public office, who votes for the enactment of Legislation or termination of existing laws, as a result whereof the sale of arms, munitions and implements of war would be permitted in the matter of the present European conflict.


To emphasize the close adherence of the alliance to this antiwar and neutrality line which was at that time most favorable to Germany, the committee quotes from the minutes of the board of directors meeting held on August 29, 1939:

Mr. Ten Eicken reported that we will have Captain Grace as speaker but that another letter must still be written. The subject is "Keep U. S. A. out of War."


The complete minutes of this meeting are included in this section as exhibit 4.

From the minutes of the board of directors meeting of September 5, 1939, the following is quoted:

Twenty-five dollars was authorized to purchase auto stickers, "Keep U. S. A. Out of War."


The entire minutes of this meeting are included in this section as exhibit 5.

From the minutes of the board of directors meeting of October 30, 1939, the following is quoted:

Mr. Warnholtz stated that we must still take a final step in the question of the embargo. He proposed that we send a telegram to every Congressman, which however would cost more than $200. There was a long debate over the text; it was considered to be very sharp, but Mr. Warnholtz gave the assurance that even though it was sharp no one could find fault with it. The motion to send the telegram was made and accepted. The telegram was immediately dispatched and cost $231.23.


The entire minutes of this meeting are included in this section as exhibit 6.

From the minutes of the delegates' meeting of November 29, 1939, held in Lincoln Turnerhalle, the following is quoted:

The next task is "to keep America out of war", and that we take our part in the coming election.


The entire minutes of this meeting are included in this section as exhibit 7.

From the minutes of the board of directors meeting of July 3, 1940, the following is quoted:

Mr. Schwarck pointed out that it was important that we widely advertise the anti-war meeting which will be held at Soldier's Field on August 4. It is essential that the meeting be broadcast. Reference thereto should also be made in the News Letter.


The entire minutes of this meeting are included in this section as exhibit 8.

From the minutes of the board of directors meeting of July 23, 1940, the following is quoted:

Mr. Johnk was commissioned to broadcast the great anti-war meeting at Soldier's Field on August 4.


The entire minutes of this meeting are included in this section as exhibit 9.

From the minutes of the board of directors meeting of September 4, 1940, the following is quoted:

We are only against war and we are fighting to keep this country out of it.


The entire minutes of this meeting are included in this section as exhibit 10.

From the minutes of the board of directors meeting of September 25, 1940, the following is quoted:

The America First Society plans to hold a mass meeting and we should remain in close contact with it. Mr. Schwarck stated that he always attended these meetings.

A long debate ensued concerning the relative merits of Roosevelt and Willkie. It is very difficult for Germans to vote for either, but perhaps one is obliged to decide that we must oppose a third term and that Willkie is perhaps the lesser evil.


The entire minutes of this meeting are included in this section as exhibit 11.

From the minutes of the board of directors meeting of September 30, 1940, the following is quoted:

The presidential election will be the most difficult, but we have adopted a resolution committing ourselves to vote against any candidate who advises lifting the embargo.


The entire minutes of this meeting are included in this section as exhibit 12.

From the minutes of the board of directors meeting of November 7, 1940, the following is quoted:

Mr. Schwarck pointed out that it is absolutely necessary to assist the American First Committee, since this Committee does not appear to be able to get under way properly.

The present aim of our Organization "to keep America out of war" is very important and then we will work to strengthen ourselves for the next election.


The entire minutes of this meeting are included in this section as exhibit 13.

While the constitution of the German-American National Alliance does not list the promotion of Germanism as one of its objectives, it is apparent from a study of the organization's records that it was in fact one of the main purposes and functions of the Alliance. To substantiate this point, the committee refers to the minutes of the board of directors meeting of August 14, 1939, in which the following is recorded:

The battle against anti-German films must be intensified since these films are directed against Germanism in the United States.

Various organizations have joined the Alliance.

A letter from Montgomery Ward was read in which it was stated that they have not boycotted German goods but on the contrary are constantly importing goods from Germany.


It can be seen from the foregoing reference to the letter from Montgomery Ward that the alliance had concerned itself with the boycott of goods from Germany which could hardly be considered an American activity —

* * * promoting the general welfare of the United States of America —


as stated in the objectives of the constitution of the alliance. The entire minutes of this meeting are included in this section as exhibit 14.

The committee also refers to the minutes of the delegates' meeting on October 23, 1939, at the Lincoln Turnerhalle, where the following is found:

A delegate then submitted a report concerning the Germans of the Volga who were not yet convinced that it was necessary to associate themselves with Germanism. Dr. Silge agreed to establish contact with these organizations.

There was a long discussion on how difficult it was for many members to pay the $1.00 membership dues, but in most cases it is not a question of funds but one of recognition of one's Obligation to Germanism.


The entire minutes of this meeting are included in this section as exhibit No. 15.

The committee also refers to the minutes of the board of directors' meeting on May 7, 1940, where the following is recorded:

More German should be spoken at the meetings.


The entire minutes of the meeting are included in this section as exhibit 16.

The committee attaches importance to the remarks of Paul Warnholtz, one of the directors of the alliance, as recorded in the minutes of the meeting of directors with individual sections held at the German Club, August 26, 1940, in which the following is recorded:

Mr. Warnholtz stated that he did not favor an investigation by the Dies Committee, that the whole thing is a newspaper campaign which we can only oppose with great difficulty. There are many telephone calls against which we are powerless and all we can do is hang on. The newspapers themselves do not consider us un-American. They only write continually that we are pro-Nazi, which is a somewhat vaguer term. This is not even a reflection upon us since quite naturally our sympathies are with the old country. We are now trying to arrange connections with the Bund.


While the committee has no evidence of open cooperation between the German-American Bund and the alliance, the foregoing statement of Warnholtz is significant in view of the fact that two of the original brains behind the idea and organization of the alliance were Otto Willumeit, Chicago "fuehrer" of the bund, and Homer Maerz, a supporter of the bund.
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Re: Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

Postby admin » Tue Sep 24, 2019 8:54 am

100 Years Later, Dearborn Confronts The Hate Of Hometown Hero Henry Ford
by Bill McGraw
January 24, 2019, 11:45 PM

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Deadline Detroit publishes “Henry Ford and ‘The International Jew’” with permission from The Dearborn Historian, a city-funded quarterly magazine of the Dearborn Historical Commission. The story appears in the Historian’s current issue, which marks the 100th anniversary of Dearborn native Henry Ford buying the weekly Dearborn Independent, which he used to attack Jews.

The Historian story is Dearborn’s first detailed examination of Ford’s anti-Jewish crusade, whose content lives on today in the online world of anti-Semites and other hate groups as anti-Semitic incidents are on the rise. While Ford’s dark side has been off-limits in Dearborn
, the city has taken steps in recent years to come to terms with its other symbol of hate, Orville Hubbard, the segregationist mayor from 1942-78.

The story’s author and editor of The Historian is veteran Detroit journalist Bill McGraw, a Dearborn resident who co-founded Deadline Detroit with Allan Lengel. The Historian has no online presence; the story has been edited for posting on a website.


Chapter 1: Mass-Producing Hate

Henry Ford was peaking as a global celebrity at the conclusion of World War I, having introduced the $5 workday, assembly line and Model T -- revolutionary changes that transformed the way people lived. Reporters staked out the gates of his Fair Lane mansion. Ford loved the limelight and he constantly made news, even running for the U.S. Senate in Michigan as a Democrat in 1918. He narrowly lost.

Image
Cover design: Lauren Davies

In the midst of his fame, Ford became a media mogul of sorts, forming the Dearborn Publishing Company and purchasing the sleepy Dearborn Independent weekly newspaper, which was dying of red ink. He published the paper under his name for the first time 100 years ago, in January 1919.

Under Ford, the Independent became notorious for its unprecedented attacks on Jews. But Ford’s anti-Semitism traveled far beyond the Dearborn borders. Showing the marketing expertise that had catapulted Ford Motor into one of the world’s most famous brands, Henry Ford’s lieutenants vastly widened the reach of his attacks by packaging the paper’s anti-Semitic content into four books. Experts say “The International Jew,” distributed across Europe and North America during the rise of fascism in the 1920s and ‘30s, influenced some of the future rulers of Nazi Germany.

In 1931, two years before he became the German chancellor, Adolf Hitler gave an interview to a Detroit News reporter in his Munich office, which featured a large portrait of Ford over the desk of the future führer. The reporter asked about the photo.

“I regard Henry Ford as my inspiration,” Hitler told the News.

Ford’s anti-Jewish campaign provoked protests and a boycott of Ford Motor automobiles in the 1920s. Ford offered an apology -- received by the public with great skepticism -- and closed the paper in 1927. It was too late, though, as copies of “The International Jew” spread widely before and after World War II, influencing generations of anti-Semites. The glowing imprimatur of Henry Ford lent credibility to the preposterous charges against Jews the books contained.

But what might have been lost to history as an ugly curiosity has proven to be a Pandora’s box, as the Internet age has given Ford’s anti-Semitic literature a powerful new life. Today, a century after Ford purchased the Dearborn Independent and 72 years after his death, his legacy of hate is stronger than ever -- it flourishes on the websites and forums of white nationalists, racists and others who hate Jews.

Today, “The International Jew” by Henry Ford plays a significant role in fomenting resentment as the United States grapples with rising numbers of hate crimes and anti-Semitic incidents, ascendant white nationalism and a gunman armed with an AR-15-style assault rifle who massacred 11 people at a Pittsburgh synagogue in October. When he surrendered, the gunman told police he “wanted all Jews to die.”

An essay posted by the Anti-Defamation League on its website says that by resurrecting decades-old texts such as “The International Jew,” today's anti-Semites demonstrate the longevity of their beliefs, legitimizing them to both dedicated followers and potential recruits.

Because of Ford’s fame, “The International Jew” has been a “particularly powerful tool for haters trying to validate their hostile beliefs,” the essay adds.

Two examples of Ford’s influence online today: On Stormfront, a white nationalist online forum, a contributor has taken the screen name Dr. Ford and uses a photo of Henry Ford as a profile image. On the same forum, a participant whose screen name is AllisonRM wrote last year:


“I'm currently reading The International Jew: Essays from the Dearborn Independent (Ford)… Read these great books!...We, the white race, need to encourage ourselves and our children.”


Heidi Beirich, an expert on extremism in the United States at the Alabama-based Southern Poverty Law Center, said extremist websites contain thousands of references to Ford and “The International Jew.”

“In the world of the racist right, Henry Ford is almost a living, breathing human being, “ Beirich said in an interview. She added that extremist leaders use Ford “as an inspiration” and “validator” to impress people while enlisting them to join the movement.


It’s not just extremist websites that are peddling Ford’s books. Shoppers can buy “The International Jew” by Henry Ford on the websites of Amazon, Barnes & Noble and Walmart.

“This is a wonderful book that should be required reading for all Americans,” wrote Tara, in a five-star Amazon review. “Sadly, many people like to label Henry Ford as an anti-Semite, when nothing could be further from the truth.”

This is a wonderful book that should be required reading for all Americans. Sadly, many people like to label Henry Ford as an anti-Semite, when nothing could be further from the truth. Ford was a deeply moral man, to whom honesty, work, and sobriety were sacred concepts. He was a gentle man who shared a love of all living things, a man who was so gentle that he postponed a hay harvest because ground birds were brooding in the field. Ford was a man of peace, saying that he would give his entire fortune if he could shorten World War I by a single day. The workers in his factories loved and revered him.

Henry Ford devoted years of his life and a substantial part of his fortune to awakening the American people to the enemies of our nation. Ford had become convinced that there was an organized, dangerous, largely secret, and incredibly powerful menace to the United States, almost completely Jewish at its highest levels, and he was determined to do something about it. He earnestly believed that if this menace was exposed to the light of day, that moral and responsible Jews would cast out this cancerous group from their midst. He was honestly surprised by the abuse he received from most of his Jewish friends and business associates after his educational work had begun.

Henry Ford believed that if the press would not tell the truth on what he termed the Jewish Question, then it was his duty to his God and his country to do it himself. He purchased what was at the time a small weekly newspaper in his hometown in Michigan, The Dearborn Independent, and turned it into his national voice, with nationwide distribution. His espousal of traditional values combined with a practical populism struck a chord with many Americans, for soon the humble weekly had turned into an influential giant, with a circulation at one point of nearly half a million. Ford lost money on the paper, selling it for five cents per copy or one dollar a year. When Jewish censorship kept it off the newsstands in some cities, Ford made it available through the local Ford agencies. He neither solicited nor accepted advertising because he would not have the paper subject to Jewish or any other outside influence. The masthead meant exactly what it said – Independent.

Ford gathered around him some of the most talented writers and researchers in the business, virtually cleaning out the editorial staff of the Detroit News. He hired the best private investigators. He employed the services of patriotic Congressmen and diplomats. He dispatched his agents to foreign countries in order to dig up the facts.

1920 marked the beginning of the publication, in serial form, of Henry Ford’s research series in the Dearborn Independent. Each week, the paper carried a major story exposing an aspect of Jewish power and influence. One of the men Ford had hired away from the Detroit News, who would eventually become the head of the Dearborn Independent, was the brilliant editor and columnist William J. Cameron. At first, Cameron protested bitterly at the subject matter of the articles on the Jewish Question and almost bolted with a few other staffers who didn’t want to touch this “forbidden” subject. But as the evidence began piling up, he became convinced that Ford was absolutely right. He was the author of most of the Independent’s articles in this series, and stayed with Ford for the next 20 years. These articles would eventually be collected in book form under the title The International Jew. The articles were a sensation and the book became a nationwide success, in fact one of the greatest best-sellers of all time.

While Ford’s educational series on Jewish power was running, the Independent had a circulation of between a quarter million and a half million copies per week. When the articles were reprinted in book form, eventually to fill four volumes, it was not unusual for each press run, of which there were many for each volume, to total over 200,000 copies. It is estimated that more than 10 million copies of the book were sold in the United States alone. The International Jew was translated into sixteen languages, including Arabic, and was distributed by the millions in Europe, South America, and the Middle East. Each of the 4 volumes was a full-sized book of about 250 pages, and was sold for a mere 25 cents. Ford lost nearly $5 million on this venture, and that does not count the losses to his business to several Jewish boycotts and lawsuits.

In this book, which is backed up by irrefutable evidence, Ford exposes Jewish financial and commercial control, usurpation of political power, monopoly of necessities, and autocratic direction of the very news that the American people read.

The motive of his work was simply to make the facts known to the people. The motive of prejudice or any form of antagonism doesn’t have a leg to stand on, especially when the irrefutable evidence, which is presented in the book, speaks for itself.

This book is a magnificent piece of work, a priceless distillation of many thousands of man-hours of expensive research and compilation, a magnifying glass applied to the hidden sources of immorality, vice, degeneracy, and subversion. The International Jew was available in libraries and bookstores all across America. As already pointed out, it was one of the biggest best-sellers of all time. Henry Ford felt that his book was so important that at one point a copy was presented to all purchasers of new Ford automobiles. Yet today this book is almost impossible to find. You will not be able to buy it in your local bookstore, nor check it out at your local library. If it were not for a few courageous Americans keeping it in print and available to you, you would not be able to find it at all.

The truth is that here in a so-called “democratic, pluralist” America this book had been nakedly suppressed. Is it because this book is a hate-filled anti-Jewish polemic? No, not at all. The book’s tone is not at all anti-Jewish, and again and again it appeals to the reason and moral sense of its Jewish readers to put a stop to the abuses of their leaders. It is scrupulously fair, even-handed, and factual. It is because of its extensive documentation and the unassailable facts which it presents that it has been suppressed. For The International Jew is a threat – it’s a threat to those men of money and power who would put a sack over our heads and force us unknowingly and unwillingly into the “New World Order” they have been preparing for us for decades. This book is a threat to those who would take away our weapons of self-defense, and who would take away our freedom and the future of our children.

Henry Ford did not have to do what he did. He was the living incarnation of success. He was by far the richest industrialist of his day. He was loved and admired by millions. Among the common people, he was ranked with the greatest men of all time. Political power could have been his had he wanted it. But he did go forward with his investigation and explication of the Jewish Question at the cost of a large portion of his wealth, at the cost of much of the time and energy of an aging older man, and at the cost of the alienation of many friends, associates, and even family members. He well knew that he was potentially putting his life in peril by opposing those powerful moneyed interests. Henry Ford did this because he felt a higher duty, a duty that transcended all of those considerations. Henry Ford acted in obedience to a duty which we of our generation must rediscover if our children are to have a future. Wherever we find it, and whatever disguise it wears – we must oppose evil.

-- A Book for All Americans, by Tara (Delran, NJ)


As a Roman Catholic, I did not agree with everything that was written in this book, but I must say that I find it refreshing to see that there are still a handful of Christians in the world who truly understand what it means to die to the world in order to live for God. I absolutely admire the Botkin family and would do anything to have them for my next door neighbors.

God gives children to parents, not primarily that they may assist the family, but that they may be brought up in the fear of God and be directed in the way of eternal salvation. This book is a confirmation to me of my lifelong belief that my role as a parent is not to prepare my children for careers in the world,(as the world and most people in the Church suppose) but to prepare them for Heaven. Parents who have expended all of their time, energy, and finances in an effort to launch their children into successful careers, while completely neglecting their chief role, which is to bring their children up in the fear of God and to direct them in the way of eternal salvation have failed miserably and have completely lost sight of the reason why God entrusted children to them in the first place.

God has entrusted parents with a deposit, and not just any deposit; He has entrusted parents with the eternal souls of their sons and daughters. Whether parents want to reflect on this sobering reality or not, the truth is that when they stand before the judgment seat of Christ, the souls of their children will be required of them by God. In that day, parents will not answer to God for the type of career they prepared their children for; they will answer to Him for the religious instruction which they personally gave to their children day in and day out, as well as the manner in which they raised them to fear and serve the Lord.

The sad reality is that most parents will be eternally damned along with their children because of their gross negligence in this regard. Most parents are not bringing their children up in the fear of God, and they certainly are not directing them in the way of eternal salvation. Children have not been given to parents as a present, which they may dispose of as they please, but as a trust, for which if lost through their negligence, they must render an account to God.

Here in the United States, we have a very twisted, distorted, warped, and erroneous view of what Christianity and a life of penance are supposed to look like. We have "Church - America Style," not Christianity, as Christ has decreed. We have men and women who want discipleship on their terms, not on those set forth by the Master. We know nothing - absolutely nothing - of what it means to deny oneself, take up one's cross, live a life of penance, and to detach ourselves completely from the disordered values and priorities of this world. Instead of taking our cue from Eternal and unchanging Word of God, we take it from the culture and from the people of this world who live in open rebellion against God.

Many of the people who harshly criticized the authors of this book did so, not because the authors were in ignorance, but because they themselves were ignorant of what God requires of parents when it comes to the raising of their children. Mr. and Mrs. Botkin have it right, and they have done what is right in the sight of God. It could very well be that in seeing the proper way in which Mr. and Mrs. Botkin have raised their children, some of the harsh critics were pricked in their own consciences regarding areas in which they may have been negligent.

St. Augustine once said, "People usually hate the truth for the sake of whatever it is that they love more than the truth."

If more women would take their responsibilities as wives and mothers seriously, our world would not be in the deplorable shape that it is in. I blame the condition of this country on married women who work outside the home more than on any other group of people. Ladies, your vocation is your family. The Botkin daughters understand this, and they have remained true to it. It seems to me that many of the harsh critics may have abandoned and neglected their true vocation, and they are angry at females like the Botkin girls, who love God too much to do the same.

This is a wonderful book, which I highly recommend to all who are not afraid to walk alone with God in a world that is enslaved, not only to sin, but to conformity as well.

-- A Wonderful Book (So Much More, by Anna Sofia Botkin), by Tara (Delran, NJ)


And then there are the ads. After I explored the availability of Ford’s anti-Semitic books on Amazon in connection with this story, ads for “The International Jew” by Henry Ford began popping up on my Facebook page. They appeared next to ads for what I was actually shopping for -- a winter coat.

Chapter 2: Transforming a Country Weekly

Starting with the issue of May 22, 1920, Ford began using the Independent to attack Jews. Every week for nearly two years, the paper published articles that assailed Jews for being sneaky and treacherous and conspiring to control the global financial system, a common Jewish stereotype. Ford also accused Jews of scheming to dominate such American industries as Hollywood, farming and liquor distribution.

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Hot Off the Press: Starting with the issue of May 22, 1920, Ford's Independent began attacking Jews.

“There is no other racial or national type which puts forth this kind of person,” the Independent said in June 1920. “It is not merely that there are a few Jews among international financial controllers -- it is that these world controllers are exclusively Jews.”

While anti-Semitism goes back centuries, Ford’s salvos were likely the most sustained printed attacks on Jews the world had ever seen. With his wealth and resources, Ford remains the most formidable anti-Semite in American history.

In 2019, many educated Americans have a vague understanding that Ford had anti-Semitic sentiments. Few people are aware of the details, though, of how Ford spent millions on his paper and the “International Jew” series of books.

The books spread like a virus, translated into 12 languages and distributed on three continents in the years after World War I. The books appeared as fascist forces were organizing, especially in Germany, one of the countries targeted by Ford’s agents.

In its first couple of years, Ford sold more than 2 million copies of “The International Jew.” His underlings deliberately declined to copyright the content, so other anti-Semites were free to publish the books. That is one reason Ford’s paper and books are widely available today, in printed form and online. With no copyright, it’s nearly impossible to stop their proliferation.

Chapter 3: Henry Ford, Publisher

After paying $1,000 for the Independent (about $18,000 in today’s dollars), Ford named his closest aide, Ernest Liebold, the newspaper’s general manager. Liebold was a hardcore anti-Semite.

“He hated everything Jewish, and he saw the publication as a vehicle for promoting his agenda,” Steven Watts wrote in “The People’s Tycoon: Henry Ford and the American Century.”

Ford and Liebold then assembled a crack editorial team by raiding the Detroit News.

For top editor, Ford hired News’ executive Edwin Pipp, a liberal Catholic who had been a muckraking Detroit reporter known as a soft touch because he wrote stories about people down on their luck. William Cameron, a Canadian immigrant who was a star reporter and editorial columnist for the News, came aboard as the lead writer.

Experts have long debated the roles of these three in the production of the Independent, but a general consensus has emerged that Ford, not a skilled writer, talked over ideas with Liebold, who ordered Pipp and Cameron to transform them into stories. Some historians believe Cameron “undertook his assignment disgustedly,” as David Lewis wrote in “The Public Life of Henry Ford,” adding that Cameron ”was either unable or did not try to dissuade Ford from launching the attack.” However disgusted he might have been, Cameron remained a Ford aide into the 1940s.

In serving as the link between Ford and the rest of the world, Leibold was strategic and menacing. With Ford’s money, Liebold organized a network of spies, many with government intelligence backgrounds, to snoop around outposts of Jewish life in America, paying special attention to community leaders. The agents funneled the information to Liebold in Dearborn as grist for the Independent’s anti-Jewish campaign.

Henry Ford ordered that the Independent not be used to publicize him or the company, though the paper’s nickname was “The Ford International Weekly” and Ford forced his dealers to conduct subscription campaigns. Some dealerships threw a copy of the Independent into newly sold Model Ts. Circulation eventually reached 900,000, making it one of the biggest periodicals in the country.

The Independent carried a weekly column by Ford -- verbosely ghost-written by Cameron -– that filled “Mr. Ford’s Page.” Ford commented on many everyday subjects, but virtually never used his column for the most blatant anti-Semitic content. The Independent’s attacks on Jews ran separately, often starting on page one, almost always without a byline.

Under Ford, the Independent was tabloid in form, cost five cents and ran 16 pages. Its motto: “Chronicler of the Neglected Truth.”

At the beginning, the Independent was unremarkable, filled with long-winded feature articles on national and international subjects such as farming in Europe, the Smithsonian Institute or a cure for leprosy. Most critics found the paper soporific, a Saturday Evening Post without the pizazz.

It was only months, though, before the Independent took a sinister tack. Ford’s pet peeves -– distant capitalists, aliens who refuse to assimilate, Bolsheviks (all code words for Jews) -- began creeping into the Independent’s pages, according to Neil Baldwin’s 2001 book, “Henry Ford and the Jews: The Mass Production of Hate.”

“His own page took on a strident tone as Ford lashed out against unnamed, hidden influences that continued to trouble him,” Baldwin wrote.

Circulation lagged in the early going and Ford lost the equivalent of $3.5 million in today’s dollars in the first year. Staffers knew changes had to be made. “Find an evil to attack,” Joseph J. O’Neil, a veteran New York newspaperman, urged Liebold in a memo. “LET’S FIND SOME SENSATIONALISM,” he typed with emphasis.

Beginning with the issue of May 22, 1920, Ford found his target. That issue of the Dearborn Independent kicked off a 91-week campaign of insults, criticism and lies directed at Jews from Dexter and Davison to Krakow, Poland.

“The International Jew: The World’s Problem,” read the inaugural page-one headline.

“There is apparently in the world today a central financial force which is playing a vast and closely organized game with the world for its table and universal control for its stakes,” the article said.

In subsequent weeks, the Independent hammered Jews for scheming to take over Broadway theater, baseball, American agriculture and countless other domains. Ford’s paper also popularized an early 20th-Century forgery from Russia, “The Protocols of the Elders of Zion,” which similarly purports to show Jews are bent on world domination.

Chapter 4: Jews and Others Fight Back

The Independent -- put out by Henry Ford, Dearborn-born and bred, legendary Tin Lizzie wizard, American folk hero and one of the world’s richest men -- shocked Jewish Americans and many other citizens of diverse backgrounds. It wasn’t long before they began to counterattack. The Independent was controversial from coast to coast in its day.

Pipp, whose Catholic conscience would not allow him to run an anti-Semitic journal, quit and began publishing his own paper, Pipp’s Weekly, that was often critical of Ford. Cameron took Pipp’s place. Ford’s wife, Clara, and Edsel, his only child, put off by the anti-Jewish articles, reportedly distanced themselves from the Independent.

The Ford family and company executives in Dearborn repeatedly congratulated the management of Ford Werke on the fine work they were doing under the Nazis. In October of 1940 Edsel Ford wrote to Heinrich Albert to say how pleased he was that the company’s plants in occupied lands were continuing to operate. “It is fortunate that Mr. Schmidt is in such authority as to be able to bring out these arrangements,” said Edsel, who died of cancer during the war. The same letter indicates that Ford was quite prepared to do business with the Nazis if Hitler won the war. Though it was difficult to foresee what would happen after the fighting ended, Edsel told Albert, “a general rearrangement of the ownership of our continental businesses may be required. You will no doubt keep as close to this subject as possible and we will have the benefit of your thoughts and suggestions at the proper time.”....

The Treasury Department found that Ford headquarters in Dearborn was in regular contact with its properties in Vichy France. In one letter, penned shortly after France’s surrender, Dollfus assured Dearborn that “we will benefit from the main fact of being a member of the Ford family which entitles us to better treatment from our German colleagues who have shown clearly their wish to protect the Ford interest as much as they can.” A Ford executive in Michigan wrote back, “We are pleased to learn from your letter…that our organization is going along, and the victors are so tolerant in their treatment. It looks as though we still might have a business that we can carry on in spite of all the difficulties.”

The Ford family encouraged Dollfus to work closely with the German authorities. On this score, Dollfus needed little prodding. “In order to safeguard our interests -- and I am here talking in a very broad way -- I have been to Berlin and have seen General von Schell himself,” he wrote in a typed note to Edsel in August of 1940. “My interview with him has been by all means satisfactory, and the attitude you have taken together with your father of strict neutrality has been an invaluable asset for the protection of your companies in Europe.” (In a handwritten note in the margin, Dollfus bragged that he was “the first Frenchman to go to Berlin.”) The following month Dollfus complained about a shortage of dollars in occupied France. This was a problem, however, that might be merely temporary. “As you know,” he wrote Dearborn at the time, “our [monetary] standard has been replaced by another standard which -- in my opinion -- is a draft on the future, not only in France and Europe but, maybe, in the world.” In another letter to Edsel, this one written in late November of 1940, Dollfus said he wanted to “outline the importance attached by high officials to respect the desires and maintain the good will of ‘Ford’ -- and by ‘Ford’ I mean your father, yourself and the Ford Motor Company, Dearborn.”

All this was to the immense satisfaction of the Ford family. In October of 1940, Edsel wrote to Dollfus to say he was “delighted to hear you are making progress…. Fully realize great handicap you are working under.” Three months later he wrote again to say that Ford headquarters was “very proud of the record that you and your associates have made in building the company up to its first great position under such circumstances.”

Dearborn maintained its communication with Ford of France well after the United States entered the war. In late January of 1942, Dollfus informed Dearborn that Ford’s operations had the highest production level of all French manufacturers and, as summed up by the Treasury report, that he was “still relying on the French government to preserve the interests of American stockholders.”

During the following months, Dollfus wrote to Edsel several times to report on damages suffered by the French plant during bombing runs by the Royal Air Force. In his reply, Edsel expressed relief that American newspapers that ran pictures of a burning Ford factory did not identify it as a company property. On July 17, 1942, Edsel wrote again to say that he had shown Dollfus’s most recent letter to his father and to Dearborn executive Sorenson. “They both join me in sending best wishes for you and your staff, and the hope that you will continue to carry on the good work that you are doing,” he said.


