Tucker Carlson Doubles Down on White Supremacist 'Great Repl

Tucker Carlson Doubles Down on White Supremacist 'Great Repl

Postby admin » Wed Apr 14, 2021 4:23 am

Tucker Carlson Doubles Down on White Supremacist 'Great Replacement' Theory
The Mehdi Hasan Show
Apr 13, 2021



The Atlantic's Adam Serwer and Mehdi discuss Carlson's history of promulgating racist rhetoric on prime time television and its real-life consequences.

The Mehdi Hasan Show: Insightful reporting and probing interviews that examine the day's events and provide a deeper level of context for the politics of our interconnected society. Watch The Mehdi Hasan Show on The Choice channel on Peacock TV, weeknights, 7 p.m. ET. Subscribe to the channel for more interviews.
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 32795
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Tucker Carlson Doubles Down on White Supremacist 'Great

Postby admin » Wed Apr 14, 2021 4:26 am

Part 1 of 2

Great Replacement
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 4/13/21

The Great Replacement (French: Grand Remplacement), also known as the replacement theory,[1][2] is a white nationalist[3] conspiracy theory[4][5][6] which states that, with the complicity or cooperation of "replacist" elites,[a][4][7] the white French population—as well as white European populations at large—is being demographically and culturally replaced with non-European peoples—specifically Arab, Berber, South Asians and sub-Saharan Muslim populations from Africa and the Middle East—through mass migration, demographic growth and a European drop in the birth rate.[4][8] This theory is popular among anti-migrant far-right movements in the West.[9] Scholars have generally dismissed the claims of a "great replacement" as being rooted in an exaggerated reading of immigration statistics and unscientific, racist views.[10][11]

While similar themes have characterized various far-right theories since the late 19th century, the term "Great Replacement" was popularized by the French author Renaud Camus in his 2011 book Le Grand Remplacement (English: The Great Replacement). It specifically associated the presence of Muslims in France with potential danger and destruction of French culture and civilization. Camus and other conspiracy theorists attribute this process to intentional policies advanced by global and liberal elites (i.e., the "replacists") from within the Government of France, the European Union, or the United Nations, and describe it as a "genocide by substitution".[4]

The "Great Replacement" is included in a larger white genocide conspiracy theory that has spread in Western far-right movements since the late 20th century, notably through the efforts of American neo-Nazi activist David Lane.
[9][12] Despite their common reference to a "genocide" of indigenous white peoples and a global plan led by a conspiring power, Camus's theory does not include antisemitic claims of a Jewish plot, which have been replaced in the European context with Islamophobia.[13][12] The absence of antisemitism in Camus' conspiracy theory, along with his use of simple catch-all slogans, have been cited as reasons for its broader appeal.[13][14][15]

Description

The current notion of replacement theory finds its historical antecedents in the 1916 book, The Passing of the Great Race by American eugenicist, Madison Grant.[16] This text was highly influential amongst eugenists at the time of its publishing and informed the policies underlying the American Immigration Act of 1924. Grant's idea of replacement was also later adapted by Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party to support eugenic policies and, ultimately, the ideology of hate towards Jewish populations throughout conquered Europe.[17] We can find the same discursive constructions that call for racial purity, the defense of Christianity, and Western civilization's superiority embedded in 21st-century versions of replacement theory.[18]

In the early 21st century, the "Great Replacement” theory was adapted by French author Renaud Camus, initially in a 2010 book titled L'Abécédaire de l'in-nocence ("Abecedarium of no-harm"),[ b][20] and the following year in an eponymous book, Le Grand Remplacement (introduction au remplacisme global).[c] Camus has claimed that the name Grand Remplacement "came to [him], almost by chance, perhaps in a more or less unconscious reference to the Grand Dérangement of the Acadians in the 18th century."[21] Commenting on the name, he has also declared that his theory was the "implementation in real life" of Bertolt Brecht's quip that the easiest thing to do for a government was to change the people had the people forfeited its confidence.[22]

According to Camus, the "Great Replacement" has been nourished by "industrialisation", "despiritualisation" and "deculturation";[d][23][24] the materialistic society and globalism having created a "replaceable human, without any national, ethnic or cultural specificity",[25] what he labels "global replacism".[26] Camus claims that "the great replacement does not need a definition," as the term is not, in his views, a "concept" but rather a "phenomenon":[27][14]

Image
Renaud Camus, progenitor of the Great Replacement theory. March 2019

A people was here, stable, had been occupying the same territory for fifteen or twenty centuries. And suddenly, very quickly, in one or two generations, one or several other peoples substitute themselves for him. He is replaced, it is not him anymore.

— Renaud Camus, 2013 interview for Action Française.[7]


In Camus's theory, the indigenous French people ("the replaced")[e][21] is described as being demographically replaced by non-European peoples—mainly coming from Africa or the Middle East—in a process of "peopling immigration" encouraged by a "replacist power".[a][4][28] According to French philosopher Pierre-André Taguieff, the validity for using the term "conspiracy theory" to define Camus's concept indeed lies in the second part of the proposition:

To [the theory of a replacement through mass immigration], that claims itself to be an observation or a description, is added in the "anti-replacist" vision a conspiracy theory which attributes to the "replacist" elites the desire to achieve the "Great Replacement". From the ideas of "peopling colonisation" and "mass immigration", "anti-replacists" went to that of a genocide by ethnic, racial and cultural substitution, involving the completion of a programme or an action plan.

— Pierre-André Taguieff, 2015.[4]


Camus frequently uses terms and concepts related to the period of Nazi-occupied France (1940–1945). He for instance labels "colonizers" or "Occupiers"[f] people of non-European descent who reside in Europe,[29][30] and dismisses what he calls the "replacist elites" as "collaborationist".[31] Camus founded in 2017 an organization named the National Council of European Resistance, in a self-evident reference to the World War II National Council of the Resistance (1943–1945).[32] This analogy to the French resistance against Nazism has been described as an implicit call to hatred, direct action or even violence against what Camus labels the "Occupiers; i.e. the immigrants".[31] Camus has also compared the Great Replacement and the so-called "genocide by substitution" of the European peoples to the genocide of the European Jews during World War II.[32]

The Occupation provoked among the French, and especially among the resisters, a very intense feeling of hatred [...] Moreover this occupation was made of persons in uniforms [...] How could you not provoke, with such an analogy, a hatred that some will judge salutary towards any immigrant they will meet [...]? It appears to be contradictory on your side to say that you condemn hatred, while at the same time drawing inspiration from that incendiary analogy to describe our times.

— Alain Finkielkraut, 2017.[31]


Origins

Context


Renaud Camus developed his conspiracy theory in two books published in 2010 and 2011, in the context of an increase in anti-immigrant rhetoric in public discourse during the previous decade.[33] Europe also experienced an escalation in Islamic terrorist attacks during the 2000s–2010s,[34] and a migrant crisis that began in 2015,[35] which participated in exacerbating tensions and preparing the public opinion for the reception of Camus's conspiracy theory.[36][7] As the latter depicts a population replacement said to occur in a short time lapse of one or two generations, the migrant crisis was particularly conducive to the spread of Camus's ideas—even though France was not the main European country concerned with the migration flows—while the terrorist attacks accelerated the construction of immigrants as an existential threat among those who shared such a worldview.[7]

Camus's theme of a future demise of European culture and civilization also parallels a "cultural pessimistic" and anti-Islam trend among European intellectuals of the period, illustrated in several best-selling and straightforwardly titled books released during the 2010s: Thilo Sarrazin's Germany Abolishes Itself (2010), Éric Zemmour's The French Suicide (2014) or Michel Houellebecq's Submission (2015).[37]

Claimed influences

See also: The Camp of the Saints and Rivers of Blood speech

Renaud Camus cites two influential figures in the epilogue of his 2011 book The Great Replacement: British politician Enoch Powell's apocalyptic vision of future race relations—expressed in his 1968 "Rivers of Blood" speech—and French author Jean Raspail's depiction of the collapse of the West from an overwhelming "tidal wave" of Third World immigration, featured in his 1973 novel The Camp of the Saints.[13][38]

Camus also declared to British magazine The Spectator in 2016 that a key to understanding the "Great Replacement" can be found in his 2002 book Du Sens.[39] In the latter he wrote that the words "France" and "French" equal a natural and physical reality rather than a legal one, in a cratylism similar to Charles Maurras's distinction between the "legal" and the "real country".[g][40] During the same interview, Camus mentioned that he began to imagine his conspiracy theory back in 1996, during the redaction of a guidebook on the department of Hérault, in the South of France: "I suddenly realized that in very old villages [...] the population had totally changed too [...] this is when I began to write like that."[39]

Similar themes

Main article: White genocide conspiracy theory

Despite its own singularities and concepts, the "Great Replacement" is encompassed in a larger and older "white genocide" conspiracy theory,[41] popularized in the US by neo-Nazi David Lane in his 1995 White Genocide Manifesto, where he asserted that governments in Western countries were intending to turn white people into "extinct species".[42][43] The idea of a "replacement" of indigenous white people under the guidance of a hostile elite can be further traced back to pre-WWII antisemitic conspiracy theories which posited the existence of a Jewish plot to destroy Europe through miscegenation, especially in Édouard Drumont's antisemitic bestseller La France juive (1886).[44] Commenting on this resemblance, historian Nicolas Lebourg and political scientist Jean-Yves Camus suggest that Camus's contribution was to replace the antisemitic elements with a clash of civilizations between Muslims and Europeans.[13]

To succeed in their attack on Christian civilization, Jews in France had to deceive, lie, and take the disguises of free thinkers. If they had said frankly: "We want to destroy this ancient France, which was so glorious and beautiful, to replace it with the domination of a handful of Hebrews from all countries", our fathers, who were less softened than us, would not have let themselves be taken in.

— Édouard Drumont, La France juive, 1886, Livre 1, Ch. 3


Maurice Barrès's nationalist writings of that period have also been noted in the ideological genealogy of the "Great Replacement", Barrès contending both in 1889 and in 1900 that a replacement of the native population under the combined effect of immigration and a decline in the birth rate was happening in France.[45][44] Scholars also highlight a modern similarity to European neo-fascist and neo-Nazi thinkers from the immediate post-war, especially Maurice Bardèche, René Binet and Gaston-Armand Amaudruz.[46][47] Influenced by Binet's 1950 Théorie du Racisme[48]—with its idea of an "interbreeding capitalism" aiming at creating a "uniform inhumanity"[49]—French 1960s far-right movements such as Europe-Action used terms that echo Camus's concepts, labeling the Algerian immigration an "invasion", arguing that "systematic race mixing is nothing more than a slow genocide",[50] and fearing a future France "occupied by twenty million Maghrebi Arabs and twenty million Negro-Africans":[51][52]

In France, the significant immigration of colored elements is a grave issue […]. We also know the size of the North African population [...]. What is serious for the future: we know that the basis of European settlement, which allowed for civilizing expansion, was that of a white ethnic group. The destruction of this balance, which can be quick, will lead to our disappearance and that of our civilization.

— Dominique Venner, Europe-Action, nº 38, February 1966, p. 8.


The associated and more recent conspiracy theory of "Eurabia", published by British author Bat Ye'or in her 2005 eponymous book, is often cited as a probable inspiration for Camus's "Great Replacement".[53][54][55] Eurabia theory likewise involves globalist entities, that time led by both French and Arab powers, conspiring to Islamize Europe, with Muslims submerging the continent through immigration and higher birth rates.[56] The conspiracy theory also depicts immigrants as invaders or as a fifth column, invited to the continent by a corrupt political elite.[57][58] Scholars generally agree that, although he did not father the theme, Camus indeed coined the term "Great Replacement" as a slogan and concept, and eventually led it to its fame in the 2010s.[59][60]

Analysis

Demographic statistics


While the ethnic demography of France has shifted as a result of post-WWII immigration, scholars have generally dismissed the claims of a "great replacement" as being rooted in an exaggeration of immigration statistics and unscientific, racially prejudiced views.[10] Geographer Landis MacKellar criticized Camus's thesis for assuming "that third- and fourth- generation 'immigrants' are somehow not French."[11]

Researchers have variously estimated the Muslim population of France at between 8.8% and 12.5% in 2017,[61][62] making a "replacement" unlikely according to MacKellar.[11] The Pew Research Center projected that above-average fertility rates would increase it to 12.7% by 2050 in the absence of immigration, or to 18% with a high-immigration scenario.[61] According to the INSEE, 28.15% of newborns born in Metropolitan France in 2018 had at least one parent who was born outside of Europe.[63]

Racial connotations

In German discourse, Austrian political scientist Rainer Bauböck questioned the conspiracy theorists' use of the terms "population replacement" or "exchange" ("Bevölkerungsaustausch"). Using Ruth Wodak's analysis that the slogan needs to be viewed in its historical context, Bauböck has concluded that the conspiracy theory is a reemergence of the Nazi ideology of Umvolkung ("ethnicity inversion").[64]

In May 2019, political journalist Nick Cohen described the Great Replacement as a form of racism and propaganda, alongside a fear European men are not virile enough.[65] The same month, historian Anne Applebaum wrote that the conspiracy theory was used as a gateway from discussing the effects of immigration and Islam's compatibility with the Western world to forms of extremism, such as advocating for the "remigration" or the murder of migrants.[66]

Popularity

Image
Camus's tract for his 2014 "day of anger" demonstration against the "great replacement": "No to the change of people and of civilization, no to antisemitism"

The simplicity and use of catch-all slogans in Camus's formulations—"you have one people, and in the space of a generation you have a different people"[14]— as well as his removal of antisemitism from the original neo-Nazi "white genocide" conspiracy theory, have been cited as conducive to the popularity of the "Great Replacement".[15][13]

In a survey led by Ifop in December 2018, 25% of the French subscribed to the conspiracy theory; as well as 46% of the responders who defined themselves as "Gilets Jaunes" (Yellow Vest protesters).[67] The theory has also become influential in far-right and white nationalist circles outside of France.[68]

The conspiracy theory has been cited by Canadian far-right political activist Lauren Southern in a YouTube video of the same name released in July 2017.[14] Southern's video had attracted in 2020 more than 686,000 viewers[69] and is credited with helping to popularize the conspiracy theory.[70] Counter-jihad Norwegian blogger Fjordman has also participated in spreading the theory.[71]

Prominent right-wing extremist websites such as Gates of Vienna, Politically Incorrect, and Fdesouche have provided a platform for bloggers to diffuse and popularize the theory of the "Great Replacement".[72] Among its main promoters are also a wide-ranging network of loosely connected white nationalist movements, especially the Identitarian movement in Europe,[73] and other groups like PEGIDA in Germany.[74]

Political influence

Europe

Austria


See also: Kalergi plan

Identitäre Bewegung Österreich (IBÖ), the Austrian branch of the Identitarian movement, promotes this theory, citing a "great exchange"[h] or replacement of the population that supposedly needs to be reversed.[75] In April 2019, Heinz-Christian Strache campaigning for his FPÖ party ahead of the 2019 European Parliament election endorsed the conspiracy theory.[76] Claiming that "population replacement" in Austria was a real threat, he stated that "We don’t want to become a minority in our own country".[77] Compatriot Martin Sellner, who also supports the theory, celebrated Strache's political use of the Great Replacement.[78][79]

Belgium

In September 2018, Schild & Vrienden [nl], an extremist Flemish youth organization, were reported to be endorsing the conspiracy theory. The group, claiming that native populations of Europe were being replaced by migrants; they proposed an end to all immigration, forced deportation of non-whites, and the founding of ethnostates.[80] The following month, VRT detailed how the organization was discussing the Great Replacement on secretive chat channels, and using the conspiracy theory to promote Flemish ethnic identity.[81]

In March 2019, Flemish nationalist Dries Van Langenhove of the Vlaams Belang party, repeatedly stated that the Flemish people were "being replaced" in Belgium, posting claims on social media which endorsed the Great Replacement theory.[82][83]

Denmark

Use of the Great Replacement (Danish: Store Udskiftning) conspiracy theory has become common in right-wing Danish political rhetoric. In April 2019, Rasmus Paludan, leader of the Hard Line party, which is widely associated with the Great Replacement,[84] claimed that by the year 2040 ethnic Danish people would be a minority in Denmark, having been outnumbered by Muslims and their descendants.[85] During a debate for the 2019 European Parliament elections, Rasmus used the concept to justify a proposal to ban Muslim immigration and deport all Islamic residents from the country, in what Le Monde described as Rasmus "preaching the 'great replacement theory'".[86]

In June 2019, Pia Kjærsgaard invoked the conspiracy theory while serving as Speaker of the Danish Parliament. After the alleged encouragement of Muslim communities to "vote red", for the Social Democrats; Kjærsgaard asked "What will happen? A replacement of the Danish people?".[85]

France

Much of the European spread of the Great Replacement (French: Grand Remplacement) conspiracy theory rhetoric is due to its prevalence in French national discourse and media. Nationalist right-wing groups in France have asserted that there is an ongoing "Islamo-substitution" of the indigenous French population, associating the presence of Muslims in France with potential danger and destruction of French culture and civilization.[87][88][89]

In 2011, Marine Le Pen evoked the theory, claiming that France's "adversaries" were waging a moral and economic war on the country, apparently "to deliver it to submersion by an organized replacement of our population".[90] In 2013, historian Dominique Venner's suicide in Notre-Dame de Paris, in which he left a note outlining the "crime of the replacement of our people" is reported to have inspired the far-right Iliade Institute's main ideological tenet of the Great Replacement.[91] Referring to the conspiracy theory, Marine Le Pen publicly praised Venner, claiming that his "last gesture, eminently political, was to try to awaken the French people".[90]

In 2015, Guillaume Faye gave a speech at the Swedish Army Museum in Stockholm, in which he claimed there were three societal things being used against Europeans to carry out a supposed Great Replacement: abortion, homosexuality and immigration. He asserted that Muslims were replacing white people by using birthrates as a demographic weapon.[92]

In June 2017, a BuzzFeed investigation revealed three National Front candidates subscribing to the conspiracy theory ahead of the legislative elections.[93] These included Senator Stéphane Ravier's personal assistant, who claimed the Great Replacement had already started in France.[94] Publishing an image of blonde girl next to the caption "Say no to white genocide", Ravier's aide politically charged the concept further, writing "the National Front or the invasion".[95]

By September 2018, in a meeting at Fréjus, Marine Le Pen closely echoed Great Replacement rhetoric. Speaking of France, she declared that "never in the history of mankind, have we seen a society that organizes an irreversible submersion" that would eventually cause French society to "disappear by dilution or substitution, its culture and way of life".[90] Former National Assembly delegate Marion Maréchal, who is a junior member of the political Le Pen family, is also a proponent of the theory.[96] In March 2019, in a trip to the U.S., Maréchal evoked the theory, stating "I don’t want France to become a land of Islam".[97] Insisting that the Great Replacement was "not absurd", she declared the "indigenous French" people, apparently in danger of being a minority by 2040, now wanted their "country back".[98]

National Rally's serving president Marine Le Pen, who is the aunt of Maréchal, has been heavily influenced by the Great Replacement. FAZ newspaper has described the conspiracy theory creator Renaud Camus as Le Pen's "whisperer".[99] In May 2019, National Rally spokesman Jordan Bardella was reported to use the conspiracy theory during a televised debate with Nathalie Loiseau, after he argued that France must "turn off the tap" from the demographic bomb of African immigration into the country.[100]

In June 2019, Éric Zemmour pushed the concept in comparison to the Kosovo War, claiming "In 1900, there were 90% Serbs and 10% Muslims in Kosovo, in 1990 there were 90% Muslims and 10% Serbs, then there was war and the independence of Kosovo".[101] Zemmour, author of The French Suicide, has repeatedly described "the progressive replacement, over a few decades, of the historic population of our country by immigrants, the vast majority of them non-European".[102] Later that month, Marion Maréchal joined Zemmour in invoking the Great Replacement in relation to the Balkan region, stating "I do not want my France to become Kosovo" and declared that the changing demographics of France "threatens us" ("nous menace") and that this was increasingly clear.[101]

Germany

SPD politician Thilo Sarrazin is reported to be one of the most influential promoters of the Great Replacement, having published several books on the subject, some of which, such as Germany Abolishes Itself, are in high circulation.[84] Sarrazin has proposed that there are too many immigrants in Germany, and that they supposedly have lower IQs than Germans. Regarding the demographics of Germany, he has claimed that in a century ethnic Germans will drop in number to 25 million, in 200 years to eight million and in 300 years: three million.[84]

In May 2016, Alternative for Germany (German: Alternative für Deutschland, AfD) deputy leader Beatrix von Storch co-opted and distorted the meaning of a 2001 United Nations report titled "Replacement migration", which focused on how to manage the replenishment of the population of eight low-fertility countries (France, Germany, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Russia, U.K. and U.S.), in order to push the theory.[103] Storch claimed that a mass population exchange ("Massenaustausch der Bevölkerung") had been planned by the UN since the publication of the report.[104]

In April 2017, a few months before he assumed the leadership of the AfD, Alexander Gauland released a press statement regarding the issue of family reunification for refugees, in which he claimed that "Population exchange in Germany is running at full speed".[99][104] In October 2018, following Beatrix von Storch's lead, Bundestag member Petr Bystron said the Global Compact for Migration was part of the conspiracy to bring about systemic population change in Germany.[104]

In March 2019, Vice Germany reported how AfD MP Harald Laatsch [de] attempted to justify and assign blame for the Christchurch mosque shootings, in relation to his "The Great Exchange"[h] theory, by asserting that the shooter's actions were driven by "overpopulation" from immigrants and "climate protection" against them. Laatsch also claimed that the climate movement, who he labelled "climate panic propagators", had a "shared responsibility" for the massacre, and singled out child activist Greta Thunberg.[103]

Similarly, right-wing publicist Martin Lichtmesz [de] denied that either Anders Behring Breivik's 2011 manifesto, which referred to the Eurabia variant of the "white genocide" narrative, or Brenton Tarrant's 2019 The Great Replacement manifesto, had any connection to the theory. Claiming that it was, in fact, not a conspiracy theory at all, Lichtmesz said both Breivik and Tarrant were reacting to a real phenomenon; a "historically unique experiment" of a "Great Exchange"[h] of people.[103]

Greece

[x]

Ilias Kasidiaris, a Greek politician who lost his seat in the Hellenic Parliament alongside all other representatives of the neo-Nazi Golden Dawn as a political party in the aftermath of the 2019 Greek legislative election before leaving it to found his own Greeks for the Fatherland party that he led at the onset for the verdict of Golden Dawn's trial, where it was convicted as a criminal organization, while Kasidiaris himself was found guilty for being one of its leading members.

Ilias Kasidiaris, both as leading member of Golden Dawn and founder and President of Greeks for the Fatherland, has accused immigrants of taking the resources, jobs and opportunity meant for Greeks, predicting that they will be a minority in their country in less than 100 years.[105][106]

Hungary

Prime Minister Viktor Orbán and his political party Fidesz in Hungary have been associated with the conspiracy theory over the course of several years.[107][108] The Sydney Morning Herald detailed Orbán's belief in and promotion of the Great Replacement as being central to the modern right-wing politics of Europe. In December 2018, he claimed the "Christian identity of Europe" needed saving, and labelled refugees traveling to Europe as "Muslim invaders".[98] In a speech, Orbán asserted: "If in the future Europe is to be populated by people other than Europeans, and we accept this as a fact and see it as natural, then we will effectively be consenting to population replacement: to a process in which the European population is replaced".[109]

He has also stated: "In all of Europe there are fewer and fewer children, and the answer of the West is migration," concluding that "We Hungarians have a different way of thinking. Instead of just numbers, we want Hungarian children." ThinkProgress described the comments as pushing a version of the theory.[110] In April 2019, Radio New Zealand published insight that Orban's plans to cut taxes for large Hungarian families could be linked with fears of the Great Replacement.[111]

Republic of Ireland

Immigration to the Republic of Ireland has been substantial in number since the 1990s. As of 2016, 82.9% of the population was Irish or Irish Traveller in ethnicity; 9.5% other white (including British and continental Europeans); 2.1% Asian; 1.3% Black; and 4.1% other/not stated.[112] Great replacement rhetoric has been spread by a community of far-right and anti-immigration political figures, including the journalist Gemma O'Doherty and a variety of minor political parties (National Party, Irish Freedom Party, Anti-Corruption Ireland), which have had very little electoral success.[113][114] A Lidl advertisement that featured a White Irish woman, her Afro-Brazilian partner and their mixed race son was targeted as part of an attempt at a "Great Replacement" by O'Doherty; online harassment meant that the family had to flee the country.[115][116][117] The term has also been in use with respect to the direct provision centres, used to house asylum seekers.[118]

Writing in 2020, Richard Downes said that "Rather than seeing the increase in non-Irish people living and making their lives here as being a normal part of a modern European country, some of the new nationalists see it as a conspiracy to overwhelm Ireland with foreigners. For many of them the conspirators include the Irish government, NGOs, the EU and the UN. They believe that these organisations want to replace Irish people with brown and black people from abroad."[119]

The term "great replacement" was also used when the RTÉ News featured the three first babies born in 2020, born to Polish, Black and Indian mothers; journalist Fergus Finlay saying "I don’t care about the vulgar abuse, but I really do believe that these hatemongers should be prosecuted when they incite others to hatred and violence against people whose only crime is their skin colour or religion. I find it hard to understand why the State hasn’t acted already against these cruel ideologues who think they can say whatever they like under the banner of free speech. They may be small in number now, and on the surface they may just seem bonkers, but we’ve been here before. Political movements have been built on hatred of the other, and we know the damage they have caused."[120]

Garda Commissioner (national chief of police) Drew Harris spoke about far right groups in 2020, saying that "Irish groups [believing] in the great replacement theory" had plans "to disrupt key State institutions and infrastructure. This included Dublin Port, high profile shopping areas such as Grafton Street in Dublin, Dáil Éireann and Government departments."[121][122][123]

Italy

Deputy Prime Minister Matteo Salvini of Italy (2018-2019) has repeatedly adopted the theme of the Great Replacement.[107] In May 2016, two years before his election to office, he claimed "ethnic replacement is underway" in Italy in an interview with Sky TG24. Accusing nameless, well-funded organizations for importing workers that he named "farm slaves", he stated that there was a "lucrative attempt at genocide" of Italians.[124][125]

The Netherlands

In April 2015, writing on the publishing website GeenStijl, scholar of Islam Hans Jansen used Great Replacement rhetoric, suggesting that it was an "undisputed" fact that among the European Union's governing elite there was a common consensus that Europeans were "no good and can be better replaced".[126] In May 2015, Martin Bosma a Dutch parliament Representative for the Party for Freedom (PVV), released his book Minority in their own land [nl]. Invoking the conspiracy theory, Bosma wrote about a growing 'a new population' of immigrants which lent itself to an apparently 'post-racial Multicultural State of Salvation'.[126]

By September 2015, it was reported that the two right-wing political parties Christian Democratic Appeal and the Reformed Political Party had distanced themselves from the ideology of the Great Replacement.[127] In March 2017, Thierry Baudet, founder and leader of the right wing Forum for Democracy (FvD) party, was said to promote the theory after he claimed that the country's so-called elite were deliberately "homeopathically diluting" the Dutch population, in a speech about "national self-hatred". He said there was a plot to racially mix the ethnic Dutch with "all the people of the world", so that there would "never be a Dutchman again".[126]

In January 2018, PVV Representative Martin Bosma endorsed the Great Replacement theory, and one of its key propagators, after meeting with Renaud Camus at a PVV demonstration in Rotterdam and tweeting his support. Filip Dewinter, a leading member of the Flemish secessionist Vlaams Belang party, who had traveled to the Netherlands on the day of the protest to meet with Camus, named him as a "visionary man" to the media.[128]

Party for Freedom politician Geert Wilders of the Netherlands strongly supports the notion of a Great Replacement occurring in Europe.[129][130] In October 2018, Wilders invoked the conspiracy theory, claiming the Netherlands was "being replaced with mass immigration from non-western Islamic countries" and Rotterdam being "the port of Eurabia". He claimed 77 million, mainly Islamic immigrants would attempt to enter Europe over the course of half a century, and that white Europeans would cease to exist unless they were stopped.[98] In 2019, The New York Times reported how Camus's demographic-based alarmist theories help fuel Wilders and his Party for Freedom's nativist campaigning.[2]

In September 2018, Dutch author Paul Scheffer analyzed the Great Replacement and its political developments, suggesting that Forum for Democracy and Party for Freedom were forming policy regarding the demography of the Netherlands through the lens of the conspiracy theory.[131]

United Kingdom

According to November 2018 research from the University of Cambridge, 31% of Brexit voters believe in the conspiracy theory compared to 6% of British people who oppose Brexit.[132]

In July 2019, English musician Billy Bragg released a public statement which accused fellow singer-songwriter Morrissey of endorsing the theory. Bragg suggested "that Morrissey is helping to spread this idea—which inspired the Christchurch mosque murderer—is beyond doubt".[133][134]

North America

Canada


YouTuber Lauren Southern of Canada has helped amplify the conspiracy theory.[98][135] In 2017, Southern dedicated a video to the Great Replacement, gaining over half a million views on her channel, before it was deleted.[14][136][137] 2018 mayoral candidate for Toronto Faith Goldy has publicly embraced the replacement theory.[138][139] In 2019, in the aftermath of the Christchurch mosque shootings in Christchurch, New Zealand, Vice accused Goldy of routinely pushing the same ideas of birthrate declines and the population replacement of whites, found in the gunman's The Great Replacement manifesto.[140] Long-time white nationalist Paul Fromm, when he co-opted the pre-1967 Red Ensign flag of Canada, referred to it as "the flag of the true Canada, the European Canada before the treasonous European replacement schemes brought in by the 1965 immigration policies".[141]

In June 2019, columnist Lindsay Shepherd claimed that "whites are becoming a minority" in the West, describing her assertion as "population replacement".[142] She was criticized by Canadian MP Colin Fraser at a House of Commons justice committee for not denouncing the concept,[143] while Nathaniel Erskine-Smith accused Shepherd of openly embracing the conspiracy theory.[144]

United States

In 2017, white supremacist protesters at the Unite The Right Rally in Charlottesville, Virginia used slogans that alluded to similar ideas of ethnic replacement,[145] such as "You will not replace us" and "Jews will not replace us".[146][147] After that event, Camus told Vox that he did not support violence, and disputed any association between his ideas and neo-Nazis; however, he said he approved of the feeling behind the chant.[68]

In October 2018, Republican congressman Steve King endorsed the conspiracy theory,[148][149] stating: "Great replacement, yes," referring to the European migrant crisis that "these people walking into Europe by ethnic migration, 80 percent are young men."[150] King presents the Great Replacement as a shared concern of Europe and the United States, claiming that "if we continue to abort our babies and import a replacement for them in the form of young violent men, we are supplanting our culture, our civilization."[151] He has blamed George Soros as an alleged perpetrator behind the conspiracy.[152]

In May 2019, Florida State Senator Dennis Baxley was reported to use the replacement theory in relation to the abortion debate in the United States.[153][154] Speaking of Western European birthrates as a warning to Americans, he said: "When you get a birth rate less than 2 percent, that society is disappearing, and it’s being replaced by folks that come behind them and immigrate, don’t wish to assimilate into that society and they do believe in having children."[155] The following month, Nick Isgro, deputy leader of the Maine Republican Party endorsed the conspiracy theory after claiming financial subsidies were promoted for abortions in the U.S. to "kill our own people", and that asylum seekers were "human pawns who are being played in a game by global elites and their partners here in Augusta." Greg Kesich, a writer for the Portland Press Herald, reported that the current Mayor of Waterville's speech displayed the sentiment of the Great Replacement.[156]

In July 2019, Keith Ellison, the Attorney General of Minnesota, stated how increasing and varied hate crime, exacerbated by the 2016 Brexit vote and election of Donald Trump, was "united by so-called "replacement" theory", and that communities needed to "vigilantly and consistently counter each of these acts of violence and expressions of hate".[157] At the same time, Mick Davis, the Chief Executive and Treasurer of the Conservative Party, published his outrage of the concept. Writing in The Jewish Chronicle, Davis named the Great Replacement, "a driving force behind far right terror", as worse than merely a conspiracy theory, in that it was "profoundly antisemitic".[158]

According to the Institute for Strategic Dialogue, US president Donald Trump has referenced the Great Replacement and a 2019 tweet in favour of his proposed Border Wall was interpreted by many as endorsing the theory. They also stated that Trump's Twitter account was one of the most influential accounts promoting the theory.[159] His history of describing Muslims and migrants as "invaders", according to SBS News, closely mirrors the language of explicit supporters of the theory.[107]
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 32795
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Tucker Carlson Doubles Down on White Supremacist 'Great

Postby admin » Wed Apr 14, 2021 4:26 am

Part 2 of 2

Oceania

Australia


The media in Australia have covered former Senator Fraser Anning of Queensland and his endorsement of the Great Replacement conspiracy theory.[160] In April 2019, Reuters reported how Anning was amplifying replacement theory by suggesting that Muslims would "out-breed us very quickly".[161] In May 2019, Anning alleged that White Australians would "fast become a minority" if they did not defend their "ethno-cultural identity".[162]

Influence on white nationalist terrorism

Implicit call to violence


Camus's use of strong terms like "colonization" and "Occupiers"[f] to label non-European immigrants and their children[29][30] have been described as implicit calls to violence.[31] Scholars like Jean-Yves Camus have argued that the "Great Replacement" conspiracy theory closely parallels the concept of "remigration", an euphemistic term for the forced deportation of non-white immigrants.[15][20] "We shall not leave Europe, we shall make Africa leave Europe," Camus wrote in 2019 to define his political agenda for the European parliament elections.[30] He has also used another euphemism, the "Great Repatriation", to refer to remigration.[i][163]

According to historians Nicolas Bancel and Pascal Blanchard, along with sociologist Ahmed Boubeker, "the announcement of a civil war is implicit in the theory of the 'great replacement' [...] This thesis is extreme—and so simplistic that it can be understood by anyone—because it validates a racial definition of the nation."[15] Sceptical of Camus's description of second or third generation immigrants as being itself a contradiction in terms—"they do not migrate anymore, they are French"—demographer Hervé Le Bras is also critical of their designation as a fifth column in France or an "internal enemy".[164]

Inspired attacks

Fears of the white race's extinction, and replacement theory in particular, have been cited by several accused perpetrators of mass shootings between 2018 and 2019. While Camus has stated his own philosophy is a nonviolent one, analysts including Heidi Beirich of the Southern Poverty Law Center say the idea of white genocide has "undoubtedly influenced" American white supremacists, potentially leading to violence.[165]

In October 2018, a gunman killed 11 people and injured 6 in an attack on the Tree of Life synagogue in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The gunman believed Jews were deliberately importing non-white immigrants into the United States as part of a conspiracy against the white race.[166][167]

Brenton Harrison Tarrant, the Australian terrorist responsible for the mass shootings at Al Noor Mosque and Linwood Islamic Centre in Christchurch, New Zealand, on 15 March 2019, that killed 51 people and injured 49, named his manifesto The Great Replacement, a reference to Camus's book.[29][168] In response, Camus condemned violence while reaffirming his desire for a "counter-revolt" against an increase in nonwhite populations.[29]

In 2019, research by the Institute for Strategic Dialogue showed over 24,000 social media mentions of the Great Replacement in the month before the Christchurch shootings, in comparison to just 3,431 mentions in April 2012. The use of the term spiked in April 2019 after the Christchurch mosque shootings.[169]

Patrick Crusius, the suspect in the 2019 El Paso shooting, posted an online manifesto titled The Inconvenient Truth alluding to the "great replacement"[165] and expressing support for "the Christchurch shooter" minutes before the attack.[170] It spoke of a "Hispanic invasion of Texas" leading to "cultural and ethnic replacement" as justifications for the shooting.[165][168][170]

See also

• Counter-jihad
• Eurabia
• The Kalergi Plan conspiracy theory, another variant of the white genocide conspiracy theory that heavily revolves around a supposed plan to replace and racially mix white Europeans with non-whites through immigration by Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi, an Austrian-Japanese politician and founder of the Paneuropean Union
• Race suicide theory of early 20th-century eugenicists
• Reconquista (Southwest United States)
• The Protocols of the Elders of Zion
• The Rising Tide of Color Against White World-Supremacy
• White genocide conspiracy theory

Notes

1. French: pouvoir/élite remplaciste
2. In-nocence is a wordplay built on the archaic term nocence, meaning 'harm, nuisance, malice, guilt', and from which the modern French and English innocence derive.[19]
3. English: The Great Replacement (introduction to global replacism)
4. The French term déculturation can be translated as 'loss', 'disappearance' or 'erasure' of one's culture or national feeling.
5. French: les remplacés
6. French: colonisateurs/colonisation and Occupants
7. French: pays légal and pays réel
8. German: (Der) Große Austausch
9. French: Grand Rapatriement

References

Citations


1. Bracke, Sarah; Aguilar, Luis Manuel Hernández (2020). ""They love death as we love life": The "Muslim Question" and the biopolitics of replacement". The British Journal of Sociology. n/a (n/a): 680–701. doi:10.1111/1468-4446.12742. ISSN 1468-4446. PMC 7540673. PMID 32100887.
2. Bowles, Nellie (18 March 2019). "'Replacement Theory,' a Racist, Sexist Doctrine, Spreads in Far-Right Circles". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 17 May 2019. Retrieved 17 May 2019. Behind the idea is a racist conspiracy theory known as 'the replacement theory,' which was popularized by a right-wing French philosopher.
3. Feola, Michael (2020). ""You Will Not Replace Us": The Melancholic Nationalism of Whiteness". Political Theory. doi:10.1177/0090591720972745. ISSN 0090-5917. This article addresses recent strains of white nationalism rooted within anxieties over demographic replacement (e.g., “the Great Replacement”).
4. Taguieff (2015), PT71.
5. Baldauf, Johannes (2017). Toxische Narrative : Monitoring rechts-alternativer Akteure (PDF) (in Dutch). Berlin: Amadeu Antonio Stiftung. p. 11. ISBN 978-3-940878-29-8. OCLC 1042949000. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 September 2018. Retrieved 24 September 2018. ...this narrative is highly compatible with concrete conspiracy narratives about how this replacement is desired and planned, either by 'the politicians' or 'the elite,' which-ever connotes Jewishness more effectively.
6. Korte, Barbara; Wendt, Simon; Falkenhayner, Nicole (2019). Heroism as a Global Phenomenon in Contemporary Culture. Routledge. PT176. ISBN 9780429557842. This conspiracy theory, which was first articulated by the French philosopher Renaud Camus, has gained a lot of traction in Europe since 2015.
7. Fourquet (2016), PT29.
8. Verstraet, Antoine (2017). "C'est ça que tu veux ? !". Savoirs et Clinique (in French). 23 (2): 55. doi:10.3917/sc.023.0055. ISSN 1634-3298. [transl. from French] This theory states that the indigenous French ("Français de souche") could soon be demographically replaced by non-European peoples, especially from the Maghreb and sub-Saharan Africa.
9. Bergmann (2018), p. 127: "This notion of replacement, or of white genocide, has echoed throughout the rhetoric of many anti-migrant far-right movements in the West— such as by neo-racist protestors in Charlottesville in the USA in 2017."
10. Jenkins, Cecil (2017). A Brief History of France. Little, Brown Book Group. PT342. ISBN 978-1-4721-4027-2. As for the grand replacement, this has been widely seen as a paranoid fantasy, which plays fast and loose with the statistics, is racist in that it classes as immigrants people actually born in France, glosses over the fact that around half of immigrants are from other European countries, and suggests that declining indigenous France will be outbred by Muslim newcomers when in fact it has the highest fertility rate in Western Europe, and not because of immigration.
11. MacKellar, Landis (2016). "Review: La République islamique de France? A Review Essay". Population and Development Review. 42 (2): 368–375. doi:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2016.00130.x. hdl:10.1111/padr.2016.42.issue-2. JSTOR 44015644. Michèle Tribalat of the Institut National d’Études Démographiques (INED) has argued that the restriction forces policymakers to proceed with eyes wide shut, but Hervé Le Bras of the École d'Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales (EHESS) counters that such statistics simply objectify and dignify racist prejudices. Both views have some validity. Whichever way you feel, a consequence of our ignorance is that the specter of Le Grand Remplacement haunts French politics
12. Cosentino, Gabriele (2020). "From Pizzagate to the Great Replacement: The Globalization of Conspiracy Theories". Social Media and the Post-Truth World Order: The Global Dynamics of Disinformation. Springer. p. 75. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-43005-4_3. ISBN 978-3-030-43005-4. While the Great Replacement is at its core an Islamophobic belief, Lane's ideology is anti-Semitic.
13. Camus & Lebourg (2017), pp. 206–207: "The success of that umpteenth incarnation of a theme launched immediately after World War II (Camus has personally declared his indebtedness to Enoch Powell) can be explained by the fact that he subtracted anti-Semitism from the argument."
14. Chatterton Williams (2017).
15. Boubeker, Bancel & Blanchard (2015), pp. 141–152.
16. Grant, Madison (1916). Passing of the Great Race; or, The Racial Basis of European History(1st ed.). New York, New York: C. Scriber. p. xiii, xxx, 47, 69, 110, 205, 209, 260,.
17. Kohlman, Michael. "Madison Grant publishes The Passing of the Great Race". Eugenics Archive. Retrieved 04/11/21. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
18. Sanders, Sam. "White Nationalism". Throughline. National Public Radio. Retrieved 04/11/21.Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
19. http://micmap.org/dicfro/search/diction ... oy/nocence
20. Camus, Jean-Yves; Mathieu, Annie (19 August 2017). "D'où vient l'expression 'remigration'?". Le Soleil. Archived from the original on 24 May 2019.
21. Finkielkraut (2017), 4m25s.
22. Leconte, Cécile (2019). "La carrière militante du " grand remplacement " au sein du milieu partisan de l'Alternative pour l'Allemagne (AfD)". Politix. 126 (2): 111–134. doi:10.3917/pox.126.0111.
23. Camus, Renaud (2013). Vue d'oeil: Journal 2012 (in French). Fayard. PT21. ISBN 9782213672892.
24. Traverso, Enzo (2019). The New Faces of Fascism: Populism and the Far Right. Verso Books. p. 71. ISBN 9781788730495.
25. Joignot, Frédéric (23 January 2014). "Le fantasme du "grand remplacement" démographique". Le Monde (in French). Archived from the original on 21 May 2019. Retrieved 4 August 2019.
26. Bromley, Roger (2018). "The politics of displacement: the Far Right narrative of Europe and its 'others'". From the European South. University of Nottingham. 3: 15.
27. Albertini, Dominique (13 October 2015). "Le "grand remplacement", totem extrême". Libération(in French). Archived from the original on 1 July 2019. Retrieved 3 August 2019.
28. Wilson, Andrew (27 March 2019). "Fear-Filled Apocalypses: The Far-Right's Use of Conspiracy Theories". Oxford Research Group. Archived from the original on 4 April 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
29. Heim, Joe; McAuley, James (15 March 2019). "New Zealand attacks offer the latest evidence of a web of supremacist extremism". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 18 March 2019. Retrieved 16 March 2019. Camus, now 72, told The Washington Post that he condemns the Christchurch attacks and has always condemned similar violence. [...] Camus added that he still hopes that the desire for a 'counterrevolt' against 'colonization in Europe today' will grow, a reference to increases in nonwhite populations.
30. AFP (4 April 2019). "Européennes: l'écrivain Renaud Camus en tête de liste". Le Figaro. Archived from the original on 20 September 2019. Retrieved 4 August 2019. 'L'Europe, il ne faut pas en sortir, il faut en sortir l'Afrique' [...] 'Jamais une occupation n'a pris fin sans le départ de l'occupant. Jamais une colonisation ne s'est achevée sans le retrait des colonisateurs et des colons. La Ligne claire, et seule à l'être, c'est celle qui mène du ferme constat du grand remplacement (...) à l'exigence de la remigration', ajoutent-ils.
31. Finkielkraut (2017), 23m05s.
32. Sapiro, Gisèle (2018). Les écrivains et la politique en France - De l'affaire Dreyfus à la guerre d'Algérie (in French). Le Seuil. PT377. ISBN 978-2-02-140215-5.
33. Croucher, Stephen M. (2013). "Integrated Threat Theory and Acceptance of Immigrant Assimilation: An Analysis of Muslim Immigration in Western Europe". Communication Monographs. 80 (1): 46–62. doi:10.1080/03637751.2012.739704. ISSN 0363-7751. S2CID 145389928. Such political rhetoric has been effective in the past decade, as more and more individuals in the US and Europe are less accepting of Muslims, particularly Muslim immigrants (Abbas, 2007; Croucher, 2008; Gonzalez et al., 2008).
34. "EU Terrorism Situation & Trend Report (Te-Sat)". Europol. Archived from the original on 17 July 2019. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
35. "EU migration: Crisis in seven charts". BBC. 4 March 2016. Archived from the original on 31 January 2016. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
36. Bergmann (2018), pp. 126–27.
37. Polakow-Suransky (2017), pp. 2–3.
38. Polakow-Suransky (2017), p. 210.
39. Sexton, David (3 November 2016). "Non!". The Spectator. Archived from the original on 21 August 2018. Retrieved 20 August 2018.
40. Chaouat, Bruno (27 August 2019). "The gay French poet behind the alt-right's favorite catch phrase". Tablet Magazine. Archived from the original on 28 August 2019. Retrieved 2 September 2019.
41. Bergmann (2018), pp. 127–128.
42. Berger, J. M. "How 'The Turner Diaries' Changed White Nationalism". The Atlantic. Archivedfrom the original on 6 August 2019. Retrieved 24 November 2017. The manifesto itself was soon reduced to the simple phrase 'white genocide', which proliferated at the start of the 21st century and has become the overwhelmingly dominant meme of modern white nationalism.
43. Dessem, Matthew (26 December 2016). "Drexel University, Apparently Unfamiliar With White Supremacist Lingo, Censures Prof For 'White Genocide' Tweet". Slate. ISSN 1091-2339. Archived from the original on 15 October 2018. Retrieved 24 November 2017. Although it's difficult to date precisely, white supremacist publishing houses being somewhat less reliable than Simon & Schuster, that honor probably belongs to the late David Lane, terrorist, white supremacist, and author of an execrable little essay called 'White Genocide Manifesto'.
44. Weil & Truong (2015).
45. Kauffmann, Grégoire (2016). Le Nouveau FN. Les vieux habits du populisme: Les vieux habits du populisme (in French). Le Seuil. PT78. ISBN 9782021300307.
46. François, Stéphane (6 September 2018). "En Europe, une partie de l'extrême droite revient à l'action violente". Le Monde (in French). Archived from the original on 22 August 2019. Retrieved 3 August 2019.
47. Debono, Emmanuel (3 November 2014). "Le Grand Remplacement et le polypier géant". Le Monde (in French). Archived from the original on 16 August 2019. Retrieved 16 August 2019.
48. François, Stéphane (23 May 2013). "Dominique Venner et le renouvellement du racisme". Fragments sur les Temps Présents (in French). Archived from the original on 9 August 2019. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
49. René Binet, Théorie du Racisme, s.e., Paris, 1950, pp. 16-35
50. Gilles Fournier, "La guerre de demain est déjà déclenchée", Europe-Action, nº 16, April 1964, p. 21
51. Algazy, Joseph (1984). La tentation néo-fasciste en France: de 1944 à 1965 (in French). Fayard. pp. 271–74. ISBN 9782213014265.
52. Camus, Jean-Yves (1 May 2018). "Le mouvement identitaire ou la construction d'un mythe des origines européennes". Fondation Jean-Jaurès (in French). Archived from the original on 16 August 2019. Retrieved 16 August 2019. It was the transition from French nationalism ("hexagonal") to the promotion of European identity, theorised by the Europe-Action movement in the mid-1960s, that disrupted the references of the French far-right by producing a gap that has not yet been repaired.
53. Ait Abdeslam, Abderrahim (2018). "The vilification of Muslim diaspora in French fictional novels: 'Soumission' (2015) and 'Petit Frère' (2008) as case studies". Journal of Multicultural Discourses. 13(3): 232–242. doi:10.1080/17447143.2018.1511717. S2CID 216116710.
54. Liogier, Raphaël (1 May 2014). "Le mythe de l'invasion arabo-musulmane". Le Monde diplomatique (in French). Archived from the original on 6 August 2019. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
55. Gross, Estelle; Cahuzac, Yannick. "Réacosphère : "Le conspirationnisme est au coeur de la dynamique"". L'Obs (in French). Archived from the original on 22 August 2019. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
56. Marján, Attila; André Sapir (2010). Europe's Destiny. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 161. ISBN 978-0-8018-9547-0.
57. Ganesh, Bharath (28 March 2019). "How the swarm of white extremism spreads itself online". The Spinoff. Archived from the original on 23 April 2019. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
58. Robin Yassin-Kassab (3 April 2014). "The Muslims Are Coming!: Islamophobia, Extremism, and the Domestic War on Terror – review". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 24 April 2019. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
59. Soullier, Lucie; Lebourg, Nicolas (15 March 2019). "Attentat en Nouvelle-Zélande : L'auteur de l'attaque se reconnaît comme fasciste". Le Monde (in French). Archived from the original on 6 August 2019. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
60. Condomines, Anaïs. "Attentat de Christchurch et "grand remplacement" : itinéraire d'une théorie protéiforme". LCI (in French). Archived from the original on 23 July 2019. Retrieved 6 August2019. Valérie Igounet: 'certaines personnes ont cité cette théorie avant Camus mais c'est bien lui qui l'a popularisée. L'association de ces deux mots a fait mouche dans un contexte français particulier, et ce de manière très récente'
61. "Europe's Growing Muslim Population". Pew Research Center. 29 November 2017. Retrieved 13 December 2020.
62. Héran, François (2017). Avec l'immigration: Mesurer, débattre, agir. La Découverte. p. 20. ISBN 9782707195821.
63. "T37QUATER – Nés vivants selon le pays de naissance des parents". Insee.fr.
64. Bauböck, Rainer (7 May 2019). "Bevölkerungsaustausch oder Umvolkung? Erklären Sie den Unterschied, Herr Strache!" [Population exchange or change? Explain the difference, Mr. Strache!]. Der Standard (in German). Archived from the original on 20 May 2019. Retrieved 19 May 2019.
65. Cohen, Nick (18 May 2019). "When the far right crack rape jokes, it's part of a systemic bid to demean". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 19 May 2019. Retrieved 19 May 2019.
66. Applebaum, Anne (17 May 2019). "How Europe's 'Identitarians' are mainstreaming racism". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 19 May 2019. Retrieved 19 May 2019.
67. Liabot, Thomas. "Sondage : les Gilets jaunes sont plus sensibles aux théories du complot". Le Journal du Dimanche (in French). Archived from the original on 27 April 2019. Retrieved 3 August2019.
68. Wildman, Sarah (15 August 2017). "'You will not replace us': a French philosopher explains the Charlottesville chant". Vox. Archived from the original on 9 August 2018.
69. The Great Replacement. Archived from the original on 30 April 2020. Retrieved 27 November2020.
70. Miller, Nick (19 March 2019). "'The Great Replacement': an idea now at the heart of Europe's politics". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 31 March 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
71. Ahmed, Nafeez (25 March 2019). "'White genocide' theorists worm their way into the West's mainstream". Le Monde Diplomatique. Archived from the original on 7 April 2019. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
72. Betz, Hans-Georg (5 February 2018). "5. The Radical Right and Populism". In Rydgren, Jens(ed.). The Oxford Handbook of the Radical Right. 1. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780190274559.013.5. ISBN 9780190644185. LCCN 2017025436.
73. Dearden, Lizzie (9 November 2017). "Generation Identity: Far-right group sending UK recruits to military-style training camps in Europe". The Independent. Archived from the original on 25 September 2018. Retrieved 25 September 2018. ...claims it represents "indigenous Europeans" and propagates the far-right conspiracy theory that white people are becoming a minority in what it calls the "Great Replacement"
74. Meaker, Morgan (28 August 2018). "How dangerous are Austria's far-right hipsters?". dw.com. Vienna: Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 24 September 2018. Retrieved 24 September 2018. ...and spread the 'great replacement' conspiracy theory – the idea that white Europeans will be replaced by people from the Middle East and Africa through immigration. The theory is based on inflated statistics and un-substantiated demographic projections. Right now, only 4 percent of the European Union is made up of non-EU nationals.
75. "Austria's Strache backs far-right 'population replacement' claim". Al Jazeera. 1 May 2019. Archived from the original on 17 May 2019. Retrieved 17 May 2019.
76. "Austria far-right leader panned for use of 'population replacement' term". Times of Israel. 1 May 2019. Archived from the original on 16 May 2019. Retrieved 17 May 2019.
77. "Austrian far-right sticks by 'population exchange' rhetoric". Reuters. 1 May 2019. Archivedfrom the original on 17 May 2019. Retrieved 17 May 2019.
78. "Austrian deputy leader endorses far-right term 'population replacement'". The Guardian. 29 April 2019. Archived from the original on 17 May 2019. Retrieved 17 May 2019.
79. "Conservatism's Wunderkind Is Getting Swallowed by the Far-Right". Foreign Policy. 13 May 2019. Archived from the original on 16 May 2019. Retrieved 17 May 2019.
80. "Wat moet je doen om "strijder" of "veteraan" van Schild & Vrienden te worden en wat is het einddoel?" [What do you have to do to become a "warrior" or "veteran" of Schild & Vrienden and what is the ultimate goal?] (in Dutch). Vlaamse Radio- en Televisieomroeporganisatie. 31 August 2018. Archived from the original on 11 July 2019. Retrieved 11 July 2019.
81. ["Van ] "redpill" tot "normies: dit zijn de basisbegrippen van Schild & Vrienden" Check |url=value (help) [From "redpill" to "normies": these are the basic concepts of Schild & Vrienden] (in Dutch). Vlaamse Radio- en Televisieomroeporganisatie. 5 September 2018. Archived from the original on 11 July 2019. Retrieved 11 July 2019.
82. "We Analyzed How the "Great Replacement" and Far Right Ideas Spread Online. The Trends Reveal Deep Concerns". TIME. 18 July 2019. Archived from the original on 18 July 2019. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
83. Ebner, Julie; Davey, Jacob (1 July 2019). "'The Great Replacement': The Violent Consequences of Mainstreamed Extremism" (PDF). Institute for Strategic Dialogue. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 July 2019. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
84. "Fra klimaet til Koranen: Valgkampen handler om en fjern fremtid, vi ikke kommer til at opleve" [From the climate to the Qur'an: The election campaign is about a distant future we will not experience] (in Danish). Kristeligt Dagblad. 20 May 2019. Archived from the original on 8 July 2019. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
85. "Detektor: Forudsigelser om Den store Udskiftning er 'noget værre vrøvl'" [Detector: Predictions about the Great Replacement are 'something worse than nonsense'] (in Danish). DR (broadcaster). 20 June 2019. Archived from the original on 8 July 2019. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
86. "Rasmus Paludan, le visage danois de l'extrême xénophobie" [Rasmus Paludan, the Danish face of extreme xenophobia]. Le Monde (in French). 31 May 2019. Archived from the original on 27 June 2019. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
87. Osborne, Samuel (25 April 2017). "Marine Le Pen adviser found guilty of inciting hatred against Muslims". The Independent. Archived from the original on 24 September 2018. Retrieved 23 September 2018.
88. Froio, