Three Years in Tibet, by Ekai Kawaguchi

That's French for "the ancient system," as in the ancient system of feudal privileges and the exercise of autocratic power over the peasants. The ancien regime never goes away, like vampires and dinosaur bones they are always hidden in the earth, exercising a mysterious influence. It is not paranoia to believe that the elites scheme against the common man. Inform yourself about their schemes here.

Re: Three Years in Tibet, by Ekai Kawaguchi

Postby admin » Tue Dec 10, 2019 6:28 am

CHAPTER XCIX. Painful News from Lhasa.

A few days after my arrival at the Tower, I met many Tibetans who had come to worship at the holy places in Nepāl. They told me positively that the ex-Minister of Finance had been imprisoned on such and such a day and had been tortured in the Court. I could not quite believe the news, but I was very anxious to know the truth of the case. Fortunately I saw a high Lama named Kusho Lokela from Lhasa, who was on a pilgrimage in memory of his master Temo Rinpoche, whom I have already mentioned. I enquired of him whether the rumor about the imprisonment of the ex-Minister of Finance was true.

“I left Lhasa a month and a half ago,” he said, “and then the ex-Minister was at home. After my departure from Lhasa I heard of his arrest, on my way to Nepāl. But I cannot say whether it is a fact, for, as you know, in Tibet rumor often magnifies misfortune. But there is really great misfortune for Tsa Rong-ba, who was somehow connected with you. I saw him on the veranda of the Court waiting for his trial. I wondered at his bonds, and asked him about his imprisonment. He told me with tears, that he did not commit a theft, nor engage in any quarrel, but he was acquainted with and asked medicine from a doctor of Sera, and that was the cause of his arrest. But he did not know very much about you personally. He was tortured every alternate day, and he became so thin that his body was mere skin and bone. My sympathy and pity became the greater when I heard from him that he bore all his sufferings patiently in the belief that his tortures were due to the sins of his former lives.”

Kusho Lokela was a very honest gentleman, so I could not but believe this. I was really very sorry to receive from him this sad information, and I could not sleep through the night thinking about these Tibetan friends of mine who were imprisoned. I composed an uta about it, which may be rendered in prose somewhat as follows:

“To hear about the misfortunes and sufferings of my friends is to me painful; to speak of them is still more painful and bitter; but unbearable it is for me to write of them. But now for the sake of reviving my recollection of them in my memories in the future, I shall relate in verse all the details.

“Six years ago, I remember, I determined to study Buḍḍhism, the wonderful Pure Law. I left my Motherland, and traversing the snowy range of the Himālayas I entered Tibet, and again have I arrived here from my travels. My heart bleeds to hear now that in that hermit country those friends of mine, as a result of their friendly services to me and for no other offence, have been arrested and imprisoned ‘in durance vile’ and confined within stone walls.

“For these friends of mine I cannot but shed tears when I know that it is for my sake that their sufferings are acute, their bodies shivering within the stony walls of their prison-house in the snowy capital city of Lhasa, sitting disconsolate and wretched on the wooden floor unenlivened by the light of the sun.

“Who will give them food? As a rule in the jails of Tibet, the prisoners get but one meal a day—a handful of barley flour. If my friends are the victims of this rule they will die of starvation, benumbed with the cold.

“Still worse misfortunes and excruciating sufferings they are undergoing, I am sure, for the jailors, unfeeling and cruel, not only starve them with insufficient food, but with insults beat them and inflict bodily pain. My friends, I fancy, now desire to extinguish themselves as a release from their sufferings. These painful reflections on my part drive me to the desire of extinguishing myself also in order to put an end to all my own tortures.

“O how pitiful is my friends’ condition! When I was in Lhasa, you, my friends, never thought that you would be treated as culprits for my sake; your offence simply was the help you rendered me during my sojourn in your country. Now how can I leave you helpless without saving you?

“Judging of men as they naturally are, I should fancy that you would feel disgust towards me and hate me. I thought so, but I have since heard from the man who has met you in the Court of Justice that you said this:

“‘I am not guilty of any theft or breach of the peace, but was told by the Judge that I had acted against the law. I was simply acquainted with a Japanese priest of whose antecedents I knew scarcely anything. All these torments which I am now suffering are, to my mind, but the results of the evil deeds (Karmas) of my past lives. Therefore it is I have to bear them in order to get rid of them as such.’

“O my friends! you may mitigate your misfortunes with that kind of consolation; but how is it possible for me to bear the galling thought that I am the cause of all the misfortunes you have suffered for my sake?”
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Re: Three Years in Tibet, by Ekai Kawaguchi

Postby admin » Tue Dec 10, 2019 6:30 am

CHAPTER C. The King betrays his suspicion.

Image
THE AUTHOR AND HIS FRIEND BUDDHA VAJRA ENJOYING THE BRILLIANT SNOW AT KATMANDU.

On February 9th at two o’clock, accompanied again by Buḍḍha Vajra, I presented myself at the palatial residence of His Highness Chanḍra Shamsher, Prime Minister or King de facto of Nepāl. The residence with its grounds must cover an area of at least three hundred and fifty yards square, and it has a guarded gate, within which are barracks, a small parade-ground, and a race-course. Proceeding over a broad pavement for about seven hundred yards, we came to the main entrance of the palace. Inside the reception hall, into which we were taken, I saw three chairs and a thick piece of white cloth carpet of the Nepālese style at the upper end of the room, and a teak-wood shelf of European design standing against a wall, with a white statue of a Nepālese Goddess riding on an elephant on its top. Other conspicuous objects catching the eye at a glance were a pair each of the carved heads of lions and deer, and a huge pendulum clock. From where we were seated we saw to the south through the glass-paned windows a most enchanting view of the “Moon Peak,” the “Dragon Tree Peak” and other great elevations.

In the reception hall were many officers of the army and other dignitaries. The Secretary for Foreign Affairs being one of the company, took me to task—all by pre-arrangement as I suspect—and I replied to his questions as well as I could.

“I believe more than twenty days have elapsed since your arrival here,” said he; “how have you been employing yourself in the interval?”

“In religious meditation and in composing poems,” I replied.

“What is your court rank and what office do you hold in Japan?” he asked.

“Nothing,” I answered.

But he continued: “Don’t try to make a secret of those things; do you think we can form no idea of our own about you? It will be better for you to tell me all.”

“Sir, I am a Buḍḍhist priest, and I possess no rank, nor order, nor any office under the Japanese or any other Government for that matter.”

“Oh! come, Mr. Kawaguchi; how do you happen to visit Tibet and Nepāl, in spite of the great expense involved?”

“I am absolutely free from all official connexions: I went to Tibet and came to your country with the one sole object of completing my Buḍḍhist study.”

Next he asked “What route did you take in entering Tibet?”

“By way of Mānasarovara,” answered I.

At this he evinced signs of suppressed excitement, and asked quickly: “And what was the route you took in reaching Mānasarovara?”

“Sir,” I replied, “I cannot answer that question, except in the presence of the King.”

“Why?”

“Because I do not wish to bring trouble on innocent parties.”

The other officers then took turns in catechising me as to the manners and customs, national characteristics, and military organisation of Tibet and of Japan. I heard them say in Nepālese that I must be an emissary of the Japanese Government.

Presently we were told to proceed to the court of audience, whither the rest of the assembly were now hurrying. I proceeded as far as a portal, where I observed a large number of the provincial dignitaries of Nepāl (as I subsequently found them to be) salāaming in the most respectful manner. I also noticed one man in the crowd who appeared greatly astonished to see me there: he was the chief of the district of Tukje, in whose house I stayed when on my way to[706] Tibet, and when I went to him in no better capacity than a begging Chinese Lama.

The Prime-Minister King had finished examining the horses sent in as a tribute and sat down on a sofa, and I advanced to his presence. He asked me:

“What can I do for you now?”

“My first appeal to Your Highness is the forwarding of my petition to the Dalai Lama of Tibet, and the second is about Your Highness’s promise as to the Samskṛṭ text of the Buḍḍhist Scriptures.”

“We will talk about those things afterwards,” said he. “I understand that you were in this country four years ago; is that true?”

“Yes, your Highness, I was most certainly here four years ago.”

He straightened himself up and said in a changed tone of voice—“Ha! How was it that you did not tell me so when you saw me at Beelganji? Do you not think that it was in the order of things that you should have told me about your former visit to this country then?”

“I do not deny that, your Highness; let me say, however, that much as I wished to do so then, I abstained from doing so owing to a certain fear I entertained.”

“Might I know what you were afraid of?”

“Certainly, your Highness. In the first place I thought then, that should I open my mouth carelessly, I might invite your anger and consequent punishment on the officers of your challenge gates and many other people of this country. I should have felt unbearable sorrow of mind, had my thoughtless divulgence of the fact at the time involved my friends and acquaintances in Nepāl in the troubles and afflictions now being undergone by those in Tibet. I most earnestly beseech Your Highness that you will punish none of your subjects because of my having passed through this country once before, or else I[707] pray your Highness to allow me to retract all that I have said about my former visit.”

“I grant your request; you may rest assured that I will not punish any of our people on your account.”

“Your Highness has greatly relieved me; I thank your Highness for your magnanimity.”

When truth speaks, it touches the heart; and I was gratified to notice that the King seemed to believe my words. But when it came to the question of the motive of my Tibetan and Nepāl journey, it was another thing—as the King appeared to say, for he next asked me:

“Who sent you to our country and Tibet—was it your Minister of Foreign Affairs, or your Chief Marshal? Tell me the truth.”

I was thunder-struck—I could see that even the King was laboring under the suspicion that I was a political emissary of Japan. Never did I feel more disgusted with what they call politics and diplomacy than on that occasion; especially as I had always had a higher opinion of Nepālese than of Tibetans. Absorbed in these thoughts I kept silence for a while. The silence was misunderstood, for the King said:

“So you cannot disclose your secret?”

“Your Highness, there is no secret about me! I will tell your Highness all the truth there is: it was my own self that sent me here.”

The Minister laughed, and exclaimed:

“Good; but you must know that one cannot travel abroad for six years, unless he is well provided with money; and then you have given to me, as well as to our Commander-in-Chief, presents which must have cost you no small amount of money. Altogether the amount of money involved cannot be such as is likely to be found in the pocket of a mere Buḍḍhist priest with no worldly possessions. Then you seem to be a man of scholarly attainments, besides[708] being well informed of the affairs of the world. You are now before me, and there is no necessity for you to adhere to your secret. If however, you must keep your secret, I will grant you a special audience the day after to-morrow, when you may see me alone and tell me all. Should you still insist on being reserved, then, I may withdraw all my promises to you; nor will I grant you any protection.”

“I have long since vowed my vow to our Lord Buḍḍha, and I tell no falsehood. If your Highness refuses to believe me, I can only rest contented with the fact that I have always adhered to the truth, and beyond that I shall have no means, for the present at least, to prove the truth of what I say. I can only hope that a day will come when your Highness will be convinced of the truth of what I say.”

“If you tell the truth,” replied the Minister, “nobody will suspect you. I shall grant you another interview at half past ten on the morning of the day after to-morrow, and I hope you will think well about telling the truth in the meantime. I bid you good afternoon.”
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Re: Three Years in Tibet, by Ekai Kawaguchi

Postby admin » Tue Dec 10, 2019 6:32 am

CHAPTER CI. Third Audience.

It was on the 9th of February that I had had such an unpleasant interview with the Nepālese Prime Minister, and was told to wait on him again two days after. On the way back to the Tower, deeply moved by what I had heard, I saw the grand appearance of Gaurīshankara, the highest peak in the world, now mottled by clouds, and I gave vent to my feelings thus:

What gnawing torments do I suffer now?
Suspense, distrust and doubts o’erwhelm me.
These melt not or dissolve not from my heart
As yonder snows unmelted, hard to melt.
Those friends of mine, what fate attends them now?
’Tis hard their painful destiny to guess:
Incarcerated and in durance vile
In regions far beyond those snowpeak clouds;
Communing with myself in dire suspense
I know not how to save them, in despair.


But again:

Should I such means adopt, perversely false,
Subversive of all Truth, dishonest, vile?
To utter falsehoods base would choke my throat;
But still to rescue them resolved am I
To seek for means, untainted by untruth;
To truth, unvarnished, perfect, will I cling.


So on the 10th I spent much time in the company of my host, who tried to persuade me into acting conventionally. He himself believed, he said, that I was truly a Buḍḍhist priest and nothing more, but counselled that I might better serve my purpose by acting on the King’s suspicion than by adhering to the truth. Had I not already had occasion to have recourse to falsehood, when it suited me, as for instance, in passing myself off for a Chinese Lama? Was not the most important thing in view the[710] rescuing of my Tibetan friends, and did I not consider that the prospect of enlisting the Nepālese King’s assistance in the matter was greater by passing myself for a Japanese official than by trying to be strictly truthful? That was all so, I replied; but I dwelt on the points of difference between Tibet and Nepāl.

“Stratagems or temporary plans,” I said, “may be used in war, or in circumstances like war, or among rascals, in order to avoid difficulties for others as well as for ourselves. Now the Nepālese are not like the Tibetans, who do not allow a foreigner to enter into their country. The civilisation of Nepāl permits the people to hear reason and truth. How could I insult the Governor with falsehood? If he will not believe me I shall be satisfied with my own truth, and I shall go to Peking and there do my best for these Tibetan friends of mine.”

My host finally acquiesced in the line of argument I pursued, but nevertheless seemed quite concerned about my future safety.

The 11th had come, and Buḍḍha Vajra and I reported ourselves at the palace at the appointed hour. In the waiting-room I found a number of officers and officials as before. A secretary came to me and took down carefully in English what amounted to my curriculum vitæ. Presently, and quite suddenly too, another high official who spoke English with great fluency wanted to know from me if I had not drawn maps of Tibet and Nepāl, and if he could see them. I denied the charge. The official insisting, however, on the correctness of his suspicion, I told him that he was welcome to cherish his own suspicion, as I for my part could rest contented on the saying that detectives see thieves in most people. He was saying that his suspicion was not his alone but was shared by a large number of people, when we were summoned to the royal presence.

We were then shown into a fine room after going up four flights of stairs. I saw the throne occupied by one whom I had taken to be a junior member of the Cabinet at Beelganji. The King de facto sat by the King de jure. A few military officers and some Chamberlains remained standing outside the room. I was told to sit before the de facto King and I took my seat after Tibetan fashion, sitting cross-legged on the floor. The de facto King opened the conversation as follows:

“You are ready now to tell me your secret, I suppose; what is it you wish to tell me most?”

“I possess no secret, Your Highness,” I answered. “What I most earnestly solicit is that Your Highness will be kind enough to take the trouble of forwarding my petition to the Dalai Lama of Tibet and also procuring for me the Buḍḍhist Scriptures in Samskṛṭ.”

The King appeared disappointed but not discomforted. He next wanted to know the gist of my petition. I replied that I pointed out in it that I was in truth a Buḍḍhist priest of Japan, that my Tibetan friends and acquaintances in trouble had associated with me without knowing my nationality; that I was the sole cause of all the trouble, and that those Tibetans had committed no crime; that I would come to Tibet in order to clear my friends and show their innocence, if the Dalai Lama so willed; that if my coming into Tibet was not permissible, it was incumbent on His Holiness to send to Japan a number of competent scholars to ascertain the truth about me before he punished his innocent subjects; that I was willing to find means to bear the cost of the proceeding; and so on.

After attentively listening to my recital, the King, who now seemed to have more or less banished his suspicion, said:

“I see; I shall then want two copies of your petition, one in Tibetan and the other in Nepālese; I will forward[712] the one in Tibetan to His Holiness the Dalai Lama for you, and shall keep for myself the Nepālese copy.”

The order meant that I had not come to Nepāl in vain, and in secret I wept with joy, and I thanked His Highness with all my heart. Being then asked if I had not really disclosed my identity to any one before leaving Tibet, I admitted that I had taken the ex-Minister of the Treasury alone into my confidence.

I was not yet safely through my ordeal; for the King was very curious to know next how I had occupied my time during the twenty days that had elapsed since my arrival in Kātmāndu. He accepted my reply, which was to the effect that I had spent my time chiefly in literary efforts to take home in verse and prose descriptions of the grandeur of the Himālayan scenery. I then submitted to His Highness a list of the Scriptures in Samskṛṭ that I wished to procure. The King took the list from my hand and gave instructions accordingly to one of his Chamberlains. He said that I should have all that could be collected in fifteen days.

On the way back to the Tower I again saw that highest peak, Gaurīshankara, but its splendor was now far greater than it had been that other day. Moreover my desires had been fulfilled by the grace of our Lord Buḍḍha, and I thanked Him with utas:

Till yesterday uncertain of their fate,
In doubts and painful anguish was I lost.
To-day means being found to rescue them
My doubts dissolve like snows upon the hills.
Of all expedients, honest Truth must be
The best; no doubt, whatever be the fruit,
E’en if the object aimed at be not gained,
But honest Truth itself is th’ object gained.

I find no place where Buddha not exists.
Non-space, non-Buddha—this my constant thought.
These brilliant snowy mountains in the sky
The Lord Supreme pervades—the Lord of all.


When I left Japan for Tibet, a friend of mine, Mr. S. Shimamura, had sent in farewell a prophetic uta which had been fulfilled, so I mention it here with my reply.

The path for you, you’ll find as you proceed
Across the pathless mountain-passes drear;
The Universal Leader, Buddha Great, your Guide
Shall be in all your rambles in Tibet.


Reply:

My heaped my sorrows and calamities
Now all are melted like th’ eternal snows
With that unfailing Beacon-light, my Guide;
The Universal Leader, Buddha Great, my Guide
Has been in all my rambles in Tibet.
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Re: Three Years in Tibet, by Ekai Kawaguchi

Postby admin » Tue Dec 10, 2019 6:32 am

CHAPTER CII. Farewell to Nepal and its Good Kings.

I had asked my host Buḍḍha Vajra to make a translation of my petition to the Dalai Lama into Nepālese. He had finished the translation, taken both copies to the palace and handed them to the King Chandra Shamsher. He had come home and was talking to me:

“Never before in my life,” said he, “have I felt so pleased as I did to-day!”

“Pray, what happened?”

“When I handed up the petition and its translation, the King wanted to know who had composed your Tibetan petition. I told His Highness that you were your own author—which was nothing but truth—and he appeared to be well pleased. I then said that His Highness might judge the high merit of your composition by reading my translation of it, which was but a poor effort. The King took up my translation and began to read it. When he had finished going over the concluding part, where you said: ‘The Dalai Lama of Tibet is the incarnation of the God of Mercy and knoweth all. The fact that Ekai Kawaguchi, a priest of Japan, was allowed personally to wait on and be taught by Your Holiness who knoweth all, proveth that our Lord Buḍḍha willed that it should be even so; not only that, but the same fact proveth that the Gods guarding the four points of Your Holiness’ palace all willed so. Twenty years have elapsed since Your Holiness’ country adopted the policy of absolute seclusion, and no foreigner has been allowed to enter it during that interval; and the fact that I alone was suffered to visit it proveth that the Gods guarding the frontiers of your country had permitted me to do so. Fur[715]thermore I discern something profoundly significant in the combination of events which led Your Holiness that knoweth all generously to overlook Ekai’s entry into your land and impart to him the grand mysteries of your religion. Your Holiness knoweth as well as I that the only two countries in the world that maintain the Mahāyāna teaching of Buḍḍhism are the Empire of Japan and Tibet. There are others indeed, but they are insignificant and are in decadence now. The time is come when these two countries of Mahāyāna Budḍḍhism shall become acquainted and open intercourse with each other, and join in sending forth to the world the light of true Buḍḍhism. I think it was the advent of this new epoch that paved the way for my entrance into Tibet, and gave me an opportunity, most difficult to obtain, of being initiated into the grand mysteries even by your Holiness.’ The King was enraptured with the force and eloquence of your argument.”

I was well pleased that things were so, and I praised our Lord Buḍḍha, for by His protection and assistance my purpose in coming to Nepāl was accomplished.

I had to wait till about the 10th of March, in order to secure the promised royal gift. I thought it unwise to spend the interval in doing anything that would give an appearance of my being engaged in secret observations; so openly obtaining permission, I made a trip to the famous Nāgar Zong peak, a place sacred to Buḍḍhism.

On the 12th of March, a few days after my return from the trip, I was once more and for the last time summoned to the palace. I took with me then a red and a white piece of crape, which had arrived in the meantime from Japan, and presented them to the King, who accepted them only after much protest. His Highness then caused the Samskṛṭ Texts to be brought in and gave them to me. He at the same time signed to one of his English interpreters and through him said in an authoritative tone of voice:

“Mr. Kawaguchi, these are rare volumes; I have been able to collect only forty-one parts of the Scripture. I hope you will accept them from me as a mark of my appreciation of your presents to me.”

I tendered to His Highness my most heartfelt thanks and took leave of him after a most respectful farewell. The volumes were forwarded for me to Buḍḍha Vajra’s house, borne by two men.

Everything was done to oblige me, even to passing all my luggage—which had by that time become quite considerable—through the customs-house in advance at Kātmāndu instead of at Tispanī or Chisapani, which is the usual place where all outgoing freights are examined.

On the 16th of March I left Kātmāndu, reached Raxaul station in the night of the 21st, and on the following night arrived at Calcutta, where I was met by my friend Mr. Omiya, who scolded me for spending money recklessly. I spent some days in Calcutta, doing a good deal of preaching among my countrymen residing there. Thence I went to Bombay early in April, and there received a most hearty welcome. There too I did some preaching and also lecturing, on one occasion before an assembly of Japanese gentlemen resident in the port and on another before the members of the local branch of the Asiatic Society. Contributions and gifts given me in money during my stay there amounted to a considerable sum, and with that money I purchased my passage home, besides paying back the debts I owed to my friends in Calcutta. On the 24th of April I embarked on the Bombay Maru, and sailed for home.

On May 19, 1902, the good ship passed Moji, and the next day she came along side the Kobe pier, where from a considerable distance I discerned the figures of my friends, relatives and members of my former flock, with eyes that grew dimmer and dimmer as the distance shortened.
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Re: Three Years in Tibet, by Ekai Kawaguchi

Postby admin » Tue Dec 10, 2019 6:34 am

CHAPTER CIII. All’s well that ends well.

the end justifies the means —used to say that a desired result is so good or important that any method, even a morally bad one, may be used to achieve it


Something more than two years had elapsed since my return to Japan, and in all that time the worry of my mind had kept on increasing, instead of abating; in fact, every day that passed seemed to add to the misery and to make more vivid the picture of the dreadful fate of my friends and benefactors in Tibet. The reader may well imagine, therefore, with what kind of feeling I read the following letter (from which an extract only is given here):

“Mr. Kawaguchi passed through Yatung (Tibet) on his way to Darjeeling from Lhasa about June 1902. During his brief stay at Yatung, he, to my personal knowledge, attended or prescribed for the wife of the local Tibetan official there, commonly known as Dhurkey Sirdar. Soon after he had crossed the Jelap pass into Sikkim (British protected territory) an order was sent from Lhasa to the effect that he had been living at the Gompa of Sera, Lhasa, for some fifteen months and had suddenly disappeared, and was believed to be a foreigner. Therefore Dhurkey Sirdar was instructed to compass his arrest. This in itself would seem sufficient proof or corroboration of Kawaguchi’s statements, however, they need not rest on this alone, for there is no Tibetan official or merchant whom I have met who was not cognisant of Kawaguchi’s lengthened residence at Sera Gompa and his flight therefrom....

“As I have already mentioned, I never yet met an official or merchant who did not know of Kawaguchi’s lengthened residence at Lhasa
, but I have still to meet either one or other who has ever heard of Lander of spiked-saddle fame!

“Please tell Kawaguchi that from enquiries I have ascertained that his Teacher and the merchants who befriended him have been released. I am, however, instituting fuller enquiries and will do all in my power for them and let him know as soon as possible.”

The letter is dated “c/o Gratong P. O., Tibet Frontier Commission, Tuna, 17 March, 1904,” and is from Captain Randal Parr, British Tibet Frontier Commissioner, to whom I previously had the pleasure of writing, through the introduction of Miss E. R. Scidmore [Eliza Ruhamah Scidmore] of Yokohama. It is addressed to the lady just mentioned, who has kindly placed at my disposal the contents thereof.

The present translation of my book on Tibet was near its completion when I was allowed a perusal of the above, and never before had I read any letter with so much genuine and mingled feeling of the most profound joy and gratitude as I felt on that occasion. A great tormenting load was suddenly taken off my mind—it will not be necessary to say why. I am glad further that I am able to incorporate this piece of good tidings in, and make it the concluding chapter of this translation of my book.

Peace to all Beings.

Image
MOUNT GAURISHANKARA, THE HIGHEST PEAK IN THE WORLD.
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Re: Three Years in Tibet, by Ekai Kawaguchi

Postby admin » Tue Dec 10, 2019 6:35 am

Footnotes

[1] The word uta in Japanese means a short epigrammatic poem, expressed tersely, and inspired by some special occasion.

[2] Bhota is the name by which Tibet is known in Samskri.

[3] Dr. Sven Hedin succeeded in entering Tibet from Kashmir in 1906.

[4] The words “Lha-kyallo” mean: the virtuous God will be victorious.

[5] The Gospel teaches that the Buḍḍha attained His enlightenment as He sat gazing up to the “Morning Star” on His last night of meditation under the sacred bodhi tree.

Transcriber's Note

Illustrations have been moved next to the relevant text.

The following apparent errors have been corrected:

p. xi "Third Challenge Gates" changed to "Third Challenge Gates."
p. xi "from Lhasa" changed to "from Lhasa."
p. xv "Bahaḍur" changed to "Bahāḍur"
p. 7 "Ḍarjeeling" changed to "Darjeeling"
p. 13 "Lāma Shabdung" changed to "Lama Shabdung"
p. 53 "Paḍma Sambhava" changed to "Padma Sambhava"
p. 66 "Ḍas" changed to "Ḍās"
p. 142 "Bodhisaṭṭvas" changed to "Boḍhisaṭṭvas"
p. 142 "Amiṭābha" changed to "Amitābha"
p. 144 "just at" changed to "just as"
p. 146 "than Mānasaṛovaṛa" changed to "than Mānasarovara"
p. 172 "of Buḍḍhism" changed to "of Buḍḍhism."
p. 196 "ice-blocks" changed to "ice-blocks."
p. 218 "he would" changed to "He would"
p. 229 "agreable" changed to "agreeable"
p. 237 "priests" changed to "priests,"
p. 241 "twenty one" changed to "twenty-one"
p. 244 "familar" changed to "familiar"
p. 245 "two and half" changed to "two and a half"
p. 256 "someone" changed to "someone."
p. 258 "in one" changed to "is one"
p. 263 "occasion" changed to "occasions"
p. 295 "being trouble" changed to "bring trouble"
p. 298 "in front of of" changed to "in front of"
p. 321 "so much," changed to "so much."
p. 370 "neigbors" changed to "neighbors"
p. 395 "class" changed to "class."
p. 425 "other which" changed to "other with"
p. 440 "divisons" changed to "divisions"
p. 453 "sen at Lhasa" changed to "sen at Lhasa"
p. 456 "inconvenience to" changed to "inconvenience"
p. 487 "a fatal" changed to "fatal"
p. 499 "Tsar in" changed to "Tsar is"
p. 527 "agressive" changed to "aggressive"
p. 535 "of a abiding" changed to "abiding"
p. 535 "ngos' should" changed to "should"
p. 535 "monastery" changed to "of a monastery"
p. 572 "ancester's" changed to "ancestor's"
p. 577 "Dās" changed to "Ḍās"
p. 579 "determined" changed to "determined."
p. 592 "aquaintance" changed to "acquaintance"
p. 601 (note) "“Lha-kyallo" changed to "“Lha-kyallo”"
p. 613 "road?”" changed to "road?"
p. 614 "choose." changed to "choose.”"
p. 626 "do so." changed to "do so.”"
p. 654 "ollows" changed to "follows"
p. 657 "disagreeble" changed to "disagreeable"
p. 664 "Lapches in" changed to "Labches in"
p. 673 "then," changed to "then,”"
p. 674 "the air" changed to "the air."
p. 674 "security, there" changed to "security there,"
p. 699 "fowarding" changed to "forwarding"

Inconsistent spelling and hyphenation have otherwise been kept as printed.
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