-- [Henry] Ford and the Führer, by Ken Silverstein


As the Independent launched its anti-Semitic campaign and sent the paper, unsolicited, to libraries and school across the nation, protests broke out. Some cities attempted to ban the paper, but such moves raised First Amendment issues. Jews organized Ford Motor boycotts. Former President William Howard Taft, a future U.S. Supreme Court chief justice, slammed Ford in a speech. Later, he joined outgoing President Woodrow Wilson and dozens of other VIPs in signing a petition that denounced the Independent.

“God help Henry Ford. God forgive him,” said well known New York Rabbi Stephen Wise, who called Ford the “most contemptible little liar that ever lived.”

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Henry Ford with his ghostwriter, William Cameron.

Louis Marshall, a New York lawyer and towering figure in the American Jewish community, played a key role in combatting Ford and the Independent. His first move was to send Ford a telegram, saying the articles “constitute a libel upon an entire people.”

The Independent was unimpressed. “Your rhetoric is that of a Bolshevik orator,” it fired back, linking Jews and Bolshevism, a common anti-Semitic trope.


In Detroit, Rabbi Leo Franklin, the head of Temple Beth El and an outspoken foe of discrimination, found himself caught between Ford and Marshall. Franklin was a Ford friend and former neighbor who had received yearly Model T’s as a gift. Marshall, in Manhattan, urged a more militant approach toward Ford in Detroit that Franklin was slow to adopt. Franklin eventually returned his 1920 Model T and told the Detroit News that Ford “has fanned the flames of anti-Semitism throughout the world.”

Chapter 5: An Independent Target Sues and Ford Shuts the Paper

After nearly two years, Ford suddenly halted the attacks in December 1922. Just as unexpectedly, he resumed them in 1924 when he went after Aaron Sapiro, a young Jewish activist from California who had become a leader in the farm co-op movement.

Sapiro fought back. He filed a $1 million libel suit against Ford, igniting weeks of sensational coverage in the national press. The case came to trial in 1927, though juror misconduct led to a mistrial.

Ford, freed from being forced to testify under oath, a position from which he had embarrassed himself in the past, issued an apology to Sapiro. Ford also took back all of his attacks on Jews
and withdrew “The International Jew,” though that proved to be much easier promised than done. He settled out of court with Sapiro.

In his apology, Ford called himself “deeply mortified” by the attacks, but blamed underlings, denying he knew about the articles in advance. He relieved Liebold and Cameron from their posts at the Independent, but kept them on the company payroll for years. Few close observers -- or average Americans -- believed Ford was so removed that he hadn’t been aware of prominent articles in his own newspaper that had sparked an international outcry.

In an editorial headlined “Forgiveness without Fawning,” the Detroit Jewish Chronicle echoed many other papers in casting doubt on Ford’s claim that he had been unaware of the paper’s content.

“That Mr. Ford does not accept personal responsibility for the anti-Semitic articles is also obvious,” the editorial said. “His action in this respect is what is commonly known as ‘passing the buck.’”

Ford closed the Independent in December 1927. But the damage had been done.

“Ford’s well-publicized decision was disingenuous,” wrote Victoria Saker Woeste in “Henry Ford’s War on Jews,” because he knew that even after closing the paper, his hate literature already lived on in hundreds of thousands of copies of “The International Jew."


Chapter 6: Why?

Why did Henry Ford -- the entrepreneur Fortune magazine in 1999 named “Businessman of the 20th Century” -- spend so much time and money attacking Jews?

Searching for clues, because Ford never discussed his anti-Semitism in depth, historians often have focused on his childhood amid the farms of what is now the streets of east Dearborn. While only a long walk from Detroit in the 1860s and ‘70s, Ford grew up isolated from Jews and most other minorities, and 19th-Century rural America was a place where ancient Jewish stereotypes were widespread.

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The International Jew, Volumes I and II

Experts also point to Ford’s close friend, Thomas Edison, an anti-Semite who approved of the Independent’s campaign, and Ford’s close relationship with Ernest Liebold, whose anti-Semitic views were well known. Historian Douglas Brinkley wrote that Ford’s “increasingly vicious anti-Semitism appears to have grown out of his antipathy toward powerful bankers.”

Ford’s criticism of Jews and hatred of Wall Street were “the foibles of the Michigan farm boy who had been liberally exposed to Populist notions,” wrote historian Richard Hofstadter.

“Ford disliked Jews who he believed exercised disproportionate control over the institutions that were vital to the rural-mercantile economy he wanted to build,” wrote Victoria Saker Woeste.

Chapter 7: Ford Family and Company Win Praise for Reparations

The response to Henry Ford’s anti-Semitism by the Ford family and Ford Motor Co. has received considerable praise from Jewish organizations and other observers.

“The Ford family and Ford Motor Company embarked upon correctives even before the Old Man passed away, Neil Baldwin wrote in “Henry Ford and the Jews: The Mass Production of Hate.”

On its website, the Anti-Defamation League says:

In the decades following Ford's death in 1947, the Ford family and the Ford Motor Company have engaged in numerous projects and endeavors in the public interest, including many that have been supportive of Jewish concerns.


In 1997, for example, the Ford Motor Company sponsored the first screening of Steven Spielberg's "Schindler's List," commercial-free, on national television. Ford Motor is credited with extending economic credit to the young state of Israel and supporting Jewish charities at home and abroad.

Today, two generations of the Ford family are well represented on the board of one of the country’s most elaborate historical complexes, The Henry Ford, in Dearborn, formerly called Greenfield Village, which Henry Ford founded. The chairman of the board is S. Evan Weiner, of the Edward C. Levy Co. in Detroit, who is Jewish.

In November, Weiner welcomed a largely Jewish crowd of several hundred people in the museum during a one-day collaboration with the Jewish Historical Society of Michigan: “The Henry Ford…Through a Jewish Lens.” The program examined Ford’s bigotry and, through pop-up exhibits, celebrated Jews as American innovators.

Steven Watts, a historian at the University of Missouri and author of “The People’s Tycoon: Henry Ford and the American Century,” spoke about Ford’s exalted place in American culture, but added: “It’s hard to find a more blatant anti-Semite in American history.”

Larry Gunsberg, an officer at the Jewish historical society, told the Jewish News that he found the event “an excellent way for the community to embrace the generational change in the Ford family.”

On the “My Jewish Detroit” website, historical society President Risha B. Ring said, “This monumental conversation is long overdue.”

Chapter 8: Ford and the Führer

Henry Ford’s hate campaign took a disturbing turn in the 1920s and ‘30s, when it intersected with Adolf Hitler’s path to power. The collision produced what the 21st Century calls synergy.

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Ford's books inspired Adolph Hitler, scholars say.

Copies of “The International Jew” began re-appearing in the 1930s in the U.S., South America and Europe, especially in Germany, where the Nazi Party was poised to take power. Books wound up on a table in the office of Hitler’s National Socialist German Workers’ Party in Munich.

“Hitler’s ravings and public speeches against Jews frequently were based on Ford’s anti-Semitic literature,” Ford expert David Lewis wrote.

One leading Nazi, Baldur von Shirach, the Reichsjugendführer (Hitler Youth leader) in the 1930s, became an anti-Semite after he read “The International Jew” in German, von Shirach testified at the Nuremburg war-crime trials. Found guilty of crimes against humanity for helping to send thousands of Viennese Jews to their deaths, von Shirach served 20 years in Spandau prison.

“If Henry Ford said that Jews were to blame, why, naturally we believed him,” von Shirach is quoted as saying in Baldwin’s “Henry Ford and the Jews.”

Von Shirach added: “You have no idea what a great influence this book had on the thinking of German youth.”

Numerous historians have noted that Ford is the only American mentioned in Hitler’s “Mein Kampf” memoir. After asserting that Jews were increasingly exerting control over American labor, Hitler wrote, “one great man, Ford, to their exasperation, still holds out independently.”

Experts on Hitler have noted Ford’s literature influenced Hitler’s writing in “Mein Kampf.” Reading “The International Jew,” which became a hit in Germany after being published in German in 1922, helped push Hitler further into “conspiratorial anti-Semitism,” Thomas Weber wrote in “Becoming Hitler: The Making of a Nazi.”

“Henry Ford is important for having provided to Hitler confirmation, coming from the very heart of America, of an idea that had been brewing in his mind,” Weber wrote. The idea was that Jews’ control of global finance was behind the world’s problems.

“Henry Ford thus turned into an anti-Semitic icon for Hitler.”

In summer 1938, with the German Wehrmacht having marched into Austria, and despite years of deflecting charges he was an anti-Semite, Ford accepted a 75th birthday present from Hitler. It was the Grand Cross of the Supreme Order of the German Eagle, the highest award the regime bestowed on foreigners.

The golden Maltese cross, surrounded by four small swastikas, was presented to Ford in Ford Motor’s Dearborn offices by Fritz Haller, the German vice consul in Detroit.

News reports about the birthday present from Hitler triggered a bitter backlash across the nation. Ford apologized, again. And again, people laughed when they read his words.

“Acceptance of a medal from the German people does not, as some people seem to think, involve any sympathy on my part with Nazism,” Ford said.

“Those who have known me for many years realize that anything that breeds hate is repulsive to me.”


We can’t know what was in Ford’s heart when he said those words. Perhaps he was genuinely remorseful. Perhaps he accepted the medal to avoid embarrassing an international diplomat, or for business reasons.

In addition to scheming to overthrow the Soviet Union in league with National Socialists, Aufbau played a pivotal role in coordinating Hitler's preparations for a putsch against the Weimar Republic. Aufbau helped the National Socialist Party to build a substantial war chest for its intended coup by contributing funds from Aufbau members or allies such as Kirill as well as by channeling funds from Henry Ford, the wealthy American industrialist and politician....

Some White emigre Aufbau members possessed valuable American connections. Colonel Boris Brazol resided in New York, where he played a leading role in the Russkoe natsionalnoe obschestvo (Russian National Society). This organization supported Grand Prince Kirill Romanov's candidacy for Tsar. As we shall see, Aufbau increasingly backed Kirill for Tsar. Brazol also worked on the staff of the American industrialist and politician Henry Ford's anti-Semitic newspaper, The Dearborn Independent. In particular, Brazol provided information on the "Jewish question." Scheubner-Richter praised Brazol as "one of the leading personalities in the Russian emigre circles of America." Brazol also spent much time in Munich, though he was not officially registered there. He collaborated with Scheubner-Richter and furthered Aufbau's cause by writing anti-Semitic literature. ...

The primary American connection to the German far right was most likely the anti-Semitic industrialist and politician Henry Ford.


-- The Russian Roots of Nazism: White Emigres and the Making of National Socialism, 1917-1945, by Michael Kellogg


That Ford and a number of other American firms -- including General Motors and Chase Manhattan -- worked with the Nazis has been previously disclosed. So, too, has Henry Ford’s role as a leader of the America First Committee, which sought to keep the United States out of World War II. However, the new materials, most of which were found at the National Archives, are far more damning than earlier revelations. They show, among other things, that up until Pearl Harbor, Dearborn made huge revenues by producing war matériel for the Reich and that the man it selected to run its German subsidiary was an enthusiastic backer of Hitler. German Ford served as an “arsenal of Nazism” with the consent of headquarters in Dearborn, says a US Army report prepared in 1945.

Moreover, Ford’s cooperation with the Nazis continued until at least August 1942 -- eight months after the United States entered the war -- through its properties in Vichy France. Indeed, a secret wartime report prepared by the US Treasury Department concluded that the Ford family sought to further its business interests by encouraging Ford of France executives to work with German officials overseeing the occupation. “There would seem to be at least a tacit acceptance by [Henry Ford’s son] Mr. Edsel Ford of the reliance…on the known neutrality of the Ford family as a basis of receipt of favors from the German Reich,” it says....

Ford Motor set up shop in Germany in 1925, when it opened an office in Berlin. Six years later, it built a large plant in Cologne, which became its headquarters in the country. Ford of Germany prospered during the Nazi years, especially with the economic boom brought on by World War II. Sales increased by more than half between 1938 and 1943, and, according to a US government report found at the National Archives, the value of the German subsidiary more than doubled during the course of the war.

Ford eagerly collaborated with the Nazis, which greatly enhanced its business prospects and at the same time helped Hitler prepare for war (and after the 1939 invasion of Poland, conduct it). In the mid-thirties, Dearborn helped boost German Ford’s profits by placing orders with the Cologne plant for direct delivery to Ford plants in Latin America and Japan. In 1936, as a means of preserving the Reich’s foreign reserves, the Nazi government blocked the German subsidiary from buying needed raw materials. Ford headquarters in Dearborn responded -- just as the Nazis hoped it would -- by shipping rubber and other materials to Cologne in exchange for German-made parts. The Nazi government took a 25 percent cut out of the imported raw materials and gave them to other manufacturers, an arrangement approved by Dearborn.

According to the US Army report of 1945, prepared by Henry Schneider, German Ford began producing vehicles of a strictly military nature for the Reich even before the war began. The company also established a war plant ready for mobilization day in a “‘safe’ zone” near Berlin, a step taken, according to Schneider, “with the…approval of Dearborn.” Following Hitler’s 1939 invasion of Poland, which set off World War II, German Ford became one of the largest suppliers of vehicles to the Wehrmacht (the German Army). Papers found at the National Archives show that the company was selling to the SS and the police as well. By 1941 Ford of Germany had stopped manufacturing passenger vehicles and was devoting its entire production capacity to military trucks. That May the leader of the Nazi Party in Cologne sent a letter to the plant thanking its leaders for helping “assure us victory in the present [war] struggle” and for demonstrating the willingness to “cooperate in the establishment of an exemplary social state.”

Ford vehicles were crucial to the revolutionary Nazi military strategy of blitzkrieg. Of the 350,000 trucks used by the motorized German Army as of 1942, roughly one-third were Ford-made. The Schneider report states that when American troops reached the European theater, “Ford trucks prominently present in the supply lines of the Wehrmacht were understandably an unpleasant sight to men in our Army.” Indeed, the Cologne plant proved to be so important to the Reich’s war effort that the Allies bombed it on several occasions. A secret 1944 US Air Force “Target Information Sheet” on the factory said that for the previous five years it had been “geared for war production on a high level.”

While Ford Motor enthusiastically worked for the Reich, the company initially resisted calls from President Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Churchill to increase war production for the Allies. The Nazi government was grateful for that stance, as acknowledged in a letter from Heinrich Albert to Charles Sorenson, a top executive in Dearborn. Albert had been a lawyer for German Ford since at least 1927, a director since 1930 and, according to the Treasury report, part of a German espionage ring operating in the United States during World War I. “The ‘Dementi’ of Mr. Henry Ford concerning war orders for Great Britain has greatly helped us,” Albert wrote in July of 1940, shortly after the fall of France, when England appeared to be on the verge of collapse before the Führer’s troops....

“there could be no doubt about the complete incorporation, as regards personnel, organization and production system, of Ford Werke into the German national economy, in particular, into the German armaments industry.”...

As 1941 progressed, the board of Ford Werke fretted that the United States would enter the war in support of Britain and the government would confiscate the Cologne plant. To prevent such an outcome, the Cologne management wrote to the Reich Commission that year to say that it “question[ed] whether Ford must be treated as enemy property” even in the event of a US declaration of war on Germany. “Ford has become a purely German company and has taken over all obligations so successfully that the American majority shareholder, independent of the favorable political views of Henry Ford, in some periods actually contributed to the development of German industry,” Cologne argued on June 18, 1941, only six months before the bombing of Pearl Harbor....

The Nazis never nationalized Ford’s German property...

By 1943 half of Ford Werke’s work force comprised foreign captives, including French, Russians, Ukrainians and Belgians. In August of 1944 a squad of SS men brought fifteen prisoners from the Buchenwald concentration camp to Ford Werke. The German researcher Karola Fings, co-author of Working for the Enemy, a book on Nazi slave- and forced-labor programs, to be published this spring, says Ford’s worker-inmates toiled for twelve hours a day with a fifteen-minute break. They were given 200 grams of bread and coffee for breakfast, no lunch and a dinner of spinach and three potatoes or soup made of turnip leaves.

An account by Robert Schmidt, the man appointed to run Ford Werke in 1939, states that the company used forced laborers even before the Nazis put the plant in trusteeship....Schmidt said that the Gestapo began to play an important role at Ford Werke after the first foreign workers arrived. With the assistance of W.M. Buchwald, a Ford employee since the mid-thirties, the Gestapo carefully monitored plant activities. “Whenever there was the slightest indication of anti-Nazi feeling, be it amongst foreigners or Germans, the Gestapo tramped down as hard as possible,” Schmidt told the Army.

Meanwhile, Ford Werke offered enthusiastic political support for Hitler as well. The fraternal ties between Ford and the Nazis is perhaps best symbolized by the company’s birthday gift to the Führer of 35,000 Reichsmarks in April of 1939. Ford Werke’s in-house publication couldn’t have been more fanatically pro-Nazi if Josef Goebbels had edited it.

-- [Henry] Ford and the Führer, by Ken Silverstein


Or perhaps anti-Semitism infected him to the bone, and his apology was as cynical as it seems to us. What we do know is that this chapter of his life, which lasted less than a decade, reverberates a century later in a crude hatred that seems impossible to eradicate. It’s an ugly side of the patriarch of one of America’s greatest families and founder of one of its best-known companies.

And the ugliness won’t go away. In November, a reader left this Amazon review of “The International Jew”:

“It's just amazing how enlightened Henry Ford became while living in a world of jew contrived deception ramping up in the USA. The European converted (fake) zionist jew has conquered amerika. Judaism = communism.”
[/quote]

The reader gave “The International Jew” five stars.
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Re: Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

Postby admin » Wed Sep 25, 2019 7:54 am

Part 1 of 8

Investigation of Un-American Propaganda Activities in the United States: Appendix, Part IV: German-American Bund: Three Documents on the German-American Bund
by Special Committee on Un-American Activities
House of Representatives
Seventy-Seventh Congress
First Session
on
H. Res. 282

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INVESTIGATION OF UN-AMERICAN PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN THE UNITED STATES
SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
SEVENTY-SEVENTH CONGRESS
FIRST SESSION
ON
H. Res. 282
TO INVESTIGATE (1) THE EXTENT, CHARACTER, AND OBJECTS OF UN-AMERICAN PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN THE UNITED STATES, (2) THE DIFFUSION WITHIN THE UNITED STATES OF SUBVERSIVE AND UN-AMERICAN PROPAGANDA THAT IS INSTIGATED FROM FOREIGN COUNTRIES OR OF A DOMESTIC ORIGIN AND ATTACKS THE PRINCIPLE OF THE FORM OF GOVERNMENT AS GUARANTEED BY OUR CONSTITUTION, AND (3) ALL OTHER QUESTIONS IN RELATION THERETO THAT WOULD AID CONGRESS IN ANY NECESSARY REMEDIAL LEGISLATION

APPENDIX— PART IV
 
GERMAN-AMERICAN BUND

Printed for the use of the Special Committee on Un-American Activities

MAR 27 1944

SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES
WASHINGTON, D. C.
MARTIN DIES, Texas, Chairman
JOE STARNES, Alabama
NOAH M. MASON, Illinois
JERRY VOORHIS, California
J. PARNELL THOMAS, New Jersey
JOSEPH E. CASEY, Massachusetts
HARRY P. BEAM, Illinois
Robert E. Stripling, Secretary and Chief Investigator
J. B. Matthews, Director of Research

THREE DOCUMENTS OF THE GERMAN-AMERICAN BUND

I. Source or the Documents


The three documents, whose originals form a part of the exhibits submitted herewith, were obtained by duly constituted authorities from the personal effects of G. Wilhelm Kunze, Bundesfuhrer of the German-American Bund. The committee has satisfied itself concerning the authenticity of the documents.

G. Wilhelm Kunze was named Bundesfuhrer of the German-American Bund after Fritz Kuhn, the former Bundesfuhrer, was committed to prison in the State of New York.

II. The Three Documents

The three documents which are presented in this report speak for themselves. The following observations concerning them are, however, in order at this point:

(1) They attest the ruthless efficiency of the military set-up which characterizes Hitler's machine in Germany.

(2) The discipline to which members of the German-American Bund are subject is clearly reflected in the endless rules and regulations which extend to the minute details of the Bund members' lives. The documents speak of "absolute loyalty" and "blind obedience." Document #3 says of the OD Platoon Leader: "He will never complain of his superiors before his comrades, but will display the absolute loyalty and correct behavior which he expects from his men. The blind obedience that will be absolutely necessary in serious situations can be provided only if the Platoon represents a true association of comrades which feels respect for and confidence in its leader" (p. 1608).

(3) The German-American Bund organization clearly anticipates violence by its assertion that "the OD man gives assurance that our movement will, at the sacrifice of life if necessary, remain the inexorable opponents of Jewish Marxism * * *" (p. 1611).

(4) The German-American Bund extols the "fanaticism" which has characterized Hitler and his movement in Germany. According to Document #3, "anyone who is not filled with this unshakable faith and courage and cannot march along as a fanatical fighter does not belong in the OD; to have embraced the National Socialist view of things means definitively breaking off all ties with liberal halfway measures" (p. 1611). This is a clear espousal of the totalitarian, as opposed to the democratic, way of life.

(5) The following quotations indicate something of the religious bigotry of the Germany-American Bund: "All OD men and OD Leaders in particular are required to procure a certificate of Aryan blood" (p. 1610). "We are looking for men who enter our organization not in order to procure personal advantages or to be allowed to play soldier pleasantly, but who intend with their whole power to eradicate the red Jewish pestilence in America" (p. 1611).


We refuse to permit the effort of Communist, Fascist, and other totalitarian-minded groups to pervert this powerful medium into an instrument for the dissemination of un-American ideas and beliefs. We pledge ourselves to fight, with every means at our organized command, any effort of any group or individual, to divert the loyalty of the screen from the free America that give it birth.

-- Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of American Ideals, by Wikipedia


(6) The German-American Bund aims at the establishment of a new kind of government in the United States, one which incorporates the principle of Nazi religious bigotry. According to Document #2, "the duty of the Bund Fuhrer is to maintain and develop the AV by every adjustment to the temporary requirements of the times as the defensive and offensive movement of the national consciousness of American Germanism dedicated philosophically (Weltanschaulich), national-socialistically, and politically to the service of an actually independent, aryan-governed United States of North America" (p. 1552).

(7) Document #1 reveals the keeping of systematic records on "enemies" of the German-American Bund. "Record cards containing personal information about friends, enemies, merchants, politicians, association officers, and similar whom we should know are to be made out in duplicate exactly as are those for members, patrons, and Youth Command members, and submitted monthly;
one card is to be retained by the Unit or Branch Directorate; the other is to be sent to the National Executive Committee" (p. 1491). "Yellow cards bearing the letter 'F' are intended for enemies. Where they are German a 'D' is to be inserted at the top. They are not to be used for Jews. Light blue cards bearing the letter 'J' are for Jews" (p. 1492). Hitler explained to Rauschning his system of keeping just such a card file on "friends" and "enemies."

(8) Document #1 specifies the manner in which a meeting of the Bund shall be closed, as follows: "To a free, Gentile-ruled United States and to our fighting movement of awakened Aryan Americans, a three-fold rousing 'Free America! Free America! Free America!" (p. 1495).


(9) The documents reveal the principle of secrecy practised in the Bund, as follows: "All names and addresses of Bund members and officers must be kept confidential and must not be divulged to anyone " (p. 1490). "Names and descriptions of those available for work in the block, the block leader commits to memory, but he is bound upon his honor not to betray any member's name or description to the public" (p. 1560). "Patrons may be admitted also under 'cover' names and 'cover' addresses (fictitious)" (p. 1581).

(10) These documents betray an assumption regarding the status of Americans of German descent which the committee finds wholly false. Document #2 declares: "We owe to ourselves, our ancestors, and our descendants, the right to be a free people, and not the despised spit-upon menials of inferior despots (dictators) who deserve still to be cursed by our children" (p. 1582). While the committee has failed to find any shred of evidence that Americans of German descent are subjected to the kind of discrimination implied in this statement, it is of the opinion that the very spirit of the German-American Bund is calculated to breed the discrimination against which it pretends to fight.

(11) Many passages in these documents betray the existence of a close political and ideological tie between the German-American Bund and Hitler's movement in Germany. For example, Document #1 specifies: "Closing song at 'Horst-Wessel' memorials and other memorials in honor of the fallen of the Hitler-Movement: All four stanzas of the 'Horst-Wessel' song (salute during last stanza)" (p. 1500). Provision is made for the celebration of the birthday of Adolf Hitler (p. 1499). "When a representative of the Reich speaks at a celebration, the German national anthem is to be played immediately after his address" (p. 1496). Speaking of the regulations contained in Document #2, it is stated that "they are the result of the serious study not only of the experiences of our Bund and its predecessors, but also of the experiences of the old home under the leadership (Fuhrung) of the greatest German of all times" (p. 1583). This is a frank acknowledgement of the source of much of the German-American Bund's set-up in Hitler's movement in Germany.


III. Investigation of the Bund

From the very beginning of its existence, the Special Committee on Un-American Activities has made the German-American Bund one of the subjects of its investigation. The first witness heard by the committee in the summer of 1938 testified at length on the nature and activities of this organization. Since that time, more than a score of witnesses have added to the evidence which the committee has assembled with a view to determining the character and activities of the Bund.

On the basis of the voluminous testimony which the committee has heard, the conclusion has been reached that the German-American Bund is an un-American organization engaged in promulgating the ideology and attempting to further the interests of nazi-ism in the United States. That conclusion is reinforced by the original documents which form a part of the exhibits in this report.

In order that a complete picture of the German-American Bund may be presented at this time, the previous findings of the committee are included in this report.

In its report to the House of Representatives at the beginning of 1939, the committee made the following resume of evidence which had been placed before it:

In its investigation of Nazi and Fascist activities in the United States, this committee, recognizing the splendid work done by the McCormack Committee, which made its report to Congress on February 15, 1935, has started where that group left off.

The so-called McCormack Committee investigated and traced the Nazi movement in the United States from the days when Kurt Georg Wilhelm Luedecke became their first real representative here on through the various steps taken until we come to the creation of the the German-American Bund.

The German-American Bund had as its predecessors the "Teutonia Society" and "The Friends of the New Germany."

This committee had divided its Nazi and Fascist investigation into a number of subtitles which we classify as follows: Storm troops, correspondence and records, youth movement, consular aid, funds and propaganda, guns, rifle ranges, etc., Nazi-Fascist merger, German Bund, Italian Black Shirts, Un-American organizations.

It was definitely shown that the Nazi activities in the United States have their counterpart in everything that has been and is being done by similar movements of Nazi minorities in Mexico, South America, and Europe.

These Nazi activities in the United States are traceable to and linked with Government-controlled agencies in Nazi Germany, and it is not unreasonable to suppose that unless checked immediately an American-Nazi force may cause great unrest and serious repercussions in the United States.

At this point it should be made distinctly clear that the Nazi ranks in the United States are not really German-Americans but rather American-Germans. In other words, they consider themselves the identical type of minority as the Polish-German minority in Poland, the Austrian-German minority which recently brought about the annexation of Austria, or the Sudeten Germans in Czechoslovakia (vol. 2, p. 1108).

As an indication of the thoroughness with which this Nazi minority has been operating in this country through its connections with Germany, evidence was introduced showing that the official newspaper of the German-American Bund has had advance information on what was about to transpire in Germany and gave every evidence of intimate knowledge of events to come.

This committee heard testimony showing that the use of storm troops, the youth movement, the training and drilling, the consular aid — in fact all of the Nazi activities here are on lines identical with those used abroad.

There are approximately 80 Bund posts in the United States. There are no positive or definite figures of the membership although it can be stated that there are approximately 25,000 active members in the German-American Bund. The fact has also been established that some 100,000 persons are willing to be seen at the public manifestations of the Bund.*

STORM TROOPS

From this membership, the German-American Bund can muster within its own ranks a uniformed force of 5,000 storm troops and it was testified that in time of necessity this force could be augmented with "strong-arm" detachments of allied groups, such as Italian Black Shirts, Silver Shirts, Ukrainians, White Russians, and similar organizations (vol. 2, p. 1110).

Repeatedly it has been asserted that the storm-troop division of the Bund is nothing more than a force of ushers for public meetings. The fact is that this storm-troop division of the Bund is patterned after the Hitler storm troops and its members are the political soldiers of a Hitler-inspired movement in the United States. A witness testified that from the manpower of this force the Bund, working hand in hand with the German Government, can draft men for a sabotage, machine and spy net.

Despite assertions by the heads of the German-American Bund that there are no German citizens in the storm-troop ranks, evidence presented before this committee clearly shows that members of that organization in all parts of the United States have privately admitted that they are not American citizens but are German citizens and in many cases have boasted that they never intend to become American citizens.

* Subsequent investigations revealed that there were 100,000 members and supporters of the Bund.


This committee has failed to find any reason for the existence of such storm-troop groups, but there is no Federal statute to prevent their formation and activities.

A witness testified that Herman Schwarzmann, leader of the Astoria, Long Island, post, read a book of German Army instructions to his storm troops, explaining it as follows:

I am reading this to you not so much because I want you to know what my duties are, but because some day all of you may be fuehrers of your own groups. You can reach these heights if you work hard and come to thoroughly understand the problems before us. Every storm trooper should look forward to the day when he may become a fuehrer himself. He must know how to handle people, he must understand people, he must be able to lead and teach them.

I tell you that exactly what happened some years ago is happening now in this country. In Germany the people finally rose up in resentment. This will happen here. It is inevitable. When that day comes, and it is probably not far off, we must be prepared to fight for the right kind of government. We must win the masses to our side. There will be bloodshed and fighting. We shall have to do our part.


No one knows where we shall have to go — New Jersey, New York, or some other part of the country, or what we may be called upon to do. When that time comes every man must be thoroughly trained to assume his responsibility. The important duties, of course, will fall upon the shoulders of our membership. (Implying the storm-troop membership.)

You may think I am just dreaming or talking in the clouds. But I tell you I know what I'm talking about. This trouble will come probably sooner than you think. It has to come, judging from the trends of the Nation.

When we understand how Germans handled their situation in Germany we shall know how to handle the difficulty which will arise in America. In all likelihood the day of trouble will come — Der Tag — with a financial crisis in Washington. Then will be the time to wipe out our enemies.

Remember we are still Germans, for blood is stronger than paper, even though we are also American citizens. And as American citizens we have the same rights as any other citizen. But our rights have not been observed. The storm troops are not even permitted to march on the streets. The controlled press will not print our side of the story. Some day that will be changed, for some day we shall demand our rights.


It was testified before the committee that although the Nazis in this country claim to follow democratic ideas in electing their officers in reality the elections were conducted along the lines of recent European plebiscites where everything is under such control that no one dares vote against the machine (vol. 2, p. 1113).

Another indication of the close connection between the German-American Bund and the Fatherland is to be found in the evidence showing that crews of German warships have been entertained by the storm troops of the Bund. German World War veterans are active in storm-troop ranks and help train and drill the men.

Many Bund storm troopers are constantly urged to make and have made trips to Germany, returning with great quantities of Nazi propaganda material (vol. 2, p. 1114).

Members of the Nazi groups have been found to be working in some of the great aviation manufacturing companies of the United States. They were found working in the United States Navy shipyards where they had succeeded in securing positions which placed them in direct possession of secret plans for the construction of United States Navy battleships of the latest type. They have even been assigned to trial runs on the latest type of these ships (vol. 2, p. 1115).

This committee also learned that as the result of its recent national convention in New York — the one held in September 1938 — the German-American Bund is planning to create a strictly American division in conjunction with the bund. First steps in this direction have already been taken by the high command of the German-American Bund. If this plan is carried out, a merger of a number of minor subversive forces in this country may be expected under the swastika leadership of Fritz Kuhn and the German-American Bund.

CORRESPONDENCE AND RECORDS

The investigation of this committee into Nazi activities was seriously hampered and handicapped because as soon as the resolution creating the committee had been adopted by the Congress, officials of the German-American Bund issued an order to their posts throughout the country to destroy all their records.

Dr. Otto Willumeit, 4344 North Sheridan Road, Chicago, Ill., in a sworn statement made on July 15, 1938, said:

I became an American citizen in 1932 at Hammond, Ind. Shortly after taking over the leadership of the local chapter, I received a letter from Fritz Kuhn, of New York. I carried this letter with me for about a month and recently tore it up as I did not believe it was important. This letter, although I do not remember the exact wording, advised me that in view of the coming congressional investigation of the bund, Mr. Kuhn deemed it advisable for me to destroy all correspondence between the local bund and Germany. He further pointed out that no matter how harmless it may be, the letters could be interpreted in a different light (vol. 1, p. 42).


Another affidavit, part of the proof that Fritz Kuhn, head of the German-American Bund, had ordered records of that organization destroyed, was made by George Froboese, who resides at 3227 North Second Street, Milwaukee, Wis., and who is the leader of the middle west district of the bund. He stated:

I have been asked by Mr. Kuhn to destroy such private letters as may be interpreted as being inconsistent with the proper behavior of an American citizen (vol. 2, p. 1144).


However, the investigator for the committee was able to secure possession of 25 letters which constituted correspondence between the Chicago Bund post and Nazi Germany (vol. 1, pp. 29 through 40).

In this correspondence it was definitely shown that the Foreign Institute of the Nazi Government at Stuttgart was one of the instrumentalities used in assisting the German-American Bund in spreading propaganda in this country.
One of the letters (vol. 1, p. 31) proves conclusively a Nazi Government plan to take American children on vacations to Germany and the letter states that "properly handled, this can be of the utmost importance for the development of foreign connections."

And another quotation from the same letter —

Friendships cannot be made early enough. Youth is especially susceptible at this period. The impressions of a youth in a foreign country influence hundreds of his comrades on his return.


Other correspondence definitely indicates that German consulates in the United States have been the clearing houses for much of the Nazi activity here (vol. 1, p. 38).

Throughout this entire correspondence there is definite evidence and proof that the groups operated in this country are directed by organizations in Germany which get their support and direction from the German Government itself. Despite this connection, none of these groups in this country have registered with the Secretary of State in accordance with the foreign propaganda law which became effective September 8, 1938.

In fact, the Foreign Institute at Stuttgart is being conducted by one Fritz Gissibl, a former leader of the Nazi group in this country and whose brother even now is a member and leader of the Nazi group in Chicago.

Photographs placed in evidence before the committee, properly identified, show a number of German consuls in this country taking an active part in the affairs of the German-American Bund and particularly in the Nazi festivities arranged at a number of camps throughout the United States (vol. 2, p. 1122).

YOUTH MOVEMENT

Some German-American children are being Hitlerized by the leaders of the German-American Bund, despite the fact that under the American law every child born in this country is an American citizen.

The evidence thus far heard indicates that every effort is being expended by the bund's high command to instill in these boys and girls, most of whom have never even been outside the United States, the doctrines of racial and religious hatreds preached under the pagan German kultur (vol. 2, p. 1123).

American ideals and principles of democracy are boldly shoved into the background and a worship of Hitlerism is inculcated in these youthful unsuspecting minds. Although the committee's investigator frequently visited Nazi camps in various parts of the country, he testified that never once was there an occasion where he saw these nazified children led to a Christian religious service in a youth camp.

Health, Hitler, Heils, and Hatred are the "4-H's" used by United States Nazis to prevent Americanization of children whose parents are members of the German-American Bund.

In the coming years all the unity and all the efforts will be required in order to put a stop to the former crippling by the Americanization of their young —


declares the bund yearbook, reprinted from the German magazine Deutsche Arbeit, in referring to children of Germany who have emigrated to America.

Hence —


the yearbook states, after pointing out that Germany's youth movement at home must confine itself to German children still in the Fatherland —

the youth groups of the German-American Bund are a real achievement for Germany.


In forwarding this program, childish voices ring out in a crescendo of "Heil Hitlers" in German-American camps throughout the Nation.

These American boys and girls sing hymns to Der Fuehrer and to the Fatherland they never have seen.  

"Our youth are the lifeline of our movement," leaders repeatedly insist. "We may be gone soon and the youth must carry on our fight. * * *."

Under the guise of health, some German-American children are being trained and marched away from the democratic traditions of America.

They must learn to speak fluent German and to understand the Nazi ideology. They listen to lectures on the Hitler philosophy and the policies of the Third Reich.

In its youth movement, as in the parent organization, the bund professes a defense of the United States Constitution and "true Americanism." But the camps are completely Nazi Germany. The United States is forgotten except for an occasional display of American flags. The swastika of Germany is the important flag to the boy and girl scouts. "Old Glory" is of secondary importance (vol. 2, p. 1124).

The scouts eat, sleep, talk, and dream nazi-ism with the same fervor of the regimented youth of Germany. They are taught to avoid outside "contaminating influences." American history, according to testimony before the committee, is revised in public addresses for them to show that this country has been saved from destruction only through the influence of German-Americans.

Just as in Germany, the youth movement is divided into three sections — the Jungenschaft (boys); the Maedchenschaft (girls), and the Jungvolk (smaller children too young to join other groups).

Youngsters are thrust into the Jungvolk organization when only 5 and 6 years old. They wear uniforms of brown and blue shorts or skirts, white blouses with Hitler-brown scarfs. Older boys wear brown shirts with Sam Browne belts, military trousers and boots, and are armed with long hunting knives and spears.

Youths graduate into the "Ordnungs Dienst," the storm-troop organization of the bund, and are trained mentally and physically to lead the troops when the often predicted "trouble" comes. Scouts are told they must be prepared to withstand the onrush of the coming "red" revolution.


From their elders, scouts learn to be suspicious of strangers. They will not discuss the bund unless they know the listener is sympathetic. The investigator for the committee testified that he entered Turner Hall at Eighty-fifth Street and Lexington Avenue in the Yorkville German section of New York City, where the bund holds many of its meetings, and asked a young scout fuehrer where the bund headquarters were situated.

"Bund?" the youth asked in pretended ignorance. "I don't know anything about the bund."

Investigation by this investigator disclosed that beyond the door he was guarding a group of boys and girls [who] were attending one of the "Bundes-Redner-Schule." A propaganda film showing the delights of new Germany was part of the day's instruction.

Landesjugendfuehrer (national youth leader) is Theodore Dinkelacker, 9238 Lamont Avenue, Elmhurst, Long Island. Under 30, Dinkelacker devotes all of his time to drilling and teaching potential national socialists. He leads them in parades behind the storm troops at summer festivals and in the city drill halls of the bund during the winter.

Our youth love the fight—


Dinkelacker explained to a witness.

They are mostly sons and daughters of old fighters and thus they will not permit the fighting spirit of the bund to die out.

National socialism is a world-wide philosophy of strength. We teach our youth along these lines so that they may take the right road in life. We instill in them pride of German nationality and race. We insist on order and discipline to build character and a broad athletic program to build the body.


Youth builds are proud of being the future of "the only fighting organization in German-America" Dinkelacker says according to testimony before the committee, and "will always look down with contempt upon those who avoid the battle, who gather in little groups and clubs in order, when they reach manhood, to change into rabbit-breeding societies or bowling clubs" (vol. 2, p. 1125).

All boys and girls —


he continued, according to this same testimony —

have the obligation to keep themselves strong and healthy for their German race; healthy in order to transmit as a link in an unending chain the heritage of our ancestors to the coming generation; strong in order to ward off every attack against the German race; politically and economically.


The bund youth group "does not only have the purpose to breed a new generation, as certain malicious tongues assert," Dinkelacker explained, according to the testimony of a witness before the committee.

We wish to train the young to become useful members of the German racial community. We wish to train our youth groups to such an extent that by observation we may be able to pick out talented boys and girls, support them in their education, and thus create the possibility that the most capable be placed at the head, for the benefit not only of the German element but of the entire Nation.


Camp Hindenburg, near Grafton, Wis., 18 miles north of Milwaukee, is the "summer home" of Chicago and Milwaukee scouts. The camp is in its third year. There was also testimony that two signs, one in blue and one in red, point the way to the camp down a gravel road from U. S. Highway 141. The signs are lettered merely "A. V." The camp itself is set in the valley surrounded by wooded hills with the Milwaukee River providing swimming facilities on the west side of the tract. There is a parking lot for autos through which one must pass before entering the camp proper. The camp and lot are separated by a wire fence with a single pole carrying a sign "Private property."

Unlike the eastern camps, there are no elaborate permanent buildings at Camp Hindenburg. The Kaffee Kucha (coffee kitchen) and beer stand are housed in small wooden structures. Tents are set in a circle. In the center is a tall flagpole from which are flown the American flag and the Jungenschaft flag — a white streak of lightning or half swastika on a black background. Regulation German swastika flags are displayed on special occasions.

About 80 boys from Chicago and Milwaukee gave up the tents on August 1, after a 2- week stay at the camp, and about 100 girls moved in. The boys and girls marched behind a military band of German World War veterans to the flagpole for a ceremony, during which the boys' flag was replaced by that of the girls' organization.

Uniforms worn by the Chicago and Milwaukee boys include a wide brown belt with a silver buckle bearing a swastika and the legend "Blut and Ehre" (blood and honor). One boy displaced a hunting knife which had a similar inscription on the blade.

Chicago boys and girls when not in camp meet once a week or oftener at the Bundesheim (bund home) at 3853 North Western Avenue and at the south side headquarters at 605 West Sixtieth Street. They also attend the Theodore Koerner Schule, operated at the north side home.

The American Nazi youth movement is much stronger in the East and Middle West than in the Far West.

According to one witness, the west coast bund members enthusiastically welcomed Erich Barischoff, member of the Brooklyn, N. ., Jungenschaft, who appeared at Deutsches Hans, Los Angeles headquarters, August 1, after a 24-day hike across the country. Erich was en route to the Dutch East Indies and thence to Germany to visit relatives. According to testimony before the committee he had nothing but scorn for the American Boy Scouts (vol. 2, p. 1126).

They're sissies —


he exclaimed.

They don't know what hardships are like. They take little walks while we travel hundreds of miles. There is no comparison between the American Boy Scouts and the Jungenschaft. The Americans are babies alongside of us.


The Philadelphia youth encampment is part of the bund layout of the Deutschorst Country Club, near Croydon, Pa. Forty boys and 25 girls live in tents and in an old mansion, which had been used at one time as a speakeasy and later as a home for wayward girls before the bund leased it 4 years ago, according to testimony before the committee. The owner offered to sell the property to the bund for $12,000 4 years ago but boosted his price to $18,000 last summer just before the lease expired.

A Philadelphia storm trooper in a conversation with his fuehrer, G. W. Kunze, on July 25, revealed "how we fooled those newspapermen." A reporter and photographer of the Philadelphia Record spent several hours at the camp that day.

They didn't see a thing and got only a lot of pictures that don't mean anything —


the trooper explained.  

The funniest thing happened when they went to the youth camp. All they saw was the boys and their tents with a little American flag on the staff. They didn't get to see our flag.


The trooper indicated the swastika had been removed purposely for the day in anticipation of newspaper photographers.

Efdende camp, 9 miles north of Pontiac, Mich., serves the Detroit post. It does not compare in size or in buildings and improvements with the eastern camps. Entrance is down a side road off United States Highway 10 at the Springfield Gladiola Farms. A small sign reads "Summer Camp A. V." Detroit members are cautious about displaying swastikas or other Hitler emblems at their camp.

A small frame building houses a kitchen and bar near the lake shore while headquarters for the Jungenschaft is beyond an athletic field. About 20 girls and 30 boys are accommodated in separate units of a one-story building.  



The most elaborate of the bund's camps are Siegfried, near Yaphank, Long Island, and Nordland, near Andover, N. J. It was at a youth celebration at Camp Siegfried on July 11, that National Leader Fritz Kuhn, according to testimony, said:

The youth of our great bund are the hope, the life line of our organization. Through them we must live into the future. It is, therefore, necessary that we must stand united behind them, educate them and raise them to manhood and womanhood with our ideals embedded in their hearts. We must fight together for their freedom.

We must work to win over the youth of all German-Americans and some day when our labor has reaped its reward we shall hear fine and strong German-American youths come marching from the east and west, from the south and north— marching onward to build a greater nation.


When "Achtung!" (Attention) rings out over the loudspeaker system in the eastern camps, scouts as well as storm troopers hurry to attention. If it is Sunday morning at Camp Siegfried, boys and girls form into separate ranks and prepare to greet storm troopers and other bund members arriving from New York on a special train.

Some of the scouts march behind the German swastika and the American flag to the railroad station 2 miles away through Yaphank. They line up at attention beside the track and, as the train pulls in, their arms are outstretched in a Hitler salute to the arriving guests.

With a band blaring a stirring German march, the scouts and guests — 500 or more strong — march back through the village to the camp where another contingent of scouts is at attention "heiling" the arriving storm troops.

At Siegfried and at other eastern bund camps, separate tent encampments for boys and girls are set back in the woods, away from the main building and cottages where their parents drink beer and dance. Sentries stand guard at entrances to the rows of tents. Visitors — even parents of the scouts — are not permitted in the youth camps proper. Scouts on duty in the camps must come to the entrances to visit with their parents. If not on duty, they are permitted to roam through the entire camp layout at will.

A German steel helmet and a long lance are part of the equipment of the guard at the entrance to the boys' camp at Siegfried. The lance and helmet are passed along to each boy as he takes up sentry duty. Commands and conversations among the scouts are entirely in German, but they politely answer questions in English (vol. 2, p. 1127).

Discipline is rigid. Some scouts are assigned to duty at soft-drink stands in camp on Sunday. Others carry water to perspiring troopers.

German-Americans can send their children to the camp for from $3.50 to $5 a week. If their parents have the money, the children remain in camp all summer and enjoy a theoretical 3-month trip to Germany.

Camps are supported partly from contributions. Otto Arndt, one of the most active of the New York area storm troops, according to testimony, said his contributions to the Jungenschaft amounted to $25,000 during a year.

A collection was taken up for the Jungenschaft at the end of a night boat trip up the Hudson which outwardly had no connection with the bund, but which was sponsored by the Steneck travel bureau.

The youth camp at Siegfried is a half mile around a lake from the main camp building. A two-story stucco building, adaptable for winter use, serves as headquarters. Tents are pitched on wooden foundations back in the woods. At Camp Nordland, set in the wooded hills of Sussex County, N. J., the tents are in one end of the 100-acre tract.

Heels click together and the right arm goes out in a Hitler salute when a scout, boy or girl, is addressed by a youth leader or any storm trooper in uniform.

Singing forms an important part of the camp training. Both boys and girls are divided into older and younger groups and learn numerous songs in praise of Hitler and the new Germany. The boys also have a fife, bugle, and drum corps, members of which are equipped with red and white epaulets.

As part of their training for "true Americanism," scouts sing "Heute Hoert Uns Deutschland — Morgen Die Ganze Welt!" (Today Germany hears us, tomorrow the whole world) and "We are the friends of the New Germany" (vol. 2, p. 1128).

They join enthusiastically in singing "Deutschland Ueber Alles" and the "Horst Wessel," the Hitler national anthem, but have a difficult time remembering "The Star-Spangled Banner."

Girl scouts are trained in the folk dances of Germany and perform at the various bund functions.

For some of the smaller girls, camp life brings the ordeal of living away from their parents for the first time.

How quickly a German-American boy can become a part of the Hitler youth program was explained to a witness who appeared before the committee, by a woman bund member. She said, according to this witness, her youthful cousin scorned the camp idea at first, but after one visit came home singing Nazi songs and remarked that the German scouts were "real kameraden." After another visit, he became a member. Today, at 19, he is a fuehrer and has learned to speak German.

"His older brother", she said, "who is in the United States Navy, makes fun of the boy's scout uniform and his Hitler salute. But we tell him not to mind, the older brother will learn the truth before long and realize he too must join the new Germany."

The bund also maintains camps near Buffalo, Schenectady, Cleveland, Los Angeles, San Diego, Oakland, Calif., Spokane, Seattle, Portland, Oreg., and at St. Louis.

All bund leaders — from Fuehrer Fritz Kuhn down to minor leaders in local posts — recognize the importance of the youth movement, but none more than Carl (Papa) Nicolay, South Brooklyn leader and national speaker since the inception of the organization.

Nicolay, who is nearing 60, is the most enthusiastic and most verbose of the bund speakers.

Nicolay wrote of the wonders of Germany under Hitler:

The gradual education away from shallow internationalism and the often but not too obvious meaninglessness of its decadent liberalism and democracy * * * to sound and rational nationalism, which in its very desire for the strength of its own country and people, will not only tolerate but look to similar national strength in others, but make for real peace, therefore, instead of war.


He wrote of the joy of Hitler youth but did not mention the signs over Nazi youth camps: "You were born to die for Germany."

In Germany, all young people are forced by the state youth laws to become members of the Hitler Youth or the League of German Girls and undergo national socialist schooling. American children of bund members "love the fight" in the words of the national leader, Theodor Dinkelacker, and don't need a law to force them into the regimented organization.
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Re: Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

Postby admin » Wed Sep 25, 2019 7:54 am

Part 2 of 8

In a mimeographed paper issued by the American nazi youth movement, Hitler is termed "the prophet of a new and nobler chapter in the course of human events." His creed is world-wide, youthful Americans are told.

He leads the struggle for race preservation against the melting pot idea of international-minded dabblers in theoretical concepts of the "brotherhood" of all races.

The setting up of a nation in order; clean and strong, free and unified, is a miracle which only proves the prophet is divinely inspired with God-given powers and insight.

The slumbering embers Adolf Hitler has fanned into fire in the hearts of Aryan men will break out into a mighty blaze that will consume the enemy when he raises his red rags.

The world quivers with the convulsions of an approaching earthquake that will shake each nation to its bedrock, bury everything corrupt, and outmoded, and clear away to leave a world of virile, progressive, race-conscious nations.


The article, signed by Paul M. Ochojski, in charge of the English columns of the youth paper, thus tells American children of the same "approaching revolution" which bund speakers warn their members to prepare for (vol. 2, p. 1129).

In another article, Ochojski declares Germans are "vanishing" in the United States because they "aren't organized and fighting" against their enemies.

Rallying American children of bund members to answer the battle call to fight, Ochojski warns that unless action is taken Germans in America are "doomed to become a gray, raceless mixture of unskilled laborers having no voice in politics and no economic power."

There is no more immigration of new blood from Germany to freshen up the dying cadaver of Germanic America —


the writer explains.

Organize, keep alive German language and traditions, learn useful and higher trades, go to schools and colleges, enter professions and politics, fight the enemies of Germany.


Discipline of bund youth was praised by Herr Weiss, physical education instructor at the organization's Philadelphia youth camp, Deutschhorst, near Croydon, Pa. He told the committee's investigator the boys and girls in camp obeyed orders "just like little soldiers."

The boys wore hunting knives encased in leather holsters attached to their belts. Handles of the knives showed a small swastika. Asked if the knives were made in New York:

No-


One boy is said to have replied.

The knives come straight from Germany and they can't send enough to supply everybody who wants one. When the next boat comes over, it will bring many knives, but there will not be enough to take care of all the orders.


Youth Leader Dinkelacker declared at the bund national convention:

It is highly important that we train them to think our way — the right way. Every bit of support you give this movement, whether it be financial or otherwise, is deeply appreciated and most significant. Urge your children and the children of your friends and relatives to join with us. We have great camps and training schools for them. The children will benefit by this training indoors and outdoors and will learn to understand the true meaning of our case and when they have reached mature life, they will rise to fight with us and will send their children to us.


The aims of the Amerika-Deutscher Volksbund as printed in its yearbook includes much the same message for youth.

To this youth we bind ourselves in duty to the end that some day it may feel bound in duty to our nationality and complete what we have begun. To have trained and strengthened and schooled them for national and racial responsibility, to be clean, healthy, and strong men and women, that some day shall be the fairest reward for our pains, activity, and sacrifices.


An example, pointed out to the committee, of the arrogance of the American-Nazi machine in its march to indoctrinate Nazi idealism in American youth was discovered recently in St. Louis, where reside some 100,000 German Americans, forming nearly one-eighth of the city's population (vol, 2, p. 1130).

It was testified that Nazi propaganda was slyly worked into the public schools of that city in recent months under the guise of summer German-language classes; that ostensibly, the plan was to simply teach the German language and sing German folk songs, but before very long it became apparent this was not at all the real purposes of the classes. Instead, instructions drifted into Nazi doctrines.


According to evidence before the committee, these classes were inaugurated through the efforts of a Mr. Walter Rist, a native-born citizen of St. Louis, last May. Fifteen fellow teachers and laymen were enlisted for this propaganda work. These instructors, according to this same testimony, offered their services without compensation, at least none from the schools. They also obtained classrooms in two public schools and succeeded in enrolling some 400 students.

Some highly interesting facts in conjunction with this Nazi propaganda schooling of American boys and girls has, however, come to the attention of the committee. After every Saturday class, trucks picked up some 50 of the children and carried them 55 miles to a Nazi camp near Stanton, Mo. This camp site is operated by the Deutsch-Amerikanische Berufgemeinschaft and is under the direction of Eberhard von Blankenhagen, former Consul Secretary of the German Embassy in Washington, according to this same testimony.

In manner similar to other Nazi camps throughout the country, this site is run with Prussian military precision. German is spoken everywhere and children are forced to don uniforms and so make their appearances at meetings and meals.

American educational institutions throughout the United States offer in their curriculums any number of German classes. Yet despite this fact, according to a witness, the German-American Bund has set up a German school system of its own. If these bund schools are purely for teaching the German language, why has the bund created a secret school system of its own?

Schools just like these Bund classes have been opened by Nazi minorities not just in the United States but also in many other lands, such as South America, Poland, and in the Sudeten areas.

At the national convention of the German-American Bund held a year ago in the Biltmore Hotel, New York, Bund officials from all sections of the United States heard at length a talk by a representative of the Polish-German Bund on this very subject. He outlined in detail just how the Nazi minority in Poland had succeeded in setting up this hidden school system, along with its own Kultur church system. And to the cheers of bund leaders, he forecast that the day is not far off when Germany would succeed in building up through the German-American Bund an identical program in the United States (vol. 2, p. 1131).

The spread of the Hitler youth movement within the ranks of the German-American Bund is reflected in a list of boys' units which have been established, which are experiencing a continued growth in numbers. This list includes the following:

Eastern district: Manhattan, N. Y.; Brooklyn, N. Y.; Buffalo, N. Y.; Hudson County, N. J.; Philadelphia, Pa.; Newark, N. J.; Nassau County, Long Island; Astoria, Long Island; Bronx, N. Y.; White Plains, N. Y.; Jamaica, Long Island; South Brooklyn, N. Y.; Schenectady, N. Y.; Yonkers, N. Y.; Lindenhurst, Long Island; Pittsburgh, Pa.; Passaic, N. J.

Middle West district: Detroit. Mich.; Chicago, Ill.; Milwaukee, Wis.; Cleveland, Ohio; and Kenosha, Wis.

Western district: Los Angeles, Calif.


It is of interest to note the purchase of a site for youth camps in Camp Siegfried, at a cost of $8,000, that Theodore Dinkelacker, national youth leader of the German-American Bund, has advised that the money used in this purchase was raised by loans from the Long Island membership of the German-American Bund, and particularly from parents of the children. Dinkelacker also declared that the older boys in the children's camp are given instructions in ways in which they should avoid it. He stated that the older boys are also given instructions in national socialism.

However, when this same national youth leader was asked:

Do you give them instructions in our democratic form of government?


Dinkelacker is said to have replied as follows:

No, they are too young to understand about Republicans, Democrats, etc.


In other words, it is the belief of the bund that these boys and girls are too young to be taught Americanism but old enough to instill in them Nazi ideology.

Along this same line it is of interest to note that Spellsberg, who was a former leader of the San Francisco storm troops, does not think it is worthwhile for the bund to try to win over these German Americans who came to the United States before the World War. Spellsberg, who trained speakers of the Germany-American Bund for propaganda purposes, points out instead as follows: "Get the youth!"

So closely related is the youth movement of the German-American Bund to that of the Hitler youth in Germany that they even sing the songs of the Hitler youth and reprint them in their song books (vol. 2. p. 1132).

On page 3 of the issue No. 6 of Junges Volk for June 1937, there are German songs of this character. The first song contains the words:

We have sworn an oath to our flag.


The second verse states:

The flag is our faith in God, people, and country,
Whoever wants to rob it, may rather take our lives and hands,
We shall care for the flag like for our good mother
Because the flag means tomorrow and honor and courage.


It should be made very clear in this connection that the flag referred to by the bund and its youth movement is not the Stars and Stripes of America but the swastika of Germany,

Another song on the same page is quoted as follows:

Fly, you sparks, fly into our time,
Announce war to all far and near
Who dare argue with us and who
Carry discord in their hearts.


On page 4 of the same issue there appears a song which is quoted as follows:

Youth, Youth — We are-the future soldiers.
Youth, Youth — We are the ones to carry out future deeds.
Yes; through our fists will be smashed who stands in our way.

Youth, Youth — We are the future soldiers.
Youth, Youth — We are the ones to carry out future deeds.
Fuehrer — We belong to you; yes, we comrades belong to you.


Again, it is pointed out that in the last line of this verse, the word "Fuehrer" does not refer to the President of the United States or any other American, but to Adolf Hitler, of Germany.

In effect, therefore, the Bund babies sing:

Hitler, we belong to you; yes, we comrades belong to you.


The practice of spreading Nazi propaganda through educational institutions does not, however, stop here. It has crept into many American institutions of higher learning.

One of the most alarming ways of Nazi propaganda along this line has swept through the ranks of exchange students to universities.

The purpose of the "exchange students" to universities has long been to foster good will and peace among the nations. The American student in a European university learns of the customs, habits, and cultural progress of the country in which he studies. The European student in an American school learns to appreciate American culture. The result is greater understanding.

But this worthwhile aim has been neglected in the exchange of German students for American, Now, American students are being indoctrinated with the aims of nazi-ism in Germany both abroad and at home to the detriment of democratic institutions in America (vol. 2, p. 1133).

Take, for instance, the case of the Committee on American Youth Camp in Germany. This committee arranges trips and stays for American youths in Germany. On the letterheads of this committee there is found the names of the following persons:

Dr. Colin Ross, Munich.
Professor Sprengling, University of Chicago.
Mrs. Dupont Ruoff, Wilmington, Del.
Mr. Leslie Bissel, Munich.
Mrs. Elsie von Johnson, Munich (formerly of Galveston).


It should be noted that according to testimony we heard, Dr. Colin Ross is a Nazi propagandist who spends his time between Germany and the United States. He has been one of the outstanding speakers for the German-American Bund and has been a writer for the Weckruf, official organ of the bund (vol. 2, pp. 1133 and 1134).

It is of interest to note that the following article in connection with the Student Exchange idea, which appeared November 14 in the New York Times, having been cabled from Berlin:

Berlin. — A marked increase in the number of American private preparatory schools exchanging students with the official National Socialist boarding schools, called National Political Education Institutes, is represented here as another victory for national socialism over foreign prejudice.

Several American boarding schools have been sending students for a year's training in National Socialist institutions. This year has been a notable increase in the American schools taking part. In the past there has been no difficulty in finding young National Socialists to go to the United States since their expenses are paid by the State. However, very few young Americans could be found for exchange purposes. Largely because of vigorous propaganda by the international schoolboy fellowship, this situation has been altered. The American boys here undergo a year's thorough training in national socialism and wear the customary brown-shirt uniform.


Photographs taken at many of the youth camps were introduced in evidence. In one instance pictures of children six years old were shown with the swastika, regulation German Army steel helmets and spears instead of the American flag.

CONSULAR AID

Denials to the contrary notwithstanding, this committee was greatly impressed with the evidence presented showing that there is a relationship existing between the German Government and the German-American Bund through the activities of Nazi consuls in this country.

Fritz Kuhn, leader of the German-American Bund, informed this committee's investigator at a time when the latter was disguised as a storm trooper that not only did he have power over the Ambassador and consular set-up in the United States but that he also had a special secret arrangement directly with Adolf Hitler, of Germany.

Ramifications of this "arrangement," Kuhn declared, also included a secret relationship between the German-American Bund and Dr. Hans Heinrich Dieckhoff, present German Ambassador to the United States, and German consuls throughout the country. (See vol, 2, p. 1149.)

In his executive office on the second floor of the bund national headquarters at 178 East Eighty-fifth Street, New York City, on the night of August 16, 1937, this committee's investigator testified that he spoke with Kuhn concerning a trip he had made to the Pacific coast and told him of the difficulties the Los Angeles Post had had with the German consul there. According to this testimony, Kuhn exclaimed:


My God, what's the matter with them. They know what to do. Why don't they let me know about it? I've heard before of this trouble in Los Angeles. Schwinn talked it over with me.


(This Schwinn is Hermann Schwinn, western leader of the German-American Bund. He is from Los Angeles.)

Oh, well, maybe Schwinn took my order of instructions with him to Germany and forgot to send it to his district.


It was at this point that Kuhn made the following statement to the investigator for the committee:

You see, I have a certain special arrangement with Hitler and Germany that whenever any of our groups have trouble with the consulates in their districts that they are to report it to me in full detail. I then take it up with the Ambassador. Germany is not to be troubled with it unless I get no satisfaction from the Ambassador.

That is exactly why there is a new Ambassador to the United States, and that is exactly why many consuls have been and still are being removed. All the new consuls are National Socialists and are under special instructions to give us the fullest cooperation in every way.


It should be pointed out that Dr. Hans Heinrich Dieckhoff, present Ambassador, was sent to the United States, May 14, 1938, to replace Dr. Hans Luther, whose policy, bund leaders said, did not coincide with those of the bund and the Nazi Party in Germany. There have been numerous consulate changes during the last 2 years, and bund leaders a year ago predicted that more would follow.

One of the new consuls general appointed a little over a year ago was Manfred von Killinger, who was assigned to San Francisco on June 11, 1937. It was shortly after his appointment that the committee's investigator visited San Francisco and, on the night of August 16, 1937, reported to Kuhn that the San Francisco post of the German-American Bund was well pleased with its new consul. Kuhn stated, according to the investigator for the committee:

Of course, he is the kind of consul we want everywhere.


An article of considerable interest in this connection with the affairs of Baron von Killinger was published only recently in the Salt Lake City Tribune — to be exact, on August 16. The following excerpts from the article:

"The German Government looks upon bund activities in America exclusively as an internal problem of this country, since only American citizens may belong to bunds," Baron Manfred von Killinger, German consul general at San Francisco, asserted here Monday.


It is a fact that the ranks of the American-German Bund include not only American citizens but also aliens. This fact has been established in admission to the committee investigator by various members of the bund to the effect that "they are German citizens and intend to remain aliens."

The article continues as follows:

The consul, rated as the No. 2 German in America and close friend of Hitler, was a storm-troop leader in middle Germany and, after Hitler's rise to power, became Prime Minister of Saxony, relinquishing this position in 1935, when state governments were abolished, to enter the diplomatic service.

Although denying emphatically any connection between the German Government and bund camps and organizations for training pro-Nazis in this country, Baron von Killinger expressed sympathy with bund aims.

"The bund leader in Los Angeles has conferred with me and asked me to address members there," the consul related, "but that does not mean I have gone to them."


It is known that Von Killinger has addressed meetings on the coast, and newspapers on the Pacific coast have carried many articles and pictures of these gatherings, many of them showing Consul von Killinger.

Consul von Killinger was also reported as stating that the activities against certain religious groups in this country, as practiced by the German American Bund, are "for the good of America."

The committee had before it evidence (vol. 2, p. 1151) that certain American citizens residing in California had made trips to Germany for the purpose of being schooled in the art of Nazi propaganda and enlightenment. In one instance the father of one of these men (vol. 2, p. 1151) told this committee's investigator that his son's expenses to Germany had been paid through a secret arrangement between the German-American Bund and the Nazi Government.


The consuls and diplomatic representatives of Nazi Germany in this country show a much closer cooperation with the nationalists of their country than any other similar group accredited here.

In fact, the evidence introduced plainly shows that American Citizens have received Nazi propaganda by mail in packages carrying the imprint of the Nazi consulate at St. Louis (vol. 2, p. 1156).

In addition to the close relationship between the German consular service and the German-American Bund throughout the United States, cooperative actions have been noted also between bund officials and officials of German steamship lines.

According to the daily press, Fritz Kuhn, leader of the German-American Bund, has denied the accuracy and authenticity of statements attributed to him by the investigator for this committee. This committee has informed the aforementioned Kuhn that it would be very glad to have him appear as a witness and make his denials under oath provided he came in with clean hands and brought with him the full and complete records of his organization showing not only the membership but the amounts and sources of moneys received and the manner in which they have been expended.

FUNDS AND PROPAGANDA

Propaganda direct from the German Ministry of Propaganda and Enlightenment is distributed by bund officials and evidence was introduced showing definitely that printed propaganda material was shipped from Germany to United States citizens directly. These packages contained, according to the testimony, considerable Nazi propaganda which was printed in Germany for distribution in the United States, considerable Fascist propaganda which was printed in Great Britain for distribution here, and much material of antiracial and antireligious character which was printed here, shipped to German Government agencies, and then reshipped to the United States for distribution in this country.

Much of this propaganda is designed for the specific purpose of preaching the gospel of national socialism and the aim of Nazi Germany in foreign lands from every conceivable angle. The names of the American citizens to whom this material was sent from Germany were not permitted in the record because many of them feared reprisals from agents of Nazi Germany.

Some of the packages containing German material carried with them letters from one Johannes Klapproth, who is in charge of the American section of the World Service, one of the chief Nazi propaganda agencies. This agency, located in Erfurt, Germany, ships materials to the United States and elsewhere. It was referred to briefly on the opening day of testimony and the evidence presented here is in full substantiation of statements made at that time.

Before continuing however, it is well first to consider the background of Mr. Klapproth. Without making any personal reference to this man, but relying on another Federal Government department, Klapproth's record is herewith presented, this record being no different from that already in possession of this committee:

Klapproth was an original member of the German Nazi Party before Hitler rose to power. He is fanatically antiracial and deeply interested in the Silver Shirts movement. He is continually exchanging reading matter with Silver Shirt leaders. He was the organizer of the Friends of New Germany in San Francisco and vicinity. In April 1934 he wrote a report to Germany on the slow progress of the San Francisco Bund at that time, blaming Consul Heuser for this condition.

He is acquainted intimately with George Deatherage and Kositsin and corresponds with them. Klapproth is now in Germany.

He came to the United States in 1928. He is an engineer. Going east, he became the gauleiter [district leader] of Brooklyn for the Nazi movement. This was early in 1935. He returned to the bay region, supposedly after a visit to Germany, where he boasted of having had a conference with Goering during the summer of 1936.

Klapproth toured the west coast with Deatherage for the purpose of interviewing pro-Nazi elements. He received mail at the German consulate in San Francisco. This fact alone once again establishes the tie-up between the German Government and the German-American Bund.


The packages coming here from abroad contained printed material from the pen of Ernst Goerner, of Milwaukee, Wis.; pamphlets from the Knights of the White Camellia, an organization founded by George E. Deatherage, of Charleston, W. Va.; leaflets from the Russian National Union; and issues from the Christian Free Press, printed in Glendale, Calif.

Contained in the exhibits of propaganda presented to the committee was a very expensive magazine glorifying Germany's industrial achievements. It is significant that while Naziland defaults on its bonds and no American firm can take its money out of the country, it is able to finance and distribute such propaganda.

One paradox in this particular propaganda maneuvering is the fact that the aforementioned Klapproth, apparently backed by a huge fund for this Nazi work, still asks gullible Americans to send him money for his printed matter which creates racial and religious bigotry in this country.

A superior court judge in California, without requesting it in any way, received four pieces of propaganda put out by the Nazis and printed in Germany, and envelopes advertising George Deatherage and his American Nationalist Confederation of Charleston, W. Va., which utilizes the swastika as its symbol (vol. 2, p. 1178).

The following affidavit has a vital bearing on this whole matter:

* * * being duly sworn, upon his oath says * * *; That he received, on or about July 25, 1938, the accompanying pamphlet, entitled "World Service," which he has attached to this affidavit as exhibit A. That the same was mailed to him from Erfurt, Germany, in the enclosed envelope, which has been marked "Exhibit B."

That he did not subscribe for this pamphlet, or publication, and did not request that it be sent to him. That it is one of a series along similar lines that he has been receiving at intervals over a considerable period of time.

That he makes this affidavit in order that any parties interested, including the congressional investigation committee of which Congressman Martin Dies is chairman, may be informed that printed matter of this character is being forwarded direct from Germany to citizens of this country, unsolicited and without their request, as propaganda of a nature to breed racial and religious intolerance (vol. 2, p. 1178).


Another step in the activities of the Nazi propaganda machine is shown in the interview had with one Karl Neumeister, 1898 Daly Avenue, New York City. The investigator for this committee testified that he interviewed Neumeister with the following result:

Neumeister admitted under questioning that he is engaged in spreading Nazi propaganda. He explained he was doing this kind of work because he believed in the principles of Hitlerism. He admitted that he goes around checking up on people to whom material of this type is mailed from Germany and that he does everything in his power to get these people to take more Nazi propaganda and assist in its distribution throughout the United States.

That many Germans living in the United States go abroad and take an oath of fealty to the Fuehrer of Germany was shown by evidence taken from a German newspaper, Der Montag, published in Berlin, under date of August 27, 1938.

Printing a dispatch from Stuttgart, this newspaper stated:

Der Treueschwurder vielen tausende Auslandsdeutschen auf den Fuehrer and die nationalen Lieder beschlossen die eindrucksvolle Feierstunde.


The English translation is:

The oath to the Fuehrer of the many thousands of Germans living abroad and national songs closed the impressive festivities.


Fifty Americans had taken part in this annual meeting of the Auslandsdeutschen Institute according to our testimony.

Repeatedly we have been told that there is no connection between the German-American Bund and the Nazi Government or its political subdivisions, repeatedly we have been told that no allegiance to Adolf Hitler is required, and yet here we have an officially inspired newspaper published in Germany telling us that an oath of fealty was taken.

The newspaper refers to this year's meeting as the Sixth Reich Congress of the Germans in Foreign Countries with delegates attending from many countries throughout the world.

GUNS, RIFLE RANGES, ETC.

Pistol and rifle ranges for all storm troops of the German-American Bund were to be set up according to plans formulated at the convention of the bund, held in New York City in July 1937, according to testimony heard by this committee on October 5, 1938.

Local Nazi units in Philadelphia, Buffalo, Reading, Pa., and Detroit have target ranges and the Philadelphia Nazi post uses heavy .22-caliber rifles which are cocked like regulation Army guns.

A target range was set up at Camp Siegfried, Yaphank, Long Island, and on one occasion Herman Schwarzmann, head of the Astoria, Long Island, group, announced that the men were to be "trained to shoot and to take care of guns" (vol. 2, pp. 1206 and 1207).

A shooting range near Cleveland, Ohio, was also described in our records.

Bund fuehrers informed storm troops that the various German World War veterans in their ranks would train the younger men in the use of arms.

It was also testified to that many of these former German soldiers now in the bund storm troops ranks are expert riflemen, gunsmiths, and machine gunners.

Testimony also revealed that bund storm troops join National Guard divisions in order to obtain training in the use of various types of American Army guns.

The committee, in addition, heard testimony which revealed that less than a year ago German espionage began to make a major effort in the United States (vol. 2, pp. 1234 and 1235).

Within the past year one section of the Gestapo, service section No. 2, under the direction of Colonel Nicolai, has added three new departments, Nos. 23, 24, and 25, all three specifically devoted to espionage in the United States.

Department 23 specializes in economic espionage — the obtaining of American manufacturing and industrial secrets.

Department 24 specializes in military intelligence.

Department 25 specializes in Nazi propaganda.


Of what type this propaganda will be, and how it will affect the United States, can be learned from pamphlet No. 7 of the Instructions for Our Friends Overseas — a small brochure printed in a total edition of 500 copies and given only to reliable agents. A short excerpt will amply convey the spirit of this "armed propaganda":

German propaganda in the United States must be handled more tactfully than it has been done before. It will not be possible to subsidize American newspapers except in very rare cases — and only newspapers of minor importance.

The fundamental aim must always be to discredit conditions in the United States and thus make life in Germany seem enviable by contrast. It will therefore be to the best interests of the Reich to cooperate secretly with all persons or groups who criticize the American system, regardless on what ground. The line to be taken in all such cases is to exaggerate the strength of Germany and to contrast it with the weakness of democracies.


In its report to the House of Representatives at the beginning of 1940, the committee added the following to its findings on the German-American Bund:

Fritz Kuhn, the fuehrer of the German-American Bund, claims that his organization is nothing more than a political group whose primary purpose is to promote the welfare and best interests of the citizens of the United States and to assist in a solution of their problems. Testimony before the committee, however, both from hostile and friendly witnesses, establishes conclusively that the German-American Bund receives its inspiration, program, and direction from the Nazi Government of Germany through the various propaganda organizations which have been set up by that Government and which function under the control and supervision of the Nazi Ministry of Propaganda and Enlightenment.

The bund presently has three major administrative divisions in the United States — the eastern, the mid western, and the far western — each under the direction of a division leader who takes his orders from Fritz Kuhn, the National Fuehrer. There are in the three divisions 47 districts and in the districts are a total of 69 local posts or units. It has been impossible to accurately determine the extent of the bund's membership due to the secrecy with which it operates and the fact that all membership lists, correspondence, and other records have been destroyed by order of the national leader, an admission he made on the witness stand to this committee. In the absence of membership lists, the committee has had to accept as the best available figure the statement of Fritz Kuhn concerning the bund's membership. He testified that the bund has a membership of approximately 20,000 to 25,000. (A Department of Justice investigation made of the bund in 1937 placed the membership at 6,500.) In addition to the regular membership, it has what is known as the sympathizer or "fellow traveler" group, consisting of those who are sympathetic to the bund but do not actively participate in its proceedings. He testified that the sympathizer group is composed of approximately 80,000 to 100,000 individuals.

It was established that the German-American Bund operating in the United States is similar to the Nazi groups which were built up in Austria and Czechoslovakia prior to their annexation by Germany. The August 31, 1939, issue of the Deutscher Weckruf and Beobachter, official newspaper of the bund, printed an article written in German under the following title:

Fritz Kuhn, America's Henlein. [1] German-American Bund, the organization of which he is the leader, eight to ten thousand uniformed storm troops. The duel, Kuhn versus Dewey.


It was established that the program and the activities of the German-American Bund are similar to Nazi organizations in Germany and in other countries. The bund newspaper makes frequent use of material emanating from Nazi propaganda sources, such as "World Service." The emblem of the National Socialist Party, the swastika, also is the emblem of the German-American Bund.

Fritz Kuhn, in defending the position that the bund is strictly an American political organization, claims that members of the bund must be American citizens. The following is a quotation from the "Weckruf," official organ of the bund, which is illustrative of the bund's attitude with reference to citizenship:

We may have lying in the closet different citizenship papers and yet we are all German men and links of a big German community of hundreds of millions.


In 1936 Fritz Kulin accompanied a large delegation of bund members to Germany ostensibly for the purpose of visiting the Olympic games. The group paraded in uniform of the Orderly Division (storm troops), and the parade was reviewed by Adolf Hitler. Following the parade, Fritz Kuhn and other officials of the German-American Bund were received by the German Fuehrer, at which time they presented him with a golden book containing autographs of bund members and delivered to him a contribution of $3,000 for the German winter relief fund. This money had been solicited from bund members, some of whom, according to Kuhn's testimony, were unemployed and on relief.

In his testimony with reference to the meeting with Hitler, Kuhn stated that no report was made by him concerning bund activities in the United States and that the subject was not mentioned during the interview. However, the December 10, 1936, issue of the official bund newspaper carried an article concerning a speech which Kuhn made in San Francisco following his return from Germany. According to the article, Kuhn stated in his speech that Chancellor Hitler advised him, "Go back and carry on your fight."  

1. Karl Henlein, the leader of the Nazi minority group in Czechoslovakia before annexation by Germany.


It was established through the testimony of Fritz Kuhn that the bund had worked sympathetically with other organizations throughout the United States and cooperates with them. Kuhn testified that some of these groups are the Christian Front, the Christian Mobilizers, the Christian Crusaders, the Social Justice Society, the Silver Shirt Legion of America, the Knights of the White Camellia and various Italian Fascist, White Russian, and Ukranian organizations. Kuhn testified that some of the leaders of these groups had addressed meetings sponsored by the bund and that representatives of the bund in turn frequently appeared as speakers at meetings and gatherings sponsored by the above-named groups. It was also established that the bund cooperated with some of these organizations and their leaders by exchanging literature and publications with them and by publishing material emanating from them in the official organ of the bund. Numerous articles have appeared in the bund newspaper expressing the bund's approval of the activities of the organizations already mentioned. The literature put out by the various groups and individuals named is distributed or sold at the bund camps, meetings, and other gatherings.

The following excerpt from the testimony of Fritz Kuhn is indicative of his attitude:

Mr. Whitley (examining the witness). Mr. Kuhn, what are the relations between Mr. Joe McWilliams and his Christian Mobilizers and the German-American Bund?

Mr. Kuhn. They are very friendly to each other, because the Christian Front, the Christian Mobilizers, really have ideas which we sponsor 100 percent.


With reference to the exchange of literature and propaganda material between the bund and various Fascist groups, the committee received testimony that the following are standard reading in bund camps: Hitler's Mein Kampf, Pelley's booklets and publication, Liberation, the books of Julius Streicher (German propagandist), and the Rev. Charles E. Coughlin's publication, Social Justice.

The German-American Bund, like the National Socialist Party in Germany, pays particular attention to the training of its youth. Testimony was heard that members of the youth movement were taught nothing concerning American institutions or ideals, and that they were encouraged to be extremely critical of the United States and its Government. It was also found that the uniforms worn by the members of the youth groups, their camps and program of activities were similar in every respect to those of the Hitler youth movement, and that the Nazi salute was the accepted gesture of greeting.

It was established that groups of leaders of the German-American Bund youth movement are frequently sent to Germany for special training. Testimony was received from a witness who was a member of a group of 15 boys and 15 girls from various parts of the United States who were selected by the bund to be sent to Germany for special training. According to the witness, all instructions concerning arrangements and the trip came from V. D. A. (League of Germans Living Abroad), one of the Nazi propaganda agencies; and all plans and arrangements with reference to the trip were carried out with the utmost secrecy.

It was established through the two witnesses, both former bund members, that there is a political agent on all German ships and that these political agents maintain contact with the Nazi representatives in foreign countries. They are intermediaries for transmission of instructions to the bund leaders in the United States and they receive reports from these leaders concerning the bund's activities, according to the witnesses.

A former bund member on the west coast testified that German agents engaged in espionage activities, contacted bund leaders in the United States and sought and received their cooperation. This witness also testified that he had heard discussions among bund leaders with reference to the manner in which the bund, through its members in various industrial plants, could effectively carry out a program of sabotage in case such action became necessary.

Evidence was heard by the committee that members of the bund had assisted German agents whose arrests were sought by officials in the United States in avoiding apprehension and had helped get them out of the United States with the cooperation of German ships.

Evidence also was taken indicating that Nazi propaganda agencies, through officials of the German Government in the United States, have attempted to propagandize educational institutions in this country. It was testified that a German consul general had offered, on behalf of the German Government to subsidize German departments in American universities provided the professors were "acceptable'' to the Nazis.

Cooperating groups. — The committee has found abundant evidence of the cooperation of certain other organizations with the German-American Bund. This is a more serious matter than is the direct strength or influence of the bund itself. For example, in August 1938 a so-called anti-Communist convention was held at the bund headquarters in Los Angeles at which Hermann Schwinn, leader of the bund on the west coast, was one of the principal speakers; and Arno Risse, bund leader, who has since fled the country, was one of the two or three persons most active in promoting and making arrangements for the convention. According to the testimony of Henry D. Allen, one-time Silver Shirt leader, organizer of the American White Guard, and prominent figure in Fascist circles generally, the following persons participated in this convention:

Kenneth Alexander, Southern California leader of the Silver Shirts; J. H. Peyton, of the American Rangers; Chas. B. Hudson, of Omaha, Nebr., organizer and leader of America Awake, who accompanied General Moseley when he appeared before the committee; Mrs. Leslie Fry, alias Paquita Louise De Shishmareff, mysterious international figure who has since fled the country, then leader of the Militant Christian Patriots; representatives of Italian Fascist and White Russian organizations; and a number of others of similar point of view.


Some White emigre Aufbau members possessed valuable American connections. Colonel Boris Brazol resided in New York, where he played a leading role in the Russkoe natsionalnoe obschestvo (Russian National Society). [117] This organization supported Grand Prince Kirill Romanov's candidacy for Tsar. [118] As we shall see, Aufbau increasingly backed Kirill for Tsar. Brazol also worked on the staff of the American industrialist and politician Henry Ford's anti-Semitic newspaper, The Dearborn Independent. In particular, Brazol provided information on the "Jewish question." [119] Scheubner-Richter praised Brazol as "one of the leading personalities in the Russian emigre circles of America." [120] Brazol also spent much time in Munich, though he was not officially registered there. He collaborated with Scheubner-Richter and furthered Aufbau's cause by writing anti-Semitic literature. [121]

At least two other White emigre Aufbau members possessed important American ties. General Biskupskii's cousin Vladimir Keppen received a $500,000 fortune from a parent in America, and he put much of this money at Aufbau's disposal. [122] General Konstantin Sakharov also possessed connections with America. After making a name for himself as an extraordinarily capable Tsarist officer, he had served as the chief of the General Staff of General Aleksandr Kolchak's White army in Siberia during the Russian Civil War. [123] From Siberia, he had maintained relations with the German General Staff. [124] After the Bolsheviks had captured and executed General Kolchak, Sakharov had led the remains of the latter's White army over Lake Baikal into the Russian Far East. [125] Sakharov had tried to travel to Europe as a representative of the White cause, but the Entente had refused to allow him entry because of his pro-German views. He had left for America instead. [126] He arrived in Munich from America in 1921 and immediately joined Aufbau. "[127]

-- The Russian Roots of Nazism: White Emigres and the Making of National Socialism, 1917-1945, by Michael Kellogg


Bund literature mingled with that of William Dudley Pelley, Robert Edmondson, Mrs. Fry, and George Deatherage on the tables of this convention.

It is clear to the committee that this convention was in no real sense an anti-Communist convention but rather another of a series of attempts to unite some of the various forces of intolerance, racial hatred, Naziism and Fascism in order to achieve greater influence in the United States. This effort like others of its kind yielded no apparent results.

"Well, I don’t believe [The Communist Party] is a political party. I believe it is an un-American thing. The thing that I resent the most is that they are able to get into these unions, take them over and represent to the world that a group of people that are in my plant, that I know are good, 100 percent Americans, are trapped by this group, and they are represented to the world as supporting all of those ideologies, and it is not so, and I felt that they really ought to be smoked out and shown up for what they are, so that all of the good, free causes in this country, all the liberalisms that really are American, can go out without the taint of Communism. That is my sincere feeling on it." (Eliot 193)

-- Walt Disney's testimony to HUAC, from "Walt Disney: Hollywood’s Dark Prince," by Marc Eliot


Allen further testified that he was sent out by Mrs. Fry on an extended trip throughout the country, and that all his expenses were paid by Mrs. Fry, but Allen did not know her source of the money. During the course of this trip Allen visited George Deatherage, leader of the Knights of the White Camellia, James True of Washington, D. C, publisher of the so-called Industrial Control Reports, Gerald B. Winrod, Kansas preacher, Nazi protagonist, and unsuccessful candidate for the Senate, Robert Edmondson, disseminator of Fascist literature, and Fritz Kuhn. On this same trip Allen went to Atlanta, Ga., to attempt to "buy the Ku Klux Klan" for Mrs. Fry for the sum of $75,000. He testified that he talked to Hiram W. Evans, head of the Klan, but that Evans "was not interested in the idea."

In releasing this report on the activities of Nazi agents in the United States the committee wishes to make the emphatic statement that neither the committee as a whole nor any of its individual members entertains the slightest doubt of the unswerving loyalty to the United States of our fellow citizens of German descent. In a number of cases it was their cooperation which made disclosures of bund activities possible. They felt that it was as much in their interest as in that of the Nation as a whole that the committee endeavored to bring to light some of the facts concerning the operations of Nazi agents and the leaders of the German-American Bund.

The question of the form of government of the German or any other nation is not one that concerns either this committee or the American people. But attempts by any foreign agency to influence American citizens in favor of a foreign form of government and against American democracy is quite a different matter and one concerning which the Committee on Un-American Activities has immediate and great concern.

In its report to the House of Representatives at the beginning of 1941, the committee called attention to the effectiveness of the method of exposure in dealing with an organization such as the German-American Bund. The committee said:  

When we began our work, the German-American Bund had a hundred thousand followers who were pledged to its fuehrer, Fritz Kuhn. The very first exposure which our committee undertook in the summer of 1938 was that of the German-American Bund. The first volume of our hearings opens with a hundred pages of detailed testimony on the un-American and subversive character of the bund.

During the past week the committee published a translation of the official, confidential Manual of the Storm Troopers of the German-American Bund. That document proves conclusively that the German-American Bund is an organization which is highly militarized, and which requires absolute loyalty on the part of its members.

Today Fritz Kuhn is in Sing Sing prison and the German-American Bund has been thoroughly discredited. James Wheeler-Hill, former secretary-treasurer of the bund, is also in prison. Our exposures have provided thousands of innocent people with adequate protection against the false claims of the bund. Its drastically reduced membership and following may now be held to consist only of those whose loyalty is to Hitler.

When we began our work, the bund and a score of Nazi-minded American groups were laying plans for an impressive united front federation — a federation which would be able to launch a first-rate Nazi movement in the United States. By our exposure of these plans, we smashed that Nazi movement even before it was able to get under way.
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Re: Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

Postby admin » Wed Sep 25, 2019 7:55 am

Part 3 of 8

[Document #1 in German]

[Translation of Document #1]

AMERICAN GERMAN VOLKSBUND. GERMAN AMERICAN BUND

Basic Instructions For Unit and Branch Directorates

German-English index of jurisdictional, service, and headquarters designations and rank insignia

Rules For the Conduct of Meetings and the Celebration of Festivals

UNIT ORDER LISTS WITH DESCRIPTIONS AND SAMPLES

The Unit The Branch OF THE German-American Bund

To the Unit Leader/ Branch Leader/of _____ Bund Member _____ Address _____

BASIC INSTRUCTIONS FOB UNIT AND BRANCH DIRECTORATES

(1) The Unit/the Branch/ _____ is number (command number) and is a part of Section No. _____, District No _____, Region No _____, and Department No._____

(2) Your Section leader is Bund Member _____, telephone _____, address _____. Your Department Leader is Bund member _____, telephone _____, address _____.

Our Bund Fuehrer is Bund member Fritz Kuhn, Address: Fritz Kuhn, German American Bund, P. O. Box #1, Station "K," New York, N. Y.

(3) Mail for the National Executive Committee but not for the Bund Fuehrer personally, (new applications, settlements, orders, and (official communications intended only for some particular office of the National Executive Committee), should be addressed to the German-American Bund (office) P. O. Box #1, Station "K," New York, N. Y.

Each different type of inquiry, settlement, or order should be submitted under separate cover, the combining of different types of questions, etc., in one and the same letter causes much needless work and considerable delay in replying; since not all problems are handled in the same office and such a letter must be transmitted from one office to another.

(4) Checks and Money Orders should be made payable to: German American Bund, except for payments to the "Weckruf" (the Call) or to the DKV. (German Consumers League)

Checks, remittances, reports, notices, and subscriptions for the "Weckruf" should be sent to _____.

Checks and other mailable matter for the German Consumers' League should be mailed to _____.

(5) Except in the case of the address of the National Executive Committee and the "Weckruf" all names and addresses of Bund members and officers must be kept confidential and must not be divulged to anyone. Where units and branches begin to operate publicly they must rent a P.O. Lock Box under the name "AVAU"; such an address may be made public without exposing the office or the address of the officer to the general public.

(6) MEMBERSHIP. DUES. PERSONNEL RECORDS

(a). New admissions of Bund members: Newly proposed Bund members (BMR) are considered merely as candidates for membership until they have been obligated at a member meeting and have received their membership cards. This cannot be done until a period of four weeks has elapsed.

During the period of candidacy three investigators appointed by the Unit-Branch inquire into the accuracy of the candidate's personal declarations (address, passport, citizenship papers, sureties, etc.) In addition, the associational or lodge affiliations and degrees of the candidate must be ascertained.


Membership cards must not be sent to candidates through the mails but must be presented to them ceremonially at a member meeting as provided under "Regulations for meetings" and "festival celebrations". (Registration.)

(b) Enrolling of Patrons: It is not necessary to investigate the personal declarations of patrons, since they are not members and are not admitted to member meetings. Patrons' cards are mailed to them.

(c) New admissions of Youth Command Members: Youth Command Membership cards are presented ceremonially to Youth Command members (JMR) at a meeting of the Youth Unit Command by the Youth Unit Commander.

(d) Acceptance of Youth Command Members into full AV Membership: Youth Command Members (JMR) who have reached the age of acceptance receive their Bund membership cards as described in the foregoing, without being subjected to the delay required of candidates and without an investigation of their personal declarations.

(e) Member, Patron and Youth Command Acceptance Certificates: New acceptance (admission) certificates for Bund members and patrons, according to form, and filled out legibly with a typewriter or in ink and undersigned (subscribed) by the Unit, or, Branch leader are to be transmitted to the National Executive Committee accompanied by an admission fee of $1.00 and half the voluntary propaganda contribution after the unit and branch directorates have recorded the personal declarations of the new Bund members in duplicate upon personal (personnel) cards provided for the purpose. (Explanation of personal, (personnel record) cards under "h") . One card is retained by the Unit or Branch; the second is transmitted to the National Executive Committee with the certificate of admission (acceptance).

Youth Command admission (acceptance) certificates, undersigned by the Unit or Branch leader are to be transmitted to the National Youth Command with an admission fee of 20 cents and a Youth Personal (Personnel) Record. The second (duplicate) Youth Personnel Record Card is retained by the Unit or Branch.

(f) Requirements for Admission: Consult the text of the different certificates of admission.

(g) Dues. The monthly member or patron dues for men and independent women Bund members or patrons are 75 cents. Of this sum, 25 cents are to be sent to the National Executive Committee with the monthly settlement, and 5 cents to the Department Directorate; 45 cents are retained by the Unit or the Branch.

The Unit or Branch leader may reduce the monthly dues of a needy Bund member to a minimum of 30 cents, which must be accounted for (for which settlement must be made). In special cases this minimum should be paid by the fellowship (Kameradschaft).

Married women and unemployed adult women members of Bund members' families and members of their household pay 30 cents monthly as Bund members or patrons, of which only the 25 cents for National Executive Committee must be accounted for.

Youth Command Members pay maximum monthly dues of 20 cents, of which 10 cents must be transmitted to the National Youth Command with the monthly Youth Command settlement. The remaining 10 cents are retained by the Unit or Branch Treasury. Youth fuehrers (male) who have completed their eighteenth year, and youth fuehrers (female) who have completed their twenty-first year do not pay Youth Command dues but are full Bund members. The obligation of the Units or Branches to contribute to the Department, Bund, and National Youth treasurer is not determined by the punctuality of payment of Bund members, Patrons, or Youth Command members, but by the appearance of the respective names on the Bund members, patron, or Youth Command registers (lists).

(h) Record Cards (Karteikarten): Record cards containing personal information about friends, enemies, merchants, politicians, association officers, and similar persons whom we should know are to be made out in duplicate exactly as are those for members, patrons, and Youth Command members, and submitted monthly: one card is to be retained by the Unit or Branch Directorate; (lie other is to be sent to the National Executive Committee.

A white card printed in black is provided for German-speaking Bund members; and a similar one, printed in red, is for English speaking Bund members. The same kind of cards but bearing a star at the top, are for patrons.

Membership and patron cards bearing a red stripe are to be used for Bund members and patrons who have withdrawn voluntarily. But they must always show the reason as, for example, "loss of interest", "gone to Germany", etc. "Those cards must not be used for excluded Bund members (BMR).

Rose colored (pink) cards, bearing the letter "D", are intended for German-speaking non-members who may be regarded as at least not inimical.

Green cards, bearing the letter "A" are intended for non-inimical English-speaking Americans.

Yellow cards bearing the letter "F" are intended for enemies. Where they are German a "D" is to be inserted at the top. They are not to be used for Jews.

Light blue cards bearing the letter "J" are for Jews.


Large pink cards with the letters "JV" are for youth; yellow cards with the letters "JM" are for the Young Women's Unit; blue cards with the letters "JS" are for the boy's unit: green cards with the letters "MS" are for the girls' unit; and white cards with the letter "M" are for the maidens' union.

For friendly associations a large green card has been provided; for neutral and doubtful, a white; and for enemy a red.

(7) ACTIVITIES, REPORTS, WORK PLANS

(a) A brief, factual, activities report on the work of a preceding month is to be prepared monthly as well, also, as an activities plan for the two months next ensuring. Reports and suggestions are to be organized as follows:

1. Member meetings.

2. Public Speaking Evenings.

3. Fellowship Evenings (Kemeradschaft).

4. Motion Picture or other Cultural Evenings.

5. Celebrations.

6. Programs in Camps or National homes.

7. Participation in the programs of other organizations.

8. Branch Meetings (OD Youth, Women).

9. Miscellaneous (parades, propaganda).

(b) A copy of the activities reports and plans is to be sent to the qualified Section and Department Directorates and to the National Executive Council.

(8) OFFICE SUPPLIES. PRINTED MATTER. FLAGS

The necessary printed matter, forms, certificates, cash-books, seals, insignia, flags, etc. may be requisitioned from the National Executive Committee under the terms of the enclosed order list.

(9) FUEHRER PRINCIPLES. ELECTIONS. APPOINTMENTS AND REMOVALS

(a) The AV is conducted upon the fuehrer principle. Consequently there are no elections nor majority resolutions (decisions) except as provided under (b) and (c).

(b) At the January member meeting the annual secret election is held under the supervision of the qualified Department leader or his deputy. All attendent Bund members who are not in arrears may participate in the election by a vote of "Yea" or "Nay" ("Ja" order "Nein"), according to whether or not they are in agreement with (approve of) the conduct (management) of their Unit- Branch leader. Unmarked ballots are counted as "Yea". If more than one-third of the ballots cast are "Noes" the Unit-Branch leader is replaced by another by the Department leader according to regulations.

(c) At the final member meeting before the annual National Convention, the Unit-Branch leader proposes (nominates) members of his Unit (Branch) as delegates to the Convention. He should, if he is not indispensible, be a delegate himself, the remaining delegates should at least be officers.

The number of delegates is fixed by Bund orders and depends upon the numerical strength of the Unit (Branch. At this member meeting the Unit-Branch leader holds an election for the delegates. Only those candidates who receive at least a two-thirds vote are chosen.

(d) In all other matters of an official nature the Unit-Branch leader makes the final decision, naturally in conformity with the regulations of his superior.

He, himself, receives his commission from his Department leader with the approval of the Bund fuehrer.

The Unit-Branch leader appoints his officers with the approval of the Department leader. (Youth fuehrers are appointed with the approval of the National Youth Fuehrer, and OD Fuehrers with the approval of the National OD Fuehrer). Even in connection with these appointments the qualified Department leader is notified opportunely of every contemplated appointment. The Unit-Branch leader may remove his officers under the same circumstances.

To resign voluntarily from office constitutes evasion of duty, he who would relinquish his office honorably first makes application to his superior to be relieved of the duties of office, recommends a potential successor, and continues to perform his duties until his application is accepted.

Appointments: The Unit-Branch leader fills out a commission according to the following form for his officers and sends it with a copy for approval to the Department leader, or the National Youth Fuehrer or to the National OD Fuehrer.

AV Letterhead

Unit Directorate X
Branch Directorate X

Date _____
Address:

Certificate of Appointment

I Herewith appoint Bund member No _____ N _____ N _____ to be (a) (an) (OD Unit Commander) (Public Relations Leader) (Treasurer) (respectively) of the Unit (Branch) X _____.

Free America!
Signed _____
Unit Leader
Branch Leader
[seal]

Approved _____
Department Leader
(Natl. OD Fuehrer)
(Natl. Youth Fuehrer)
 
Until approved by the Department leader, the National OD Fuehrer or the National Youth Fuehrer all such appointments are merely provisional and all removals merely furloughs (suspensions?).

Members of secret societies (lodges, etc.) are not eligible to become officers or auditors.

Consequently all responsibility is at the top and every officer holds his office solely as the deputy of his superior. But it must be understood that true fuehrership is constructed not upon "cadaver"-like submissiveness but rather upon confidence and voluntary allegiance: A superior should strive to stimulate the spirit and joy of initiative and of service among his Kamerads by a constant readiness to listen to their suggestions and to assure to them that authority within their respective spheres which their responsibilities entail.

But title hunters who aspire to power while shirking responsibility he should not tolerate. The secret of the fighting strength of the movement lies in the principle of Fuehrership, the utilization of which makes it possible to impose responsibility upon some particular individual for every transaction and which excludes concealment behind anonymous majorities. In the filling of offices and the performance of Bund duties no fraternal chicanery may be permitted to intrude.

(10) DEVELOPMENT OF THE UNIT, BRANCHES AND SUBORDINATE COMMANDS

(a) (For Units and small Branches). For the present hold only closed, unpretentious meetings at which only Bund members and dependable acquaintances are present in order that the outward battle may not begin until your group is ready to take it up. You will find that the necessary internal endowment and solidity combined with mouth to mouth propaganda and aided by means of leaflets or letters, even without public activity, is valuable, and yields rich rewards. A precipitous procedure could destroy your branch.

The time for the public appearance of your group will be determined by the Unit-leader under whose supervision you exist as a Branch leader or by yourself when your Branch has been declared to be a Unit.

(b) For Branches: First of all, appoint a Treasurer, an OD Fuehrer, and a Public Relations leader. You may appoint additional officers when you are ready to assume additional duties.


Even though the importance of a uniformed, strictly disciplined OD unit may not be apparent at once to a new, small Branch we are constrained to observe after long experience that for the results we have obtained thus far we are indebted first and above all else to the existence of the OD, that has ubiquitously borne the chief burden of the practical work, and that without this service the Bund would not have been able to withstand several crisis. Even though the officer and the OD man may not often be able to appear publicly in uniform in their own small communities they should attend this important school nevertheless. In every one of even the smallest branches, therefore, an OD Unit unquestionably should be established, for by no other means and is it possible to secure for the Bund this most valuable support of discipline, preparedness and Kameradship.

See separately Issued OD Service Regulations.

(c) Rally the children of German descent! Organize a Youth Command regardless of how small your beginning may be. Open a language school or strive unceasingly to establish and promote a philosophical (weltanschanlich) German program in existing German schools. Distribute the periodical "Junges Volk."

See Youth Command Regulations issued separately.

(d) Try to have the German, pro-German (deutschfreundlich), and non-Jewish commercial enterprises of your neighborhood join the German Consumers' League (DKV), the economic organization of the Bund. See Officer Regulations under Economics Director.

(e) Send clippings of all local press notices that might be of interest in our fight in quadruplicate to the Department Directorate and to the National Executive Committee. See Officer Regulations under Information Director.

(f) Note the provisions under Meeting Regulations and Celebrations. Use the Information Service letters of the National Executive Committee for short presentations on Public Speaking Evenings.

Distribute the most important single arm of the movement, the "Weckruf" (The Call).

In all things conduct yourself according to the following guiding principles, (the only principles) by which the preservation of Germanic America can be effected:

The philosophical, political, and economic direction (Fuehrung) of Germanic America and the philosophical, political, education (rearing) of the youth of Germanic America is the concern of the German-American Bund and its branches alone (exclusively). In these spheres there is no place for illicit loves (paramours may not be recognized). Other organizations are to be treated according to their acceptance of these principles.

Part II

RULES FOR MEETINGS


All public affairs, public speaking evenings, Kameradship evenings, etc., as well as all member meetings and other official appearances of the AV or its branches have at least one official (business) part that must be conducted in conformity With the following provisions, except where, under "Celebrations," exceptions have been noted or where they may be permitted by the National Executive Committee in writing.

It must be understood that these provisions constitute merely a desirable model and need be followed merely to the extent that circumstances may permit. The extent to which they may be adaptable to the different meetings and celebrations is explained under "Celebration Programs" ("Festfolgegestaltung).

These provisions do not apply to the conduct of the "German Consumers League" (DKV), The Newspaper Corporation, or the Settlement Associations.

(A) All in official attendance upon meetings wear the uniform of their service.

(B) The Chairman of the meeting is the qualified official. (Bund Fuehrer, Department leader, Regional leader, District leader. Section leader, Unit leader, Branch leader, Cell leader, Block leader, or his representative.)

(C) The official meeting begins with the first stanza of the National Anthem of the United States, "The Star Spangled Banner." The Chairman and all in official attendance face the audience. The anthem is announced only by the musical note by which it is recognized; the entire audience rises at once without request and sings. Those in uniform salute with their right hands at their caps, those not in uniform stand erect with their hands at their sides.

(D) At Member meetings and at certain celebrations a text is read immediately after the signing of the National anthem while the audience stands, as follows: "Our meeting today (to be stated) is based upon the following text taken from (speech or book): (text) 'Free America'! At the closing, 'Free America!', by the Chairman, the audience responds, and all not on duty take seats. At meetings at which the reading of a text is omitted, the Chairman says merely 'Free America!' The Text chosen for a particular period is announced by the National Executive Committee."

(E) Then follows the greeting and a brief statement of the purpose of the meeting; the Chairman is not supposed to anticipate the remarks of the speaker selected for the occasion.

Speakers are introduced briefly as they arise, by stating their rank, place of service, name, and the subject of their address; although the audience should be given all necessary information about the speaker, all fraternal flattery is absolutely prohibited. Groups are presented either by their group designations or by the rank and name of their leader.

Any comments about speakers at the conclusion of their remarks must be brief, simple and truthful: Expressions of thanks are to be reserved for non-members and should not be extravagant. In greeting (or welcoming) the salutation. "Ladies and Gentlemen" should be avoided (omitted) disciplinary reasons. Bund members and guests of German nationality are not to be introduced as Mister ("Herr") but as "Bund member" or "fellow-countryman" (Volksgenosse). The term "Mister" ("Herr") is to be applied only to persons not of German descent.

(F) The official conclusion consists of the erstwhile prescribed closing song and "Free America," which follows immediately. Flag retirements follow "Free America." The concluding "Free America" never must be omitted at any meeting; and during its recital all standards must be at the front.


The Chairman announces the conclusion as follows: "We shall now close our _____ (the official part of _____) _____ with the (song) _____ '. No long-winded exhortations to rise, etc. The musical note is struck, and all rise and sing while giving the official salute. The Chairman and all officiating personnel stand in front of and face the audience. For information concerning the salute see OD Service Regulations, p. 15, under "Official Salute".

Immediately upon the conclusion of the closing song and before he (as the audience) has lowered his arm the Chairman recites 'Free America'! as follows: "To a free, Gentile-ruled United States and to our fighting Movement of awakened Aryan Americans, a three-fold, rousing, 'Free America!' 'Free-America!' 'Free-America!'." The audience repeats the word 'America' after the Chairman, and arms are lowered after the third repetition. The salute is concluded by bringing the right hand to the left breast and then lowering it to the side. The English conclusion is used only at meetings conducted entirely in English.

(G) General:

(G1) American and Bund flags occupy the place of honor at all meetings, except as otherwise provided under "Celebrations program"; they should be OD standards. Standards are never hung but must always be kept on staffs and set-up by uniformed OD guards.

(G2) In the decorating of auditoriums all "tricky", fraternity "stuff" is to be avoided. Flags and more flags, arms, shields with battlecries, swastika (Hakenkrenze) and Bund emblems, living green; the colors red, gold, white, green and blue preferred. Simple, dignified decorum. At the celebration for the establishment of the Reich and Adolf-Hitler Birthday Celebrations, pictures or busts of Hitler; at George Washington Birthday celebrations and American Independence Day celebrations pictures or busts of Washington.

(G3) Smoking and drinking are prohibited during the business part of all meetings. At long celebrations refreshment pauses may be provided.


(G4) All flag drills must be held immediately before the singing of the American National Anthem, in order that the flags may be at the front during the singing of this song. During long celebrations all (members of the drill team) but the color guard may retire, to return again at the conclusion.

The retiring of the standards follows immediately after the conclusion. When the Bund fuehrer or one of his proxies speaks all participating uniformed branches stand during his address.

(G5) During the visits (presence) of representatives of a higher ranking officer, the officer in charge must provide these visitors with orderlies and guards. In addition seats must be reserved for them to which they must be conducted immediately before the beginning of the official part of the program. When the Bundfuehrer appears the OD forms in line.

If the Bund Fuehrer or his representative appears during a meeting, the Command "Attention" is given, and the program is interrupted in order to welcome (greet) him.

When the Bund Fuehrer or his representative appears as the speaker no one will follow him, except the Chairman, who will close the meeting.

(G6) When a representative of the Reich speaks at a celebration, the German national anthem is to be played immediately after his address. But if (according to regulations) the closing song of the particular celebration should be the German national anthem, then the Bund Propaganda song is to be substituted for it as the closing song. When representatives of nations other than America are present in their representative capacity the National anthem of their country is played immediately after their address.

(G7) Dancing is permissible in connection with all celebrations except at memorials, etc. See "Rules for Celebrations" Programs should be arranged so that after the official part at least two or more hours may be devoted to dancing before the legal closing hour. The accompanying dance, provided "Jazz" is prohibited, is a permissible attraction throughout.

(G8) Booktable, "Weckruff" and order blanks, Youth literature, propaganda literature, and certificates of admission should never be omitted at a public meeting.

Festival (Celebration) Programs

The following provisions are intended to supplement the regulations under "Meeting Regulations". Except for the changes effected by the written orders of the National Executive Committee all official meetings and celebrations of the AV and its branches are to be conducted strictly in accordance with the appropriate provisions of the following regulations so far as circumstances may permit. Exceptions: Programs of the DKV, the Newspaper Corporation and the Settlement Associations intended for their own development, even though having a philosophical (weltanschaulich) aspect.

(1) EXECUTIVE MEETINGS, FUEHRER CONFERENCES

Meeting regulations. Executives (officers) or associates or subordinate fuehrers submit reports on their activities and are given instructions for future work. The Chairman should urge constant criticism, advice, and suggestions and constantly stimulate his associates to independent thought and action, ever mindful of the fact that every proper fighter renders more, and more willing, work when he has been given the authority and the freedom of action which his responsibility necessitates. And every associate must be conscious of the fact that he is responsible neither to his Kamerads nor to the public, but only to his superior, and that in any given case he must conduct himself strictly in accordance with the decisions of his superior.

(2) MEETINGS AND "HOME EVENINGS" OF THE BRANCHES

Consult OD Service Regulations, Youth Command Regulations, Women's Division Regulations.

The most important essential of profitable activity and in the removal of misunderstanding, suspicion, and discord between the different branches is the restriction of each branch to its own domain. At meetings of the OD only OD matters should be discussed; at Women's Division meetings only matters affecting Women; and at Youth meetings only matters affecting youth, should be considered.

If Fuehrers (men or women) of any branch desire to have proposals, criticisms, or complaints concerning other branches considered, they should call on the qualified fuehrer of the Branch affected and not on other associates of their own Branch, or, indeed, upon the general membership.

(3) MEMBER MEETINGS

A, B, C, D, E, F, and G as under "Meeting Regulations". Only Bund members (BMR) and Youth Command members (JMR), with their membership cards as evidence, who are not in arrears, are admitted. Patrons are not admitted. Candidates for membership whose membership cards have reached the Unit from the National Executive Committee should be provided in advance with a written invitation, which will admit them for the purpose of acceptance (into the Bund). All participants are on duty and consequently wear uniforms and insignia. OD standards in front. Officers in front, facing the audience. Uniformed personnel advance at the opening and do not withdraw to take their places until they have been inspected and ordered to do so by the commanding officer. Procedure: Before opening, payment of dues, entry on the "present list" (roll). After the reading of the text and the welcome, inspection of uniformed branches; report of officers; strictly in accordance with the previously received instructions of a Chief Executive the reading of certain portions of Bund orders currently received and intended only for the ears of the membership; discussion of the work of the past period, and information concerning the distribution of the work of existing projects and meetings; discussion of proposals and criticisms by members; and in conclusion obligating of New BMR, (Bund Members) and the ceremonial installation of new officers.

Registers (rolls) never are read and in no other way is the audience to be given any information concerning the numerical strength of any Unit. The regularity of the treasury conduct is to be certified to the membership quarterly by accounts-and-treasury (book and treasury) auditors appointed by the Chief Executive and bound to secrecy except to their superiors, but no detailed information concerning the financial status of the Unit is to be given to the membership. This is necessary because unfortunately no member assembly is actually a closed meeting from which nothing reaches the general public and because the financial or other strength or weakness of a Unit is not a public matter.

Executives and officers never should assail or criticize one another in the presence of the membership. Differences of opinion which cannot be adjusted within administrative circles must be fought out at the top; externally and below there must be absolute unanimity between administration and executives.

Discussion in the member meeting is based upon the request of the Chief Officer for criticisms of past performances and activities and for suggestions concerning prospective meetings and undertakings. The practice of criticising persons and the preferment of complaints has no place at meetings and is to be prohibited. Such criticism must be presented to the qualified officer of Chief orally or in writing without drawing the general membership into sympathy; complaints must be adjudicated officially. (See Officer Regulations and statutes of the AV). Arguments or other characteristics of a parliamentary Jewish school ("Polish diet," "hell broke loose") have no place in a member meeting. The confidential (secret) voting (elections) in January and prior to the National Convention must be the only deviations from a strictly disciplined muster.

If an excess of suggestions and criticisms from otherwise indifferent Bund members (BMR) develops meetings it can be brought to an end most quickly by calling upon these Bund members (BMR) to take hold immediately of the problem themselves in order that through diligent cooperation they may first win the fight to become bombastic critics.

We need to learn from the conclusive experiences of those Units that never have permitted boasted liberalism to develop and therefore have been able best to withstand the severest tests of our movement.

The obligating of new Bund members (BMR) proceeds as follows:

The standard bearers align themselves on the right and left of the Officer (The American flag on the right of the Officer with the front toward the audience) and the Treasurer gives him (the officer) the membership cards. The candidates are requested to step forward and stand in front of the officer facing the audience. The officer presents the candidates to the membership and asks if there be (are) any objections to the acceptance of any one of the proposed candidates, in order, in a given case, to postpone a challenged acceptance until after investigation. The candidates face the Officer, who explains to them briefly the principles of the Movement. He then proceeds from one to the other, addresses each by name, requests of them the pledge (no oath) to obey the regulations of the Bund according to their duty as Bund members (BMR), (Whereupon they answer "Yes"), gives them their membership cards and the regulations of the Bund extends them his hand and greets them as new Kamerads with 'Free America", and the official salute, which they repeat after him.

The meeting is closed immediately after the new Bund members (BMR) have been obligated. Closing song: The Bund Propaganda song. (Candidates who for weighty reasons prefer to remain unknown need not to accepted (admitted) publicly: but in such cases the investigation before final acceptance must be conducted with particular thoroughness.  

Installation of new officers takes place before the obligating of new Bund members (BMR). (See Officer regulations.)

At the close of the meeting Kameradly "get-together" and the singing of camp songs.

(4) EDUCATIONAL AND SPEAKING EVENINGS

A, B, C, D, E, F, and G, as under "Meeting Regulations." Standards in front, Chairman and Speaker in front, facing the audience. Book-table, information and application table. Chairs in rows, seat at tables. Speaking Evenings are intended for the general public. Addresses and presentations to be simple (easily understood) not too deep nor too numerous. All presentations to be directed toward a central theme. One or two languages. The language meetings begin in English and close in German with a brief intermission between parts in order that persons unable to speak German may have an opportunity to leave.

Educational evenings to present an educational atmosphere; audience to be inspired, "essential points to be transcribed." References to appropriate literature.

At both meetings stimulate questions of a philosophical (weltanschaulich) political nature. Educational evenings may be combined with Member meetings or Branch musters. Closing song: English stanza of the Bund song. (Salute while singing).

(5) MOTION PICTURES AND STAGE PROGRAMS, CHAMBER-MUSIC, LITERARY AND OTHER PURELY CULTURAL EVENINGS

B, C, E, F, and G as under "Meeting Regulations." A not required. D may be omitted down to the Welcome. No standards. American and Bund flags. Official conclusion matter of choice or according to the cultural presentation. Closing song: English stanza of the Bund song (salute) Accompanying dance permissible.

Cultural or Propaganda Evenings under cover titles or without the official part may be held only under special, written permission of the Department Directorate.

(6) KAMERADSHIP EVENINGS

A, B, C, D, E, F, and G as under "Meeting Regulations." D is omitted down to the welcome. The official part constitutes the beginning and should be very brief; the Kameradshaft evening proper follows immediately after the closing "Free America"! The official part consequently consists of the usual singing, welcome, statement of purpose, and conclusion. Closing song: English stanza of the Bund song (accompanied by salute). Standards front during the official part.

Kameradship evenings should be held by those branches for which in any given case it is necessary to propagandize; and when possible the chairmanship is turned over to the Fueherer (man or woman) of such branch. But such evenings may be held also as manifestations of the solidarity of the movement by the Units (of the Department) under the direction of some particular branch. American and Bund flags as decorative flags.

Neither at Kameradship evenings nor at any other time may there be any stage presentation that may be designated as tending to ridicule or traduce (defame) any religious faith; for to attack us on this ground is the favorite pursuit of our opponents.

And it must be observed strictly that national anthems and other ceremonial, national songs are not to be sung at the bar (beer-table) and they must not be used as dance tunes.

(7) PROPAGANDA EVENINGS

As under (4), (5) or (6) according to circumstances. The purpose of the Propaganda Evenings is not merely to explain generalities in broad outlines, to indoctrinate the initiate, or to serve our nationality by cultural offerings, but above all to induce non-member fellow-countrymen, who have been solicited, to join.

(8) CONSECRATION OF FLAGS. ANNIVERSARIES (FOUNDATION CELEBRATION)

A, B, C, D, E, F, and G as under "Meeting Regulations". They must be strictly ceremonial and martial, without pretentiousness. Martial spirit. German or German and English. All participating branches must wear uniforms. If possible parade of colors with cooperation of other Units and organizations. Brass band, chairs in rows, not at tables. American and Bund flags as decorative flags. Foundation celebrations of the Bund are not "Anniversaries" (Stiftungsfeste)!

At flag consecrations all cultural offerings occur in the first part, while the actual consecration ceremony constitutes the principal part and the close. At the consecration all advance. The flags to be consecrated are covered (veiled) carried to the stage by a qualified officer accompanied by an OD detail, consecrated by the Bund Fuehrer or his proxy and turned over to the color guard. During consecration the soft music, to accompany the Star Spangled Banner or the Bund song, according to whether it is an American flag or a Bund flag. American flags must be consecrated first. During consecration all give the official salute. Closing song: The Bund song. (Salute during last stanza) Accompanying dance permissible.

(9) ALLEGIANCE OBSERVANCES

The George Washington Birthday celebration in honor of the founder of the Nation, the Adolf-Hitler Birthday celebration in honor of the philosophical (weltanschaulich) "leader". Symbol of all German descendants, the Independence Celebration, and German Day are the four allegiance celebrations that must be observed by every Unit no matter how small it may be and, whenever possible, on the day prescribed below. An alternate day may be the following Saturday or Sunday. If it is not possible to hold a large celebration, it may be observed in a private home.

(9a) GEORGE WASHINGTON'S BIRTHDAY CELEBRATION

February 22. A. B, C, D, E, F, and G as under "Meeting Regulations". In English. All branches in uniform. Parade of the colors, if possible. American and Bund flags (American flags predominant). Washington pictures and busts. Chairs in rows, not at tables. Recite "Pledge of Allegiance", with soft music and singing of "My Country 'tis of Thee". (America). Clothing song: English stanza of the Bund song. (Salute). Accompanying dance permissible.

(9b) ADOLF HITLER BIRTHDAY CELEBRATION

April 20. A, B, C. D. E. F, and G as under "Meeting Regulations". In German, with a short introduction in English in consideration of the non-German-speaking participants. All branches in uniform. If possible flag presentation. German flags among others. Hitler pictures or busts. Chairs in rows, not at tables. Cultural activities in first part. Second part martial, with the principal address immediately before the close, and retirement of the colors. Closing song: German National anthem. Accompanying dance permissible.

(9c) INDEPENDENCE CELEBRATION

July 4. Outdoors if possible. As under (9a).

(9d) GERMAN DAY

October 6 or on the first Saturday or Sunday in October. Washington and Hitler pictures or none. All other details as under (9b). German Day represents not merely the participation of Germania in the development of the United States but also its national-philosophical (weltanschaulich) alliance with the old home.

Allegiance Celebrations may be held with or under the direction of other organizations provided the conditions under (10) are complied with.

(10) REICH FOUNDATION CELEBRATION, JAN. 30

Potsdam Celebration. March 21; and other similar celebrations especially associated with Germany: As under (9b).

(11) LABOR DAY

May 1. Outdoors. A, B, C, D, E, F, and G as under "Meeting Regulations". German and English. All branches in uniform. Brass bands. Afternoon, popular amusement. Toward evening, if possible, torch-light procession. Parade of the Colors. Official part around a May fire. American and Bund flags. Flags on poles. If possible, the allegorical presentation of the different crafts and the unity of all laboring fellow-countrymen of hand and head (that is the unity of Labor, mental and physical).

(12) HARVEST THANKSGIVING DAY

In honor of Agriculture (Farmers).

First Sunday in October or last Sunday in September. Outdoors. No fire. Generally as under (11).

(13) MEMORIALS

A, B, C, D, E, F, and G as under "Meeting Regulations."

German or German and English. Formal and martial. All branches in uniform. Chairs in rows, not at tables. At celebrations reminiscent of Germany or held concurrently with Germany, German flags may be included (among others). No gay garlands or trumpery in the auditorium. Welcome by the officer, remainder of the program in the hands of the OD with place of honor for retired soldiers. No religious ceremony nor the reading of scriptural passages; no speeches that, lacking skillful or masterful handling, might make the speaker appear laughable or ridiculous. Advance of the colors with roll of drums and slow cadence. First part of the celebration in undertones with decorations and lighting in accordance with the desired psychological effect. No weepy, weak celebration with a depressive psychology. At the roll call of the fallen: Roll of the drums.Conclusion of the first part with a lowering of the colors (except the American) and playing of the song of the good Kamerad (guten Kamerdan). Immediately thereafter, without pause, the command "Standards up" ("Fahnen hoch"!), elevated spirits, and brighter lights. Retirement of the colors lively with march music (in marching time). Closing song at "Horst-Wessel" memorials and other memorials in honor of the fallen of the Hitler-Movement: All four stanzas of the "Horst-Wessel" song (salute during last stanza). Closing song at German National Memorial day at other War Memorial Celebrations reminiscent of Germany: the German National anthem. Accompanying refreshment permissible. No dancing of any kind at such celebrations.

(14) CELEBRATION OF THE SOLSTICE

Outdoors. A, B, C, D, E, F, and G as under "Meeting Regulations". In German. Formal and martial. Trumpets and brass bands. Presentation of the colors and torch-light procession in honor of the Youth branches. All participating branches must be in uniform. During the day Youth Convention. Official part during the evening at the solstice fire. Large flags on poles. (American and Bund). An erected or suspended large, white or silver-striped "Swastika", in front of and beneath which the Chairman and the Speakers stand. Presentations quartered about the wood pile: standards in front in a circle about the wood pile. The Officer lights the fire while an oath of allegiance is directed upon the flames. Memorials and lowering of the flags (up to the American). Fire speech of each branch. All sing: "Flamme empor" (Flames empor) (Flames aloft). Principal address. Conclusion, and retirement. Closing song: The Bund Propaganda song (salute during last stanza).

No proceedings or speeches indicative of any particular faith; but likewise no ridicule of any particular creed. Accompanying dance permissible.

Significance of the Winter-Solstice Celebration: (Gratitude to the Almighty for the proclaimed return of the life-giving sun. Gratitude for the victory of light over darkness; of life over death. Rededication to the continuation of the battle of Good over Evil; of the Gentile spirit, the spirit of the affirmation of life and ennobling exaltation, over the Jewish spirit of life negation, red destruction and the enslavement of Gold. Confession of nationality.

Significance of the Summer-Solstice Celebration: Gratitude for vitality (vigor) symbolized in sun and fire, which the continuation of the purifying battle has made possible. Renewal of pledges through approaching difficult and dark times.


(15) CHRISTMAS CELEBRATION

B, C, D, E, F, and G as under "Meeting Regulations". A not required. Standards not required. In German. Not martial. No brass bands. American and Bund flags may be used as decorations. On the stage, setting of winter forest; decorations of swastika, blue candles and evergreens with glittering snow, lametta, and white candles. Principal trees should not be brightly trimmed, except at the tip: swastika or blue candles. White-covered tables in the auditorium, with evergreens and blue or red candles. Distribution of children's presents on the stage. Adults to be served with coffee and cake. Santa Claus (Christmas man) and the singing of Christmas carols permissible. No reading of scriptural passages; no manger performances etc; nothing that could be considered as symbolic of any particular creed; leave religious celebrations to the churches. Speeches and other presentations should tend to explain the symbol of the celebration in reference to the significance of the Winter solstice, proclaiming the beginning of a new existence after the death of Winter and evoking the joy of giving, especially to youth. The swastika (Hakenkreuz) is symbolic of the will of the Gentile to live; the blue candles are symbolic of the community of all Germania at Christmas.

Distribution of baskets of food, and certificates for coal, to the needy; but names of recipients of aid must not be read nor disclosed in any other way. Christmas "market", lottery, auction, etc., and accompanying dance permissive; but during the official part the spirit of the celebration must not be disturbed by the details of these matters.

Closing song: The Bund song. (Salute during last stanza).

(16) PARTICIPATION IN THE PROGRAMS OF OTHER ORGANIZATIONS

Official participation is permissible only where Bund uniforms and Standards or a Bund speaker are admitted and where our sacred symbols and principles are respected; at German organizations only if (1) superiors attend, and (2) at every program at which we display German flags and at which we would sing the German National anthem, they do likewise.

If at any program, at which the AV or one of its branches or subordinate units participates or is a guest, fighting Germania, its Fuehrer, or the old home is offended by a responsible official or from the stage, all Bund members (BMR) must at once leave the program under all circumstances except where a qualified Officer or Executive is present and commands a different course that would constitute an equally apparent protest.

"Weckruf", Youth periodicals, and other Public Relations Materials must be distributed at every opportunity. Wherever permissible the book table should be set up.

The constant first thought must be that strength, time, and money must serve the Movement and its members first of all, constantly and everywhere and that they may not be inconsiderately dissipated by filling the halls of universal organizations. Wherever the cause of the Bund is served, assistance may be rendered, but where such assistance would tend to contribute to the dismemberment of Germania, while little, moth-eaten organizations incapable of independent existence and consequently undeserving of further existence might be artificially kept alive by such assistance, it must be refused.

Part III

Translation of Territorial, Service, and Rank Designations. (1)


XXXXXXX Abschnitt Drei XXXXXXX

Uberseizung Der Gebiets-, Amts-und Dienstgradbezeichnungen

(1) — Gebietsieseichnungen: Territorial Designations: Bundes-, Landes- National
Gau- Department
Gebiet(s) Region
Kreis(-) District
Bezirk(s-) Section
Oetsgruppe(n-) Unit
Stutzpunkt(-) Branch
Zelle(n-) Cell
Block (-) Block  
Gau Ost - Eastern Department
Gebiet Nr. I - Region No. I
Gebiet II - Region II
Gau Mittelwest - Midwestern Department
Gebiet II - Region III
Gebiet IV - Region IV
Gebiet V - Region V
Gau West - Western Department
Gebiet VI - Region VI
Gebiet VII - Region VII

(2) — Dienststellenbezeichnungen: Headquarters Designations:
bundeskanzlei - National Headquarters
Gauleitung - Department Headquarters
Geschaftsstelle - Executive Offices
Verlag - Publishing Offices
bundesheim - Bund Home
Jugendheim - Youth Home
Landheim - Country Home
Jugendlager - Youth Camp
Siedlung- Settlement
Versam Mlungsort - Meeting Place

(3) Amstbezeichnungen: (Beispiele) - Service Designations (Examples)
Bundesleitung - National Executive Committee
Landes-Op-Fuhruxg XXXXX (LODF) - National OD Command
Landesjugendfuhrung (LJF) - National Youth Command
Landesfrauenfuhrung (LFF) - National Women's Command
Bundesschatzmeisterei - National Treasury Directorate
Bundesgeschaftsfuhrung - National Secretariate
bundesorganisationsleitung - National Organizing Directorate
Bundeswerbeleitung - National Public Relations Directorate
Bundespresseleitung - National Press Directorate
Bundeswirtschaftsleitung (DKV)- National Economics Directorate Bundesnachrichtendienstleitung - National Information Directorate
Bundesuschla) Untersuchungs-und Schlichtungsausschuss) - National Arbitration Board
Gauk Assenleitung - Department Treasury Directorate
Gebiets-Op-Fuhrung - OP Region Command
Kreisjugendfuhrung - District Youth Command
Bezirksfrauenshaftsleitung - Section Women's Directorate
Ortsgruppengeshacftsfuhrung - Unit Secretariate
Stutzpunkschriftfuhrung - Branch Secretariate
Gauleitung - Department Executive Committee
Zelleleitung - Cell Executive Committee
OP-Abteilungsfuhrung - OP Unit Command
Jugendahteilungsfuhrung (OD- und Jugendeinheit der Ortsgruppe oder des Stutzpunktes). - Youth Unit Command
Lagerleitung - Camp Directorate
Siedlungsleitung - Settlement Directorate
Jungenschaftsfuhrung - Boys' Command
Madchenschaftsfuhrung - Girls' Command
Arbeitsdiensr- (AD)-Fuhrung - Labor Service Command
Sanitatsdienst- (SD_-Fuhrung - First Aid Command
Frontkampfer- (FK)- Fuhrung - War Veterans' Command
 
(4) - Dienstgradbezichnungens (Belsp'ele) - Rank Designations (Example) - Officer
Amtswalter - Assistant
Mitarbeiter - Cell Official
Zellenwalter Blockwart- Block Official
Der Bundesfuhrer - The National Leader
Gauleiter-Ost - Eastern Department Leader
Gebietsleiter-VI - Sixth Region Leader
Kreisleiter-Ohio - Ohio District Leader
Bezirksleiter-Long Island - Long Island Section Leader
Ortsgruppenleiter-Chicago - Chicago Unit Leader
Stutzpunktleiter - Branch Leader
Zellenleiter-Yorkville - Yorkville Cell Leader
Blockleiter-Yorkville-8 - Eighth Yorkville Block Leader
Landes-OD-Fuhrer (Der Bundesfuhrer) - Order Division (Op) Commander-in-Chief (The National Leader)
Lades-Op-Fuhrer - National Op-Commander
Gau-Op-Fuhrer - Op Department Commander
Gebiets-Op-Fuhrer - Op Region Commander
Kreis-Op-Fuhrer - Op District Commander
Bezirks-Op-Fuhrer - Op Section Commander
Op-Abteilungsfuhrer - Op Unit Commander
Op-Zugfuhrer - Op Detail Commander
Op-Gruppenfuhrer - Op Group Commander
Bundesschatzmeister - National Treasurer
Bundesgeschaftsfuhrer - National Secretary
Bundesfrauenshaftsreferent - National Women's Division Director
Landesfrauenfuhrerin - National Women's Commander
Landesjugendfuhrer - National Youth Commander
Landesjungenfuhrer - National Boys' Commander
Landesmadchenfuhrerin - National Girls' Commander
Bundespressleiter - National Press Director
Gauwertschaftleiter (DKV-AMTS Walter) - Department Economics Director
Gebeitswerbeleiter - Region Public Relations Director
Kreisorganisationsleiter - District Organizing Director
Bezirkspolitikleiter - Section Political Director
Ortsgruppenjugendreferent - Unit Youth Director
Jugendabteilungsfuhrer - Youth Unit Commander
Ortsgr/Frauenschaftsleiterin - Unit Women's Division Leader
Schriftfuhrer, Geschaftsfuhrer (Bei Fundesleitung Geschaftsfuhrer) - Secretary
Kassenleiter (Be Bundesleitung Schatzmeister) - Treasurer
Kommissarischer-Leiter - Acting-Director
Stellvertretender-Leiter - Vice-Director of __
Uschlavorsitzer - Arbitratoin Board Chairman
Rangabzeichen, Standort Abzeichen - Rank Insignia, Location Insignia
Bundesabzeichen - Bund Membership Emblem
Frauenschafts-, Jugendschaftsabzeichen - Women's Division Emblem, Youth Division Emblem

Division of the Nation Into Principal Jurisdictions

Eastern Department


Region No. I. The Districts (States) Maine: New Hampshire; Vermont; Massachusetts; Rhode Island; Connecticut; New York; New Jersey; Eastern Pennsylvania, including the Sections (Counties) of Potter, Clinton, Center, Blair, Huntingdon, and Franklin. In addition, the Districts of Delaware, Maryland, District of Columbia, and Virginia. The division of Pennsylvania into two parts for geographical reasons has no relation to political-party affairs in so far as they are statewide. In these matters the District Directorate of Western Pennsylvania is subordinate to that of Eastern Pennsylvania.

Region No. II. The Districts of North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi and Tennessee.

Midwestern Department

Region No. III. Pennsylvania west of the Section boundaries of the Districts of Eastern Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, and Wisconsin.

Region No. IV: Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, Iowa, Missouri, Nebraska, and Kansas,

Region No. V: Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Texas, and New Mexico.

WESTERN DEPARTMENT

Region No. VI: Colorado, Utah, Arizona, Nevada and California. Region No. VII: Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington.

The Principal (Chief) (Headquarters)

Jurisdictions below the Section are the Unit, Branch, Cell, and Block. For more detailed explanation of the arrangement of these jurisdictions see "Organizational Structure of the German Bund" (Officer Regulations)

General Definitions

Headquarters (Principal) (Chief) Jurisdictions (Hoheitsbereiche):

Collective Geographical term: The Headquarters (Principal Jurisdictions of the AV are the Nation, the Departments, Regions, Districts, Sections, Units, Branches, Cells, and Blocks.

Headquarters (Principal, Chief) Officers: Hoheitstraeger: Collective Executive Designation: Officers at the heads of Directorates. The Bund Fuehrer the Department Director, Regional Director, District Director. Section Director, Unit Director, Branch Director, Cell Director, Block Director.

Division Chiefs (Fachamtswalter) Collective designation of executives who belong to the staff of a Headquarters Officer and who, therefore, direct a division within a Headquarters Jurisdictional Directorate: OD Fuehrer from the OD Command Fuehrer up; Youth Fuehrer, from Youth Unit Commander and Unit Branch Youth 'Director up; Women's Division Leader; Treasurer; Secretary; Press Director; Political Director; Information Director; Education Director; Organizing Director; Public Relations Director; Economics Director (DKV executive); Camp, Settlement, and Home Director from Unit-Branch officer up. Associates: Collective assignation for the immediate subordinates of the associates. Divisions (Gliederungen) OD Division, Women's Division, Youth's Division. Subdivisions (Untergliederungen) Youth (Young folk). Young Women's subdivision. Boy's subdivision, Girl's Subdivision, and Maiden's subdivision. Division Units (Gliederungseinheiten) The OD or Youth Unit, the OD Detail, Youth Detail the OD Group, and the Youth tenship (teenship?) Subordinate Organizations: The (DKV) German Consumer's League Inc., and the various periodicals-home-and settlement corporations, etc.

Order List

Orders should be sent to James Wheeler-Hill, P. O. Box 75, Station "K", New York, N. Y. Orders should give the number of the article; all mailing costs must be paid by the purchaser:

Image

Uniform articles, which become the property of the purchaser (pants, shirts, caps, leather, ties, coats, (etc.), may be ordered through appropriate offices or through the DKV.
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Re: Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

Postby admin » Thu Sep 26, 2019 7:32 am

Part 4 of 8

Document #2 in German] 

[Translation of Document # 2]

AMERICAN GERMAN VOLKSBUND. GERMAN AMERICAN BUND

Organizational Set-up (Organic Structure) and Administrative Regulations and Member Regulations (Membership) Regulations

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Part I: Administrative Offices (Officers): Subordinate Relations
Part II: Sovereign Jurisdictions (Principal Administrative Jurisdictions), Sovereigns (Principal Officers) (Chiefs)
Part III: Departmental Division (Structure): Departmental Heads (Chiefs)
Members
See Also: "Basic instructions for precinct and column leadership, (management)" "Organizational set-up of the OD Service" "Organizational set-up of Youth Administration Service" "Organizational set-up of Women's Administration Service" and Bund ordinances, National OD ordinances, National Youth Administration Service ordinances, National Women's Administration ordinances, and other Bund ordinances since the National Convention of 1938.
NOTE: The requirements (provisions) of the various regulations are valid to the extent that they have not been or may not be altered by subsequent regulations of the Bund administration.
Every regulation issued by a Bund officer constitutes a supplement — amendment or repeal — of/to any previously existing valid regulation or order.
Every sovereign (chief) (Principal Administrative Officer) is required to keep a register in which he must note the effect of new orders (issued from time to time) upon existing regulations.
At Bund Administration,
New York, January 2, 1940.

Part I: Offices (OFFICERS)

1. AV (Amerikadeutscher Volksbund) Offices. Except in the squares and blocks the staff of every sovereign (Chief) (Principal Administrative Officer) (Bund administration, area administration, regional administration, state administration, district or county administration, precinct administration, and column administration) consists of the sovereigns (chiefs) immediately subordinate (to him) and the following departmental heads.

a-b. Treasury leader (In the Bund managements, the Bund Treasurer)

a-b-c. Honorary secretaries or principal (chief) appointed business managers. (Secretarial duties generally are to be performed by the most appropriate departmental head as a part of his duties).

b. Organization leader

b. Intelligence Service leader

b. Commercial leader (Industrial leader) (Budget Leader) (DKV Development)

c. Propaganda leader

c. Press leader (Publicity leader)

c. Educational leader

c. Political leader

b-d. OD Fuehrers

c. Youth fuehrers

c. Youth reporters (only in precincts and columns)

f. Women's Department Service leader (In the Bund management, Women's Bund reporter and Women's National fuehrer)

(Women leaders participate in administrative meetings upon invitation of a sovereign (Principal Administrative Officer) (Chief) Sovereigns (Principal Administrative Officers) who are in charge of a local or national home or summer camp appoint a home leader or a camp leader as a departmental head.

Officers are to be created only under conditions of actual, practical need, and not merely for the purposes of distributing titles. In columns and small precincts it is advisable to assign the foregoing jurisdictions grouped under "b" to the organization leader and those under "c" to the propaganda leader.

For information concerning associates and assistants of departmental heads see Part II and OD, Youth, and Women's Department Service Regulations.

2. Square Offices (Officers): Square leaders are sovereigns (principal Administrative officers), hold the rank of precinct department heads, and belong to the staff of the precinct or column leader.

The staff of a square administration consists of the block leaders of the square and the following square executives: Treasury administrator, organization administrator, propaganda administrator, and Women's department administrator. The square has no jurisdiction over any branch service activities; such OD or Youth units as he may need for special occasions he requests of the qualified division fuehrer.

3. Block Offices: Block leaders are the lowest ranking sovereigns (Principal Administrative Officers) of the AV, hold the rank of square executives, and belong to the staff of their square leader. Together with the square executives and the OD platoon fuehrers they constitute the lowest ranking executives of the Bund.

The staff of a block leader consists of block watchers (a man and a woman) for each house group in the Block. The Block has no special superintendent for Treasury matters, organization, propaganda, etc., but each block watcher has charge of the necessary treasury, organization, and propaganda activities of his assigned house groups; while the women watchers are in charge of the particular duties of the Women's Department in each house group assigned to them.

4. Subordinate Relations: (Services, Activities). There are two kinds of subordinate (Services) relations to the AV: disciplinary and departmental (functional).

Superiors empowered to appoint, remove and penalize are disciplinary superiors.

Superiors empowered to issue departmental orders and to give impersonal service directions are functional superiors.

4a. Sovereigns (Principal Administrative Officers) (Wearers of yellow rank insignia) are disciplinary and functional superiors of all officers, offices, branches, and services and subordinate organizations in their sovereign (Principal) jurisdictions.

4b. Departmental Chiefs (Wearers of black or red rank insignia) are disciplinary and functional superiors of their immediate associates within that sovereign jurisdictional management of which they are staff members; but they are only functional superiors of the corresponding department heads of subordinate sovereign (principal) jurisdictions.

4c: Examples of disciplinary subordinate relationships: A precinct leader (Chief) (Sovereign) appoints and removes his precinct department heads and his square and block leaders with the approval of his area leader or the National OD Fuehrer or National Youth Fuehrer according to regulations; he has jurisdiction, also, within the limits of Bund regulations, over penalty furloughs (suspensions?) and the power of exclusion in relation to all the associates and members or patrons within his precinct.

The Area Women's Leader (Departmental Executive) appoints and removes her immediate associates and their assistants, within the Area Women's Division (Service) with the approval of her area leader.

She is only the functional departmental superior of the women leaders of the regions, states, districts, precincts, and columns, however, and has no jurisdiction over their appointment and removal, but may merely report any possible deficiencies on their part to the qualified sovereign (Chief).

4d. Examples of functional (departmental) subordinate relationship: The Bund organization leader issues Bund-organization orders with the countersignature of the Bund Fuehrer that are binding as issued upon all sovereigns (Chiefs) and organization leaders down to the block. He issues, in addition, with the countersignature of the Bund Fuehrer, organizational directions which are to be adopted by each subordinate sovereign jurisdiction in accordance with such peculiar conditions as may prevail in his jurisdiction. Even though he is the disciplinary superior of the associates and assistants of the Bund organization office he is not the disciplinary superior of the organization leaders of the areas, the regions, the states, the districts, or the columns, but is able to influence their appointment, penalization, or removal only to the extent of reporting any deficiency of service on their part to the qualified sovereign. (Chief)

The corresponding principles apply to all offices and branches of all sovereign (Principal) jurisdictions.

PART II: THE SOVEREIGNS (PRINCIPAL ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICERS) (CHIEFS) SOVEREIGN JURISDICTIONS (PRINCIPAL ADMINISTRATIVE JURISDICTIONS)

1. The Sovereigns (Chiefs): Within the administration, (Chiefs) sovereigns hold a unique position. In contrast to them, the departmental chiefs, who are in charge of functional activities, bear only partial responsibility, and serve merely as the council of the sovereigns; the latter govern a large domain, a sovereign jurisdiction, in which they bear full responsibility for the movement.

1a. Sovereigns (Chiefs) (Principal Administrative Officers) are in order of importance:

1. The Bund Fuehrer

2. Area leaders

3. Regional leaders

4. State (Circuit) leaders.

5. District or county leaders.

6. Precinct or Column (local) leaders

7. Square (Ward) (Cell) leaders

8. Block leaders

1b. Sovereign Jurisdictions (Principal Administrative Jurisdictions):

The Bund (The Nation)

The Areas (Sections)

The Regions (Groups of States)

The Circuits (The States)

The Districts (Groups of Counties)

The Precincts and Columns (towns, villages, cities)

The Squares (Divisions of towns, villages, cities)

The Blocks (Subdivisions of squares)

1c. Sovereigns (Chiefs) represent the Bund in their sovereign jurisdictions externally and internally and are responsible to their superiors for the entire status of the movement in those jurisdictions. Sovereigns (Chiefs) exercise general supervision over all their subordinate officers and are responsible for the maintenance of discipline in their respective sovereign jurisdictions.

Departmental chiefs (in addition to their responsibility to their departmental superiors) are especially responsible to the qualified sovereign for their jurisdictional activities as commissioners (deputies) of such sovereigns.

Sovereigns (Chiefs) (Principal Administrative Officers) are the disciplinary and functional superiors of all of their subordinate sovereigns, departmental chiefs, associates, assistants, Bund members, Prospective Citizens League members and Youth Administration (Service) in their sovereign jurisdictions. From the column and precinct leaders up sovereigns (Chiefs) (Principal Administrative Officers) have jurisdiction, within the limits of Personnel regulations, over the powers of penalization and exclusion.

Until confirmation or approval by qualified superiors all appointments and removals constitute merely nominations (provisional appointments) or furloughs (suspensions) and all orders, only provisional directions. In urgent exceptions each sovereign may issue orders having immediate validity, but he must report these immediately to his superiors and justify them.

Certificates of appointment of newly appointed officers are to be issued only after three months of uncontested service and must be sent to the qualified superior for confirmation. Even nominations may be made only with the approval of a qualified superior.

Sovereigns are obligated to the orderly and good care of all their members and they must be available to all at regular and fixed hours for purposes of conference.

1d. For information concerning rank and geographical insignia and the standards of the sovereigns see "OD Regulations," pages 11, 13, and 14, as well as the Bund orders, only by means of which changes may be effected.

1e. For information concerning designations and boundaries of sovereign jurisdictions see "Directions for the Administration of Precincts," Part III, page 18.

See especially also "Membership Regulations" Rights, duties and qualifications (responsibilities) of the (Chiefs)

Sovereigns (Principal Administrative Officers): Organizational Structure of the Sovereign jurisdictions.

2. The Bund Fuehrer: The duty of the Bund Fuhrer is to maintain and develop the AV by every adjustment to the temporary requirements of the times as the defensive and offensive movement of the national consciousness of American Germanism dedicated philosophically (Weltanschaulich), national-socialistically, and politically to the service of an actually independent, aryan-governed United States of North America.

In order that this movement, as the final refuge of Germanism in America, may make the necessary unchallenged Fuehrer pretensions to every vital aspect of American Germanism it is his duty to provide for the consideration, the promotion, and the preservation of the vitally significant educational, political, economic, scientific, and purely cultural achievements of all branches, estates, and confessions of faith of this Germanism in the Bund. For the protection of the movement the Bund Fuehrer must be able to maintain the constant support of at least three Bund officers. This Bund administration has the power by unanimous vote, to call a National Convention for the purpose of hearing any charges which it might prefer against the Bund Fuehrer.

In all other matters the will of the Fuehrer as the solely responsible Fuehrer of the Bund, the (services) branches, and the subordinate organizations, is the first law of the movement except during a session of the National Convention. The Bund Fuehrer is responsible only to the National Convention, is subject to only a few rules of the Convention, and can be removed from his office only by the Convention.

During the term for which he is chosen by the Convention he makes the final, definitive decision in every issue affecting the movement in any way; he has full power of disposal and ownership over the Bund, its equipment, its estates, and its monetary and other possessions.

Until confirmation by the Bund Fuehrer, which requires his countersignature to respective membership cards, every new applicant for membership is only a candidate. The Bund Fuehrer has the power to refuse acceptance into the movement (admission to the movement) without cause. In addition he has the power to overrule any commission of investigation or conciliation (adjustment) and to dismiss (suspend) any member, relieve him of his duties, or finally, to exclude him from the movement.

Generally, within the foregoing limits, he appoints and removes all Bund executives, including the area leaders. The executive appointments and removals, as well as all the orders, of all Bund departmental chiefs and area leaders require the approval of the Bund Fuehrer for Bund validity.

Only the Bund Fuehrer is authorized to make statements or to enter into negotiations binding upon the entire movement.

2a. The Representative of the Bund Fuehrer (Deputy) (Vice Bund Fuehrer)

The deputy Bund fuehrer is appointed and removed by the Bund Fuehrer. It is his special duty to assist the Bund Fuehrer in all routine matters affecting Bund officers and area management. As the Commissioner (duty, proxy) of the Bund Fuehrer he is the superior of all officers and members. He must keep constantly informed, by means of visits, of all Bund matters, decisions, and conferences and, in order to preserve and maintain unified activity, he must, if occasion require, take charge of all sovereign jurisdictions and branches, (services).

During the absence of the Bund Fuehrer he assumes all the rights and duties of the Bund Fuehrer and holds them until the latters return or until a National Convention may determine otherwise.

3. The Area Leader: The area leader is the direct subordinate of the Bund Fuehrer and is a Bund Administrator. He is appointed and removed by the Bund Fuehrer and is responsible only to him.

The area leader is responsible for the philosophical (comprehensive) (Weltanschaulich) political, economic, and cultural status of the movement in the area entrusted to him.

It is his special duty, with such support as he may be able to secure from subordinate sovereigns, to develop and train fuehrer material (talent) for the area and the Bund management, and, by means of visits, to establish new columns in all parts of his area.

The designation of the area and the establishment of its boundaries are done in accordance with the instructions of the Bund Fuehrer and by the Bund organization leader.

All executives and members of the area are subordinate disciplinarily to the area leader. He appoints and removes (1) his area departmental chiefs and regional leaders; (2) the state leaders of the area upon recommendation of the regional leaders; (3) the district or county leaders of the area upon recommendation of the qualified State leaders; and (4) the precinct and column leaders of the area upon recommendation of the appropriately qualified State leaders. His appointments and removals, as well as his area orders, require the confirmation (approval) of the Bund Fuehrer for Bund validity.

In the event of an inadequate supply of qualified, fuehrer talent, area departmental chiefs function temporarily also as regional leaders, in order that the special duties of the regional leaders — the study of the national and commercial policies, and the industrial and agricultural peculiarities of the frequently diverse sections of the area — may be undertaken as quickly as possible. In addition, these regional leaders or their associates, in the event of a deficiency of other available qualified executives, should assume the special functions of the State leaders without delay — the study of the legal and political status of the different States.

All appointments and removals of the area executives, regional leaders, State, district, and precinct, or column leaders of the area, as well as the orders of the area executives (area departmental chiefs and regional leaders) require the confirmation (approval) of the area leader for Bund validity.

All departmental orders of the Bund departmental chiefs are binding upon the leaders as issued; the functional directions of the Bund departmental chiefs are to be executed in consideration of (in conformity with) the special conditions that prevail in the area.

The area leader is notified of all official correspondence between the Bund management and subordinate officers in the area management. It is his duty, when necessary, to take over the duties of subordinate sovereign jurisdictions, either by order (correspondence, etc.) or by visit and in the event of faulty execution of Bund orders to correct conditions.

He must submit a financial and an "activities" report to the Bund Fuehrer by the 10th of each month with notes on contemplated area activities, on the reasons for possible difficult execution of Bund assignments, and on conditions requiring special consideration in the several sections of the area, as well as all kinds of suggestions.

He must conduct regular conferences with his area department chiefs and regional managers, attend the State management meetings whenever possible, and visit "every last" one of the columns in the area at least once a year. His general official expenditures are defrayed by the Bund treasury, although the expenses of his official trips are to be distributed among the precincts and columns in accordance with their ability to pay.

3a. The "deputy" (Representative of the Area Leader) Area Leader: The deputy area leader should be a departmental area executive or a regional leader of the district. He is appointed and removed by the area leader with the approval of the Bund Fuehrer.

It is his particular duty to assist the area leader in all routine matters affecting subordinate officers. As the Commissioner (deputy) of the area leader he is the superior of all executives and members in the area. He must keep constantly informed of all matters, decisions, and conferences and, as occasion demands, promote transactions (activities) or supervise their execution or development. In the absence of the area leader he assumes all the rights and duties of the area leader and retains them until the latter's return or until the Bund Fuehrer decrees otherwise.

4. The Regional leader: The extent and the manifold diversities of the States included in the area necessitate the establishment of the Region. The designation and the establishment of the boundaries of the region are in accordance with the directions of the Bund Fuhrer and are fixed by the Bund organization leader.

The regional leader is an executive of the area and is directly subordinate to the area leader. He is appointed and removed by the area leader with the approval of the Bund Fuehrer.

He is peculiarly (especially) responsible to the area leader for the political and commercial policies and the industrial and agricultural conditions of the movement in the sovereign jurisdiction entrusted to him.

He appoints and removes his regional departmental executives. His appoints and removals, as well as his regional orders, require the approval of the area leader for Bund validity.

Except for his limited power of appointment and removal, the regional leader is the disciplinary superior of all executives and members of his region. The State leaders of his region are appointed and removed upon his recommendation by the area leader with the approval of the Fuehrer.

All appointments and removals of the regional departmental executives, as well as their orders and the orders of State leaders require the approval of the regional leader.

The regional leader must keep informed constantly of all matters, decisions, and conferences in his region; he must be concerned at all times with the united activities of all subordinate officers and the maintenance, and promotion of an active, comprehensive unity between the area management and the States, districts, and precincts of the region. He must arrange for periodical conferences with his regional departmental executives and State managements and keep the area and Bund management informed by short monthly reports and inspirational suggestions of the peculiar economic and political conditions in his region.

The functional orders of the Bund and area executives are binding upon him as issued; their impersonal (service) directions are to be followed according to (in conformity with) conditions existing in the region.

5. The State Leader: Inasmuch as the nation consists of 48 separate States which in many respects have fundamentally different laws and in which many diverse political conditions are to be taken into consideration, the arrangement of States is necessary. The designation of the States and the establishment of their boundaries are made in accordance with the directions of the Bund Fuehrer and by the Bund organization leader. The State leader is a regional executive and is directly subordinate to the regional leader. He is appointed and removed by the area leader upon the recommendation of the regional leader and with the approval of the Bund Fuehrer.

He is responsible to the regional leader especially for the national, legal and political party conditions of the movement in the sovereign jurisdiction entrusted to him.

He appoints and removes his State departmental executives with the approval of the area leader. His State orders require the approval of the regional leader. He reports his appointments, removals, orders, etc. immediately to his regional and area leader.

Except for his limited power of appointment and removal, the State leader is the disciplinary superior of all executives and members in his State. The district leaders of the State are appointed and removed upon his recommendation by the area leader with the approval of the Bund Fuehrer.

All appointments and removals of the State departmental executives as well as their orders and the orders of district leaders require the approval of the State leader for Bund validity.

The State leader must keep informed constantly of all matters, decisions, and conferences, especially concerned with the unified activity of all the sections and branches of his State, and strive to promote an active, comprehensive connection (cooperation) between the management of the region and subordinate officers. He is required especially to instruct, by means of periodical State and district executive conferences, the districts, the precincts and the auxiliary associations (services) of his State in all matters relating to laws and political party activities in the respective States and to render a monthly report concerning these matters to the regional area, and Bund managements. The departmental orders of the Bund and the qualified area and regional departmental chiefs are binding upon the State leaders as issued; their (service) functional directions are executed in accordance with conditions prevailing in the State.

5a. Where the boundaries of Bund States (circuits) do not coincide with the political (geographical) boundaries of the States, as in Pennsylvania, which is divided into two States (circuits), the jurisdiction of that State (circuit) leader in whose State (circuit) the capital of the State is located extends to the entire State in matters affecting the entire State, such as, official or political party affairs. In all other matters the jurisdiction of such a State (circuit) leader is restricted to his Bund State (circuit).

6. The District or County Leader: A "county" or a group of "counties" constitutes a district. The district bears the name and the number of the precinct or the column in which district headquarters are located. The designation of the district is made in accordance with the instructions of the Bund Fuehrer through the Bund organization leader. The boundaries are established according to the instructions of the area leader through the area organization leader. The Bund organization leader is immediately notified.

The district leader is a State executive and is directly subordinate to the State leader. He is appointed and removed by the area leader upon recommendation of the State leader with the approval of the Fuehrer.

He is responsible to the State leader for the philosophical (comprehensive) (weltanschaulich), political, cultural, and economic status of the movement in the sovereign jurisdiction entrusted to him.

He appoints and removes his district departmental executives with the approval of the area leader. His district orders require the approval of the State leader. The district leader immediately reports all his appointments, removals, orders, etc., to the State and area leader.

Should the Bund State (circuit), in which a district is located, constitute only a section of a State, as in the case of Pennsylvania, the district leader is subordinate in all matters of an official and political party nature which affect the entire State to that State (circuit) leader in whose State (circuit) the capital is located.

Except for his restricted powers of appointment and removal, the district leader is the disciplinary superior of all executives and members in his district. The precinct and column leaders of his district are appointed and removed upon his recommendation by the area leader with the approval of the Bund Fuehrer.

All appointments, removals and orders of the district executives as well as the orders of the precinct and column leaders require the approval of the district leader.

The district leader must keep constantly informed, through frequent, personal visits and periodical executive conferences with his precinct or column administrations, concerning all essential matters, decisions and conferences; be concerned constantly about the unified activities of all sections and branches (services) of his sovereign jurisdiction, and promote an active, comprehensive, (cooperation) communication (connection) between the State management and subordinate officers. He must be active in sending constant instructions to his precincts and columns concerning the laws and the party polities of the "counties" in his district and he must be interested in the thoroughgoing (philosophical) (comprehensive) (weltanschaulich) and organizational education of the precinct and column administrations. He must be cautious to observe that the precincts do not undertake loosely too large, or enter carelessly into, assignments, lease or purchase obligations, and that they do not develop too one-sided organizationally; they must devote themselves with equal interest and consideration to such matters as: politics, the Bund Press, economics (DKV), Bund Welfare, (Women's Services), Youth and its rearing (Youth education), OD education, both in the physical and spiritual realm, as well as Kultur (science, singing, gymnastics, acting, etc.).

The district leader is that liaison officer who should primarily be helpful to the area leader in the selection of useful executive and fuehrer talent and in the preparation of (arrangements for) propaganda meetings for the founding of new columns.

He must report to the State, area, district, and Bund management monthly. The departmental orders of all superior officers (Bund, area, regional territorial, and State) are binding upon the district leader as issued. In the event of conflict in orders, those of the superior officer prevail. Functional (service) directions of these officers are executed in accordance with (consideration of) the circumstances prevailing in his district.

7. The Precinct Leader: The precinct develops out of the column or is created by the separation of a row of squares from an overgrown precinct. The precinct comprises generally a township (village, etc.); cities may be divided into several precincts. Boundaries should not cut across basic community boundaries.

The precinct comprises a minimum of 20 members; when there are more than 200 members it should be divided into two precincts as soon as possible. This is done upon the recommendation of the district leader to the area leader; the area leader effects the division with the approval of the Bund Fuehrer through the area organization leader, as well, also, as the establishment or change of the boundaries. The Bund organization leader is notified at once. The designation of all precincts is made according to instructions of the Bund Fuehrer through the Bund organization leader.

A division of overgrown precincts should be effected because the precinct leader should know all his members personally and continue in the position of being accessible to every member of the precinct and be able to devote his attention to them.

Where the number of precincts in a small jurisdiction is making perceptible growth, the districts should be reduced until finally they constitute only a single "county" and the best qualified precinct leader in this "county" is promoted to a district leader.

7a. The precinct leader is a district executive and is directly subordinate to the district leader. He is appointed and removed upon the recommendation of the district leader by the area leader with the approval of the Bund Fuehrer.

He is responsible to the district leader for the philosophical, (comprehensive) political (weltanschaulich), economic and cultural status of the movement in the sovereign jurisdiction entrusted to him.

7b. The precinct leader is the disciplinary superior of all officers and members in his sovereign jurisdiction. Together with the column leader he is the lowest ranking sovereign to have jurisdiction over the power of exclusion within the limits of the personnel regulations of the Bund.

7c. He appoints and removes his precinct departmental heads and square leaders with the approval of the area leader, and his block leaders upon recommendation of the qualified square leaders with the approval of the area leader. His precinct orders require the approval of the district leader.

7d. All appointments, removals, and orders of the precinct departmental executives and square leaders require the approval of the precinct leader. He keeps the district, area, and Bund management currently informed concerning all the appointments and essential orders in his sovereign jurisdiction.

7e. Departmental orders of all superior officers (Bund and qualified area, regional, State, and district officers) are binding upon the precinct leaders as issued. In the case of conflicting orders of the different officers those of superiors prevail. Functional directions of these officers are executed in accordance with particular circumstances prevalent in the sovereign jurisdiction.

7f. The precinct leader inducts newly-appointed precinct executives, square and block leaders, ceremonially into office. The induction takes place during a membership "appel" (assembly).

7g. In addition it is also the duty of the precinct leader to deliver passes to unchallenged members (new members of the OD or of the Women's Division (service) ceremonially during an OD or Women's Division (service) assembly.

7h. On National Youth Day (about the middle of March of each year) the precinct leader, accompanied by his OD Division fuehrer, accepts the 18-year old members of the Youth Division (service) during an ("appel") assembly of the youth ceremonially into Bund membership and into OD: he accepts also at the time of this assembly, the 21-year old girls of the Maiden's Division, (service) ceremonially into full Bund membership.

7i. All applications for admission into the Youth Division (service), the Promotion Division (service) and into Bund membership or, within the AV, into the OD or the Women's Division (service) requires the countersignature of the precinct leader for Bund validity. He has the power to deny acceptance into the Youth Division (service) or Promotion Division (service) without cause.

7j. He must inform the area and Bund management monthly concerning all exclusions or cancelations with notations as to whether the canceled or excluded members have returned their cards, books, insignia, etc., to the precinct, in order that such persons may not be admitted to some other precinct without the approval of the excluding precinct leader. Precincts are notified currently by the Bund management concerning exclusions. In his reports to the area and Bund administrations the precinct leader must list all cancelations due to loss of interest or exclusions due to failure to pay dues. Members excluded by precinct leaders have eight days in which to appeal in writing and with their knowledge to the next highest ranking officer (the district administration). From there the appeal can continue on up step by step.

7k. Official differences of opinion between the precinct leader and his executives or members are not submitted to an investigation and adjustment commission but are decided by him personally in the first "instance." The complainant may appeal, if dissatisfied, to the district leader and from there on up, within a period of 8 days, provided his appeal is in writing and is made with the knowledge of the precinct leader. Even in cases of exclusion in official matters there is no investigation or adjustment commission, but the decision rests entirely with the sovereigns only who issue regulations, orders, and rules, and who review the official relations between officials and members.

71. Investigation and adjustment commissions are appointed only in matters involving personal differences and unofficial disputes between Bund members. Members of the Commission are appointed by the precinct leader in each case from among non-participating, impartial, judicious, and business-like members of the Bund. (See also Part III "Membership Regulations.")

7m. The precinct leader has the authority at the beginning of an investigation to accept or reject applications for its continuance.

7n. Bund membership cards and books are delivered as they are received by the precinct leader to Bund members ceremonially during a membership assembly. Promotion cards are delivered during a promotion assembly or by mail or messenger. The first OD passes. Youth membership cards, and Women's passes are delivered ceremonially by the precinct leader in the presence of the qualified fuehrer during an assembly of the respective branch (service).

For information concerning membership, audit, assembly rules, festivals, and other regulations for the precinct leader see "Basic Rules for Precinct Administration" and Bund orders.

7c. The precinct leader must inform all superior officers concerning all essential matters in his sovereign jurisdiction, acknowledge all official communications by return mail and without exception, and submit before the 10th of each month his official report to the Bund management in addition to an exact treasury report and an exact account of all dues according to printed forms. The essential details (of his report) are to be communicated to the area leader. The production ability and the solvency of the movement depend upon his scrupulous, regular, and punctual transfer of funds. His obligations to the Bund management are the primary obligations of the precinct.

Even the monthly, minute control of the "household treasuries" of the branches is to be conducted strictly and unindulgently. All sections and the fuehrers of all sections of the precinct exist primarily for the Bund or else they have no justification for existence.

7p. The precinct leader must be at the constant disposal of individual members and all of his department chiefs, square leaders, block leaders, and branch fuehrers for advice, help and sympathetic understanding. Every branch and every minute detail of precinct work is important and should be promoted in real (Kamerad) comradeship; but no section of the precinct may regard itself as self-sufficing or as independent. The precinct leader must be particularly concerned in constant quest for qualified talent for fuehrer and other executive positions, create opportunity for that talent to serve, and urge it to look ahead for promotion. He must not be indolent and indifferent and let his associates proceed uncontrolled (unrestrained) in a spirit of indulgent leniency; but he must be on his guard to resist the inclination to do everything himself; rather he should encourage every associate who really is eager to perform the duties of his office. Efficient substitutes should be developed for every office in the entire Bund and this duty falls especially upon the precinct leader.

7q. Meetings and assemblies of the squares, blocks and branches are to be called only with the consent of the precinct leader. He must visit them frequently himself, but he never must place himself (assume) in the position of a subordinate fuehrer. When the precinct leader participates in an OD parade he parades alongside the OD Division (service) fuehrer.

7r. Official participation in the celebrations and activities of other organizations, as well as the entry upon any binding engagement externally in the name of a section of the movement within the jurisdiction of the precinct is permitted to the squares, blocks, branches, and individual members only within the limits of existing Bund orders or regulations and only with the express approval of the precinct leader.

7s. Statements to the press or other public statements are made in the precinct only by the precinct leader and then only with the approval of the district leader and in conformity with the provisions of Bund orders.

8. The Column leader: Generally the column, like the precinct, constitutes a township (community), and is distinguished from the latter by a smaller membership. New organizations in communities in which no precinct exists are established as columns; such columns are at first placed under a neighboring precinct by the district leader upon instructions from the area leader.

In communities in which precincts exist, columns are developed from squares, whenever they are designated as columns by the district leader with the approval of the area leader. Columns which in the judgment of the district leader have attained the status of self-sufficing activity are relieved by him, with the approval of the area leader, from the status of wardship.

Independent (self-sufficing) active columns, having more than 20 members are designated as precincts by the district leader with the approval of the area leader.

State, regional and Bund organization managements are to be advised immediately of every step of the foregoing development.

8a. So long as a column remains under the supervision of a previously established precinct, its leader is subordinate to the respective precinct leader, and the official correspondence of the column is conducted through the previously established precinct management.

8b. In all other respects the rank, rights and duties of the column leader are the same as those of the precinct leader.

8c. Where small columns have no squares to supervise, the duties described under "squares" are performed by the column leader. In such cases the block leaders of the column are directly responsible to the column leaders.

8d. The official relationship between the column and superior offices is exactly the same as in the precinct.

9. The Square Leader: The Square consists of from 2 to 5 blocks. Its boundaries are to be considered as fixed by streets; they should not extend beyond political boundaries and should coincide with the political divisions of the community so far as possible. The square bears the number of the precinct or column to which it belongs with an added square number. For local purposes it may be designated by the name of the precinct combined with the name of the precinct section. The establishment or alternation of the designation and the boundaries is made according to the instructions of the district leader by the district organization leader. The Bund organization leader is to be instructed about the square divisions.

9a. The square leader is a precinct executive and is directly subordinate to the precinct or column leader. He is appointed and removed by the column or precinct leader with the approval of the area leader. He is responsible to the precinct or column leader for the philosophical (weltanschaulich), political, economic, and cultural status of the movement in his sovereign jurisdiction.

9b. Disciplinarily subordinate to the square leader are all the square executives, block leaders, block watchers, and members of his square, except in the matter of exclusion. He appoints and removes his square executives with the approval of his precinct or column leaders. The block leaders of his staff are appointed and removed upon his recommendation by the precinct or column leader with the approval of the area leader. His square orders require the approval of the precinct or column leader.

9c. The square leader ceremonially inducts newly appointed square executives into office during a square membership meeting after they have served unchallenged for three months and have received their commissions (certificates of appointment).

9d. The appointments, removals and orders of the square executives and block leaders require the approval of the square leader. Concerning all essential official conduct of these offices he reports to his precinct or column leader.

9e. The square leader has no peculiar OD or Youth administration. OD and Youth units are places at his disposal with the concurrence of the OD or Youth (service) Division fuehrer.

9f. The square leader supervises the activities of the block leaders and square block, and is primarily responsible for the frictionless cooperation of the executives in order to assure an active, continuous, development of the square executives and block leaders and with the precinct or column departmental executives. He must be concerned especially with the securing of a thorough philosophical (weltanschaulich) and organization education for his associates, in order to assure at the least a strict, unified arrangement of every minute section of his jurisdiction in a full conformity with the principles and regulations of the movement.

9g. Aside from the periodic square executive conferences, he calls at least once a month a conference of block leaders. The disciplinary and departmental orders to the block administration are to be communicated during these conferences, since in the square and blocks all official (written) correspondence must be eliminated so far as possible.

9h. The square leader participates in the conferences of the precinct or column leaders. With their approval, he must conduct public speaking classes (evenings), educational evenings, and membership assemblies after he has qualified for these activities. In order to distinguish these meetings from similar precinct or column meetings, they should be held in the square primarily as educational and public-speaking meetings (evenings) at which excerpts from the documents of the movement are read and questions put by the participants are answered in accordance with the precepts of the educational, intelligence, and propaganda administrations. Questions are to be answered only with full knowledge of the facts. Where doubt or uncertainty prevails answers must be deferred until the next meeting.

In the squares of larger precincts new applications and dues ought to be received at assemblies. The square leader should attend block meetings and conferences as often as possible and he should be readily accessible at all times to the members and fellow-countrymen of his square. Differences of opinion are to be adjusted through conferences man to man; if necessary, the difference may be submitted to the precinct or column leader for adjustment.

9i. Personnel (information) cards of Bund and Youth members must not be maintained in the squares and blocks, although (information) cards about non-members who are to be solicited may be kept. Concerning members the square leader consults the precinct or column administrator.

9j. The square must not make statements to the press or for publicity under any circumstances.

9k. Where there are no squares (in small columns) the column leader assumes the rights, duties, and responsibilities of the square leader. One square leader may be in charge of several squares.

10. The Block leader: Blocks should be organized in even the smallest columns. The block consists of as many as five house groups. Every house group is in charge of a block watcher, and of a woman block watcher, also, in connection with matters in which women are interested. The house group should not contain more households than can be visited personally by a block watcher within five hours for purposes of making an announcement.

The block bears the designation of the square or the column in which it is located, with a letter of the alphabet added; for example: 80-3-A (Block A, Square 3, precinct 80). For ordinary local daily purposes the block may be designated by the name of the neighborhood.

The size of the house groups, blocks, and squares is not determined by the number of Bund members who occupy them, but should coincide whenever possible, with the political jurisdiction of the community. Boundaries of house groups, blocks, and squares should be determined by streets; they should not extend beyond political boundaries.

The establishment and the changes in the designation and the boundaries are made in accordance with directions of the district leader by the district organization leader. The Bund organization leader is to be notified of the block division.

10a. The block leader belongs to the staff of the qualified square or column leader; he is the lowest ranking sovereign and, with the OD platoon leader and square executive the lowest ranking executive of the AV.

He is appointed and removed upon recommendation of the square leader by the precinct leader or directly by the column leader with the approval of the area leader.

He is responsible to the qualified square or column leader for all matters affecting the movement in the block entrusted to him.

10b. Disciplinarily subordinate to the block leader are all the block watchers, (men and women) and members in his block, except in respect of the power of exclusion.

He appoints and removes his block watch (men and women) with the approval of his square or column leader.

The block watchers (men and women) enlist their helpers from the house groups only after consultation with the block leader and with his consent.

10c. The block leader is authorized in emergency to take over several blocks temporarily, or aid in directing the work of absent block watchers, but it is his duty to find substitutes and to place them in charge as soon as possible.

10d. The block leader inducts newly-appointed block watchers (men and women) into office ceremonially during a membership assembly after they have served unchallenged for a period of three months.

10e. The block leader participates in the block leader conferences of his square leader and reports upon the work of his associates. He conducts as occasion requires, but at least once a month a block watch conference at which he receives reports concerning the work among the house groups and at which directions are given to the block watchers (men and women) for further activities.

10f. He must find ways and means to be accessible to his square leader surely and easily at a definite time every day or at least every other day. In the same way his block watchers must arrange to be accessible to him at a definite time every day. Telephone numbers and other means by which block watchers may be reached must be kept current at the headquarters of the square and precinct leader.

10g. There must be no official written communications in the block. The block must not maintain personnel cards. For information concerning members and non-members, the block leader consults the square leader. Names and descriptions of those available for work in the block, the block leader commits to memory, but he is bound upon his honor not to betray any member's name or description to the public.

10h. With the approval of the square leaders, block assemblies may be called; with the approval of the square leader, the block leader may call for contributions, etc., in his block; these he must transmit to the square treasurer or to the column treasury leader.

10i. The block does not have special assistants for treasury, propaganda, etc.; all the orders of superior officers converge upon the block leader and are carried out in the house groups by the block watchers.

10j. The block leader is the fuehrer and counsellor of all Bund members and Youth members of his sovereign jurisdiction. He must at all times help in every way by explanation and advice and portray the spirit of the movement in his work. He must discover the bearers of evil rumors and report them to the square leader. He must impress the Bund members constantly and spur them on to active cooperation; he must be alert constantly for available co-champions (patrons) and bring them to the attention of superiors. He may answer questions only upon absolute knowledge, in consideration of the welfare of the movement, and in conformity with the prescriptions of his superiors. He must never give any statement to the press or the public.

10k. All new applications from the domain of the block are transmitted through the block leader. He is in every case the responsible leader of the qualified investigation committee for determining the truth of personal and citizenship declarations of applicants for membership resident in his block. He is the second subscribing witness to the declarations and obligations on the membership cards of these applicants, after they have been accepted. He and his qualified block watch constitute the sureties for the conduct of his members in all matters affecting the movement.

10l. Above all else, the block leader must practice absolute secrecy in all official matters and have the unqualified confidence of his superiors and subordinates. He represents the movement in his sovereign jurisdiction to the public. He is able to render the Bund valuable service in this close, daily contact with the public, but he can also do it great harm. It is his constant duty by statement and precept to carry again and again just one thought in to every household: The German-American Bund Is The Only and First Defensive and Offensive Community of American Germanism, in whose ranks only the rights and the respect of our nationality can be defended effectively.
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Re: Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

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Part 5 of 8

Part III: DEPARTMENTAL CHIEFS. DEPARTMENTAL DIVISIONS. MEMBERS

1. At Offices: The offices of the movement are to be arranged and conducted according to the following suggestions: The impression which the arrangement and conduct of the offices of even the smallest section of the Bund makes upon a visitor requires the presentation of the leading and the most exemplary of the best in American Germanism. No activity should be more orderly, calm or efficient than the conduct of an AV office. At the same time, it may be observed that attractiveness is not in conflict with the challenge of the movement, although "fuss and feathers" ought to be avoided.

National and Bund standards may be used as decorative standards. (The National or "Sturm"' flag must never be used for decorative purposes and must never be unfurled except under OD guard.)

In addition a picture of our national leader, George Washington, and one of our (Weltanschaulichen) philosophical leader, Adolf Hitler, belongs in every office.

Internal matters should never be discussed in the presence of non-members; the intrusion of any official upon the domain of another is to be avoided strictly; unofficial discussions should not be carried on during business hours and by no means in offices, where loud talk and argumentation is prohibited. Regular office hours must be maintained, visitors must be served promptly but always warmly and sympathetically — that quick comprehension which we constantly declare to be necessary and whose lack among all less disciplined and less fanatic adherents and friends we deplore is to be converted into action in the office. That which the leadership fails to exemplify cannot appropriately be required of followers.


Every sovereign jurisdiction should endeavor to have an office where every executive and associate can perform his duties in undisturbed and orderly manner; efficient work is possibly only when conditions are favorable.

1a. Official dress (Uniform):

Every executive and assistant executive of the AV is an OD man even though his official duties prevent him from performing the general OD duties. In order to maintain and promote that soldierly spirit, which is not entirely "un-American", and to which, in connection with its fuehrer principles, the movement owes its unified strength, the uniform ought always to be worn while on duty, if conditions permit, except as otherwise provided under "celebrations" (festfolgestaltungen). Where the uniform would be worn ordinarily but where for legal reasons this rule may not be followed, the grey shirt with the black four-in-hand and Bund insignia should be worn under a black or dark civilian coat.

The same applies to the Youth (Service) Division. While on duty women should wear their insignia but should not wear uniforms except on special occasions, when they should wear "Dirndel" dresses, uniform aprons, or sports attire, etc. See also regulations for (Services) branches and Bund orders.

1b. Official greeting (salute):

The official greeting (salute) is given (made) by raising the right hand and exclaiming "Free America." It should always be used while on duty upon arriving and leaving, and also if possible, when not on duty. The informal greeting given with raised hand is permissible only when not on duty or unofficially.

DUTIES, RIGHTS AND QUALIFICATIONS (RESPONSIBILITIES) OF DEPARTMENTAL CHIEFS, ASSOCIATES AND ASSISTANTS OF DEPARTMENTS

2. The Bund Treasurer: All financial and legal affairs of the AV and the supervision of all the proprietary interests of the movement, including all branches, subordinate organizations, and affiliated associations constitute the domain and the duties of the Bund Treasurer.

2a. He is appointed and removed by the Bund Fuehrer. He appoints and removes, with the approval of the Bund Fuehrer, associates for:

Means: (Lotteries, contributions, loans, celebrations)

Budget: (For all offices of the movement)

Treasury: Control: (Control of audits of subordinate offices in cooperation with the Bund Business Fuehrer. Monthly receipts to contributing offices and instructions to district leaders.

Legal: Studies and instructions for the movement concerning laws affecting the entire nation and of special significance to the movement.

2b. Commissions (procurement orders) are not issued from the Bund Treasury but from the Bund business office, with the approval of the Bund Fuehrer.

Payment of accounts due or other monetary disbursements are made for the AV only upon the responsibility of the Bund Fuehrer or upon his authorization by the Bund Fuehrer's representative with the countersignature of the Bund Treasurer (or in his absence by the Bund Business Manager as witness.)

Receipts are acknowledged by the Bund Treasurer and the Bund Business Manager or by the Bund Treasurer and Bund Fuehrer. Every payment into the Bund treasury must be accompanied by a regular deposit slip (audit, treasury report, contributor's list etc., with an abstract containing the number, the certificate of authorizations, etc.). These documents, together with a copy of the outgoing receipts are filed in the Bund treasury.

2c. The Bund treasurer renders a monthly report on the financial status of the movement to the Bund Fuehrer.

2d. The Bund Treasurer is authorized and required to audit at least once a year "every last" treasury of the movement, including all branches, subordinate organizations, and affiliations. Acting as his commissioners, (deputies) his associates have the same authority.

2e. The associates, or assistants of the Bund Treasurer are countersigned by the Bund Fuehrer and are binding as issued upon sovereigns and upon all treasury executives, down to the block.

2f. The associates of the Bund Treasurer appoint and remove their assistants with the approval of the Bund Treasurer.

2g. The area treasury leaders are directly subordinate departmentally to the Bund Treasurer, belong to his department council, and must assist him in his official relations with subordinate officers. Of all of his regulations issued to them, the area leader receives a copy.

2l. No subordinate sovereign administration may acquire any substantial accession or enter upon any rental, lease, or sales agreement (except the rental of a hall for an evening, or a part for a day) without previously submitting all details to the Bund Treasurer and receiving his written approval. In cases in which the movement must participate in (contribute towards) the obligations of a section, it must be accorded determination over the management and the right of disposal over the entire amount involved.

3. The Area Treasurer: The area treasurer is disciplinarily subordinate to the area leader and is appointed and removed by him with the approval of the Bund Treasurer.

As necessity requires, he establishes area treasury offices corresponding to those of the Bund treasury. He appoints and removes his associates with the approval of the area leader.

He supervises and promotes the execution of the Bund treasury orders and aids subordinate officers in the preparation of their reports, with respect to anticipated or planned new equipment, rental, lease, or sales contracts, as well as in legal matters affecting the movement, to the area leader and Bund Treasurer.

He issues area treasury orders with the countersignature of the area leader, a copy of which is sent to the Bund Treasurer.

The regional treasury leaders are directly subordinate to him departmentally. Of his directions to subordinate treasury administrations the qualified sovereign receives a copy.

By the Bund Treasury, he is informed monthly through his area leader concerning the treasury reports and audits of the precincts of the area.

It is his special duty to instruct the treasury leaders of newly established columns in their duties and to train treasury associates of the subordinate sovereign jurisdictions as substitutes for area and Bund treasury officers.

4. The Regional Treasury Leader: The regional treasury leader is the disciplinary subordinate of the regional leader. He is appointed and removed by the regional leader with the approval of the area leader. Departmentally, he is the subordinate of the area treasury leader.

As necessity requires, he establishes regional treasury offices that correspond to those of the Bund Treasury. He appoints and removes his associates with the approval of the regional leader.

He supervises and promotes the execution of Bund treasury and area treasury orders within the region and aids in the preparation of reports by subordinate officers in details affecting new accessions, rental, lease, or sales contracts, as well as in matters of law affecting the movement, for regional leaders and area treasury leaders.

He issues regional treasury orders with the countersignature of the regional leader, of which a copy is sent to the area treasury leader.

State treasury leaders are directly subordinate to him departmentally. Of his orders to subordinate treasury administrations the State leaders, etc., receive a copy.

It is his special duty to report currently to superiors and subordinates concerning matters of finance and law which especially affect the commercial, industrial, and agricultural activities of the movement.

5. The State Treasury Leader: The State treasury leader is disciplinarily subordinate to the State leader and is appointed and removed by him with the approval of the area leader, concerning which the regional leader is to be informed. Departmentally, he is subordinate to the regional treasury leader.

As necessity requires, he establishes State treasury offices corresponding to those of the Bund treasury. He appoints and removes his associates with the approval of his State leader.

He supervises and promotes the execution of the orders of superior treasury officers in the State and aids in the preparation of the reports of districts and precincts concerning new accessions, rental, lease, or sales contracts as well as in legal matters affecting the State to his State leader, regional treasury leader, and area treasury leader.

He issues State treasury orders with the countersignature of the State leaders, of which a copy is sent to the regional treasury leader.

The district treasury leaders are departmentally subordinate to him. Of his State treasury orders to the districts and precincts the district and precinct leaders receive a copy.

It is his special duty to familiarize himself with State laws likely to affect the movement and to report to his superior and subordinate officers concerning them.

6. The District Treasury Leader: The district treasury leader is disciplinarily subordinate to the district leader and is appointed and removed by him with the approval of the area leader. The State leader is informed correspondingly. Departmentally, he is subordinate to the State treasury leader.

As necessity requires, he establishes district treasury offices corresponding to those of the Bund treasury. He appoints and removes his associates with the approval of the district leader. He supervises and promotes the execution of the orders of superior treasury officials in the province and aids in the preparation of reports of the precincts or columns concerning new accessions, rental, lease, or sales contracts, as well as in laws affecting the district, to his district leader, State treasury and area treasury leader.

He issues district treasury orders with the countersignature of the district leader, a copy of which is sent to the State treasury leader.

Precinct and column treasury leaders are departmentally subordinate to him. Of his district treasury orders, a copy is sent to the precinct or column leader.

It is his special duty to familiarize himself with the laws of the "counties" in his district, especially, in matters affecting real property, the administration of homes and camps, taxes and mortgages, building and health regulations, laws of Incorporation, etc. In addition, he is the liaison officer between the area treasury leader and the treasury leaders of newly established columns who need help in their work, as well as the offices interested in the training of treasury department associates to be recommended for promotion.

7. The Precinct or Column Treasury Leaders.

The precinct treasury leader is disciplinarily subordinate to the precinct leader and is appointed and removed by him with the approval of the area leader. The district leader is notified of such appointments and removals. Departmentally, he is subordinate to the district treasury leader.

As occasion requires, he establishes precinct treasury offices corresponding to those of the Bund treasury. If necessary he must perform the duties of precinct treasurer himself. He appoints and removes his immediate associates with the approval of his precinct leader. He executes in the precinct the orders of superior treasury officers and supervises and promotes their execution in the squares and blocks. He submits current detailed reports concerning existing or planned accessions, rental, lease or sales contracts, to the district treasury leader, the area treasury leader, and the Bund Treasurer, and keeps these officers constantly informed concerning legal ordinances of the particular municipality (township) that require consideration.

He submits before the 10th of each month, with the countersignature of the precinct leader, a detailed report on the financial condition of the precinct to the Bund Treasurer, and in accordance with a printed treasury report form. This treasury report must show also the exact status of the so-called household treasury of the branches (OD, Women's, Youth, etc.). The precinct treasury leader is authorized and required to audit and super- vise monthly "every last" treasury of the sections, branches, subordinate organizations, and affiliated associations in the jurisdiction of the precinct. All monies and all property of every section of the movement are the property of the Bund and are at its disposal in emergency. In addition he submits with his treasury report to the Bund Treasurer a monthly audit bearing the countersignature of the precinct leader, such report and audit to be in accordance with the form prescribed herein. This report must show also the exact number of persons who may be considered as patrons (Forders)...

In addition to scheming to overthrow the Soviet Union in league with National Socialists, Aufbau played a pivotal role in coordinating Hitler's preparations for a putsch against the Weimar Republic. Aufbau helped the National Socialist Party to build a substantial war chest for its intended coup by contributing funds from Aufbau members or allies such as Kirill as well as by channeling funds from Henry Ford, the wealthy American industrialist and politician....

The primary American connection to the German far right was most likely the anti-Semitic industrialist and politician Henry Ford.


-- The Russian Roots of Nazism: White Emigres and the Making of National Socialism, 1917-1945, by Michael Kellogg


... or members of the Bund or of the "Prospective Citizens' League" of the AV. The monthly account of 30 cents per member or patron is not determined by the punctuality of individual payments but by the foregoing count. Where the precinct treasury leader is unable to collect his dues he is nevertheless required to make a return to the Bund management until the delinquents have been canceled as patrons or members. But before cancelation the precinct treasury leader is required to make every effort either alone or with the assistance of the square and block administrations to collect the dues that are in arrears and retain the delinquent persons for the movement.

As a part of the orderly (regular) work of the Bund the precinct treasury leader should regard the transfer of dues to the Bund administration, the obligation of the precinct, as the first duty of the precinct. Just exactly as taxes must be paid and tax payments may not be used for any other purpose so it is with respect to the monthly settlement of the precinct with the Bund administration.

In cases in which the money simply cannot be transmitted a report must be submitted nevertheless with a full explanation of the (failure) indebtedness.

7a. The patrons' application fees and half of the voluntary propaganda contributions that accompany patrons' applications are sent to the Bund Treasurer with the application blank. Patrons' pins are to be ordered from the Bund Business Fuehrer as needed; orders must be accompanied by a deposit. The same applies to member replacement pins.

7b. With the acceptance proposal a deposit of 50 cents must be sent to the Bund Treasury through the area administration, for insignia for the applicant, which is then sent to the precinct with the first membership card. In case of rejection of the application, the insignia deposit is returned to the precinct.

7c. The precinct treasury leader keeps the treasury books of the precinct in accordance with the prescriptions of the Bund treasury. He, or a possible business fuehrer of the precinct, orders all printed matter for the needs of his office from the Bund Business Fuehrer.

The precinct treasury books must be audited quarterly by an audit committee consisting of respected, competent, discreet members or executives of the precinct appointed by the precinct leader. Statements concerning the financial status or the numerical strength or weakness of the precinct must not be made in a membership meeting nor given out publicly. No membership meeting is an absolutely "closed" meeting from which nothing might leak out, and the strength or weakness of the movement or of a section is not a public matter. This applies also to the membership count. There is no law that requires the officers of an unincorporated, voluntary organization to publish these matters.

The treasury audit is made in order that the examiners may be able to testify to the membership that the financial administration of the precinct is honest.

The precinct treasury administration must be ready at all times to submit to an examination by any representative of the Bund Treasurer, or area treasury leader.

A rejection of the evidence is permitted after an orderly examination with the express authorization of the precinct leader. Current Bund orders must be observed. The square treasury executives of the precinct are departmentally subordinate to the precinct treasury leader. He issues precinct treasury orders with the countersignature of the precinct leader. These orders pass through the square leader.

The duties, rights and responsibilities of the column treasury leader correspond in the column to those of the precinct treasury leader. In columns when there are no squares the duties of the square treasury leader fall upon the treasury leader.

8. The Square Treasury Chief: The square treasury chief is disciplinarily subordinate to the square leader and is appointed and removed by him with the approval of the precinct or column leader. Departmentally he is subordinate to the precinct or column treasury leader.

He executes the departmental orders of the precinct or column leader in the jurisdiction of the square and supervises and promotes the activities of the block watch in these matters.

Where large squares conduct their own member assemblies with the approval of the precinct or column leader he collects dues in accordance with the list furnished him by the precinct treasury leader and transfers them to the precinct treasury leader. The distribution of collection lists among the block leaders is his duty. The block leaders deliver collected dues with his counter-signature to the precinct or column treasury leader. The same procedure is followed in contributions, advance-sales cards, lottery books, etc.

He submits a comprehensive report at the end of each month to his square leader and to the precinct or column treasury leader.

Square treasury executives keep no personnel lists or cards; the necessary information is to be secured from time to time from the precinct or column secretary-fuehrer and is to be guarded against betrayal or theft. Only information relating to the respective block is to be given to the block leader. Instructions to the blocks are to be given orally at the meetings of the block leaders of the square leader; official written communications must be eliminated so far as possible in the square and absolutely in the blocks.

8a. The block watch executes the orders of the square treasury executive in his house groups. They are transmitted to him by his block leader.

9. The Secretary Fuehrer -- The Business Fuehrer.

The Bund Business Fuehrer: The entire business administration, the business correspondence, the execution of commissions, (procurement), countersignature of receipts, and communications to the comptroller of the Bund treasury, the preparation of membership and promotion cards and books, the transmittal of Bund orders, orders of Bund officers, cards, books, certificates of application, acceptance resolutions, and other administrative needs of the precincts, etc., the transmittal of the Bund news and the conduct of the Bund Chancery, comprise the duties and the domain of the Bund Business Fuehrer. It is his special duty, however, to reconcile the official determinations of the Bund Departmental Chief and the Bund Fuehrer.

The business management conducts a constant control and regular inventory of the entire property of the movement in all its sovereign jurisdictions and their branch units, subordinate organizations, and affiliated societies, as well as the preservation of securities, office needs, seals, decorative standards, etc., which absolutely are necessary for Bund administration. The Bund Business Fuehrer is appointed and removed by the Bund Fuehrer. He appoints and removes, with the approval of the Bund Fuehrer, associates for:

Business administration: Designation of all printed matter with form numbers and letters, execution of commissions, (procurement), with the approval of the Bund Fuehrer and notice to the Bund Treasurer, distribution of materials, control, and inventory.

Distribution: (Reproduction (mimeographing) composition, packing, and distribution of Bund orders, news service, cards, books, pins, and other office needs) (Conduct of detailed distribution control).

Secretarial: (Chancery secretary (both man and woman) for official correspondence, copies of orders, etc., keeping of minutes, protocol, etc.). Together with the dues (contributions) control office of the Bund Treasury, the secretarial office submits a joint monthly report to the Bund Fuehrer and the area leader in which those officers are informed concerning the receipt of orders, printed matter, membership cards, etc., by the precinct administrations as well as concerning their dues and contributions, the filing of reports, member acceptance and member resignations or withdrawals.

9a. The Bund Business Fuehrer submits a comprehensive report to the Bund Fuehrer monthly.

9b. The Bund Business Fuehrer is authorized and directed to call in at least once a year, or as occasion may require, a detailed inventory of all the property of the movement in all its branches and to check it. His commissioners (deputies) have the same authority.

9c. The associates of the Bund Business Fuehrer appoint and remove their assistants with the approval of the Bund Business Fuehrer.

9d. These associates and assistants issue no orders of their own. The departmental orders of the Bund Business Fuehrer are countersigned by the Bund Fuehrer and are binding as issued upon all sovereigns and all officers affected, down to the block. (See "Secretary leader" and Organization leader" following).

9d. The area business fuehrers or, in the event of vacancies, as provided in the following, the area secretary fuehrers and the area organization leaders, are directly subordinate, departmentally, to the Bund Business Fuehrer, belong to his departmental council, and must assist him in his official transactions with subordinate officers to the extent of their ability. Of all Bund business office orders the qualified area leader receives a copy.

9f. The Secretary Fuehrer. Where sovereign jurisdictions have a full-time appointed business fuehrer his official rights and duties correspond to those of other departmental executives of equal rank, and his authority extends to the combined departments described in the foregoing under "Bund Business Fuehrer." Every business fuehrer, including the business fuehrers of precincts and columns, establishes offices in accordance with his needs corresponding to those of the Bund business administration. Appointment and removal of business fuehrers are the same as for other offices. But where sovereign jurisdictions have only an honorary, or part-time secretary fuehrer, the latter is not an executive as such. In such cases the organization leader is responsible for the activities described in the foregoing under "Business Administration," while he or the treasury leader, propaganda leader, or otherwise qualified departmental chief, is responsible for the activities described in the foregoing under "Distribution" and "Correspondence" in a collateral capacity as secretary leader. The organization leaders are responsible to the Bund Business Fuehrer only in respect to the duties described in the foregoing under "Business Administration." In all other matters they are departmentally subordinate to their superior organization leaders, while the executive who supervises the work of a secretary fuehrer is departmentally subordinate to the Bund Business fuehrer only in connection with the duties defined under "Distribution" and "Correspondence." In all other matters they are departmentally subordinate only to the departmental superior concerned with their principal duties. The sovereign designates the secretary.

That executive who functions as the Secretary fuehrer of every sovereign jurisdiction from the precinct and column up is responsible for the acknowledgment of the receipt (to the Bund Business Fuehrer) of all office business correspondence, orders, printed matter, office equipment, member and patrons' cards of books, etc., by return mail, and according to regulations, or in the event of the failure of receipt of ordered material, for notice accordingly.

Concerning minutes (protocols) it must be understood that they are to be kept merely for the purpose of information for the disciplinary superiors, for his reports to superior officers, or for future reference. Minutes must never be read at any meeting or any assembly.

10. The Bund Organization Leader: The supervision of the entire organizational structure of the movement, the development of the technical plans of all departments, the arrangement of all necessary equipment, as well as especially the organizational training of all assistants, associates, departmental executives, branch fuehrers (men and women) and sovereigns comprise the activities and responsibilities of the Bund Organization Leader.

The Bund Organization Leader is appointed and removed by the Bund Fuehrer. He appoints and removes with the approval of the Bund Fuehrer associates for:

Organizational Adjustment (Adjustment of possible conflicts between various rules, orders, or directions. The adjustment of responsibilities in cases in which one official domain tends to encroach upon another. Equitable division of official loads according to individual burdens and capacities, alternations in the existing organizational divisions or official regulations of offices and branches when necessary.)

Organizational Training: (Practical execution of the departmental training of all executives. The educational material of the several courses is developed from the reports (reviews) of the various Bund departmental chiefs and the Bund Fuehrer, the arrangements and programs are developed by the Organization Leader.)

Statistical: (Pictorial presentations, organizational snaps (charts), office, organization, and building plans, flag, uniform and insignia sketches, administrative statistics, OD-Women and Youth Statistics, etc., etc.,).

Technical: Execution of protection, promotion, information, welfare, and refuge plans of the Organization Leader. Execution of plans of the Propaganda Leader for celebrations and for decoration. Execution of Treasurer's fund-raising plans through the OD, employment service, medical or health service, AV bands, Women's and Youth's (Service) divisional activities or from non-member business men or firms, commissions (procurement orders, requisitions) (instructions concerning the ordering of all material, acquisition of real property, buildings, furniture, printed matter, advertisements, talent (faculties) speakers, singers, choirs, bands (orchestras) etc., after consultation and agreement with the office of technique, the affected departmental executives, or branch fuehrers (men and women) and with the Bund Treasurer. Commissions (procurement) of the Bund administration are executed by the Bund Business Fuehrer with the approval of the Bund Fuehrer.

10a. No Bund executive issues any orders which might affect or alter the organizational structure of the movement or its branches in the slightest without the concurrence and endorsement of the Bund Organization Leader.

Subordinate departmental and branch officers issue no orders that would indicate or effect any alteration in the organizational structure, except in connection with the determination or alteration of the designation and the boundaries of squares and blocks (see part II (Two) 9, p. 13, as well as part II, 10, p. 14.)

10b. Training and education are promoted with the help of the Bund Educational Leader and other Bund executives according to their respective departmental duties. The Bund Educational Leader selects the faculty; the Bund executives determine the content of the courses. Arrangements for appointment of the faculty, for class-rooms, for schedules, and for he acquisition of the necessary materials — all fall within the domain of the Organization Leader after the financial plans have been worked out with the Treasurer.

Where there is no business fuehrer the organization leader executes commissions (procurement) also. The approval of a sovereign is required.

10c. The management of the Bund archives except in the matter of securities, etc., which are preserved by the Bund Business Fuehrer or the Bund Fuehrer himself, falls within the domain of the statistical office of the Bund organization management. The various departmental and branch officers deliver to this office their "Kartei" cards (personal), lists, pictures, news clippings, maps, etc.

10d. The execution of plans for the practical conduct of the programs of the Bund Propaganda Leader, Bund Educational Leader, and other Bund executives, within the limits of financial possibilities as fixed by the Bund Treasurer in full conformity with the demands upon the Bund Budget Leader (commercial Leader) (DKV) falls within the domain of the technical office of the Bund organization management.

10e. The cooperation of OD units, the employment service, the medical service (sanitation). Women's, Youth's, song, gymnastic, and musical groups, etc., or the employment of outside talent, as may be necessary, is affected with the help of the office of commissions (procurement). The performance of the necessary duties is delegated to the branch fuehrer (man or woman) or, in the case of outside talent, as prescribed in the foregoing under "Commissions" (Procurement).

10f. The associates of the Bund Organization Leader appoint and remove their assistants with the approval of the Bund Organization Leader.

10g. The associates or assistants issue no order^s of their own. The departmental orders of the Bund Organization Leader, countersigned by the Bund Fuehrer are binding upon all sovereigns and organization officers as issued, down to the block.

10h. The area organization leaders are directly subordinate to the Bund Organization Leader departmentally, belong to his council, and must aid him in his official relations with subordinate officers to the extent of their ability. Of all of his directions to them, the qualified area leader receives a copy.

10i. The Bund Organization Leader submits a comprehensive report monthly to the Bund Fuehrer. It is his special duty to maintain the frictionless, competent, and "comradely" cooperation of all executives and members, to correct even the most minute mistakes immediately upon notice, in order that they may not become habitual and be accepted complacently as necessary evils, to prevent "over-organization," but also to be alert lest, as a result of complacency, organization break down, and to inspire the development of constantly new and wider activities of American-German life. (See also the regulations for branches.) (Service.)

11. The Area Organization Leader: The area organization leader is disciplinarily subordinate to the area leader and is appointed and removed by him with the approval of the Bund Fuehrer. Departmentally he is subordinate to the Bund Organization Leader.

As necessity requires he sets up offices in the area administration that correspond to those of the Bund organization administration. He appoints and removes his associates with the approval of his area leader.

He supervises and promotes the execution of Bund organization orders in the area and aids in the preparation of reports by subordinate officers concerning planned new accessions, purchases, education, etc., as well as in their suggestions concerning organizational extensions, to the area leader and Bund Organization Leader.

He issues area organization orders with the approval of his area leader, of which a copy is sent to the Bund Organization Leader.

The regional organization leaders are directly subordinate to him departmentally. Of his instructions to subordinate officers the appropriate qualified sovereign receives a copy.

His other duties constitute the instruction of organization leaders of newly established columns in their duties and the training of organization assistants of subordinate sovereign jurisdictions as substitutes in area and Bund offices.

He is in full charge of the departmental development of the movement in the area. He must acquaint himself in detail concerning the possibilities of dividing over-developed (over-numerous) districts or precincts. The determination or alteration of the designation of districts and precincts is made in accordance with the instructions of the Bund Fuehrer by the Bund Organization Leader; the possible division of districts or precincts is made in accordance with the instructions of the area leader by the area organization leader with the approval of the Bund Fuehrer; the determination or the alteration of the boundaries of the districts or precincts is made in accordance with the instructions of the area leader by the area organization leader. In the last two cases the Bund Organization Leader is to be notified immediately.

Where an area administration has no business fuehrer a considerable part of the duties assigned to him is turned over to the area organization leader. See Part III, 9, pp. 21 and 22.

12. The Regional Organization Leader:

The regional organization leader is disciplinarily subordinate to the regional leader and is appointed and removed by him with the approval of the area leader. Departmentally he is subordinate to the area organization leader.

As occasion demands he establishes regional organization offices which correspond to those of the Bund organization administration. He appoints and removes his associates with the approval of his regional leader. He supervises and promotes the execution of Bund and area organization orders in the region and aids in the preparation of the reports of subordinate officers concerning planned new accessions, purchases, education, etc., to the regional and area organization leader.

He issues regional organization orders with the countersignature of the regional leader, or which a copy is sent to the area organization leader.

The State organization leaders of the region are directly subordinate to him departmentally. Of his orders to subordinate organization officers the appropriate qualified State, district and precinct or column leader receives a copy.

It is his special duty to report currently to superiors and subordinates concerning the political, commercial, industrial and agricultural matters in his region which require consideration in connection with organizational measures, and the training of officers. See also Part III, 9, pp. 21 and 22.

13. The State Organization Leader: The State organization leader is disciplinarily subordinate to the State leader and is appointed and removed by him with the approval of the area leader. The regional leader is notified. Departmentally he is subordinate to the regional organization leader.

As occasion requires lie establishes State organization offices which correspond to those of the Bund organization administration. He appoints and removes his associates with the approval of his State leader. He supervises and promotes the execution of the orders of superior organization officers in the State and aids in the preparation of the reports of the districts and precincts in matters affecting newly planned accessions, purchases, education, etc., to his State leader, regional organization leader and area organization leader.

He issues State organization orders with the countersignature of the State leader, of which a copy is sent to the regional organization leader.

The district organization leaders of the State are directly subordinate to him departmentally. Of his district organization orders the district and precinct or column leaders of the State receive a copy as do also the qualified organization officers.

It is his special duty to familiarize himself with all the legal aspects of the organizational structure of the movement in the State, and to become familiar with all the organized political party affairs of the State, and to report upon all these matters to superiors and subordinates. (See also Part III, 9, pp. 21 and 22).

14. The District Organization Leader: The district organization leader is disciplinarily subordinate to the district leader and is appointed and removed by him with the approval of the area leader. The State leader is informed. Departmentally he is subordinate to the State organization leader.

As necessity requires he establishes district organization offices that correspond to those of the Bund organization administration. He appoints and removes his associates with the approval of his district leader.

He supervises and promotes the execution of the organization orders of superior officers in the district and aids in the preparation of the reports of precincts or columns in matters affecting newly planned accessions, purchases, education, etc., to his district leader. State organization leader and area organization leader.

He issues district organization orders with the countersignature of the district leader, of which a copy is sent to the State organization leader.

The precinct or column organization leaders are directly subordinate to him departmentally. Of the organization orders directed to them the precinct or column leaders receive copies.

The district organization leader must hold regular departmental conferences with his precinct or column organization leaders, and not rely merely upon written correspondence. He is especially the liaison officer between the area organization leader and the organization leaders of newly organized columns, who should be accorded help; he is in addition that officer to whom the training of competent organization executives recommended for promotions is entrusted.

It is his special duty to study the arrangements of the organized political parties of the "counties" in his provinces and to report concerning these matters to superior and subordinate officers and to conduct the educational meetings for the training of all executives, associates, assistants, and OD men of the district regularly and according to instructions.

See also Part III, 9, pp. 21 and 22 and also "Official Administration" following.

15. The Precinct or Column Organization Leader:

The precinct organization leader is disciplinarily subordinate to the precinct leader and is appointed and removed by him with the approval of the area leader. The district leader is notified. Departmentally he is subordinate to the district organization leader.

As occasion requires he establishes organization offices to correspond to those of the Bund organization administration. When necessary, he must perform the precinct organization duties himself. He appoints and removes his associates with the approval of his precinct leaders.

He executes the organization orders of superior officers in the precinct and promotes their execution in the squares and blocks.

He submits current detailed reports concerning newly planned accessions, purchases, education, executive and OD educational meetings, and the organizational status in the precinct, squares and blocks to his precinct leader as well also to his district, area and Bund organization leaders. He must keep these officers informed concerning the possibility and the advisability of the division of the precincts or squares, or the establishment of new columns.

He submits on or before the 10th of each month with the countersignature of the precinct leader a short, formal, but comprehensive report to the Bund Organization Leader.

He conducts regular departmental conferences with the leaders of all the organization offices of the precinct, their squares and branches. These are departmentally subordinate to him.

The principal duty of the organization leader is the equitable division of the work load and the calm, frictionless functioning of the entire administrative apparatus of the precinct.

Where there are no business fuehrers in the precinct the organization leader takes over the important work of business administration. The business administrator is authorized and required to maintain a detailed account of all the property of the movement, including that of the branches, subordinate organizations, and affiliated societies.

The precinct organization leader issues departmental orders countersigned by the precinct leader which pass through the square leaders to the squares and blocks.

See also Part III Paragraph 9, pp 21 and 22 and also "Official Administration" and "Basic instructions for Precinct and Column Administration." The duties, rights, and responsibilities of the column organization leader correspond in the column to those of the precinct organization leader. In columns in which there are no squares the obligations of the square organization executives fall upon the column organization leader.

16. The Square Organization Executive: The square organization executive is disciplinarily subordinate to the square leader and is appointed and removed by him with the approval of the precinct or column leader. Departmentally he is subordinate to the precinct or column organization leader. He executes the orders of the precinct or column organization leader in the jurisdiction of the square and supervises and promotes the work of the block watch in these matters.

For the jurisdiction of the square the duties of the business fuehrer or secretary fuehrer fall upon the square organization executives, the news service leader and the commercial leader. The official instructions affecting the precinct and column leaders in these matters pass through the precinct or column organization leaders and the square leader to the square organization executives. He (the Square Organization Chief) submits a comprehensive report at the end of each month to his square leader and to the precinct or column organization leader.

Square organization executives do not keep personnel lists or cards; the necessary information is to be secured in each case from the precinct or column secretary fuehrer and to be preserved so that it may not be betrayed or stolen. Information for the block leader must be only that which affects a specific block.

Directions for the blocks are to be communicated orally at the block leader meetings of the square leader; written official communications must be reduced to a minimum in the square and excluded entirely between squares and blocks.

16a. The block watch executes in his house groups the orders communicated to him by the square organization executive through his block leader.
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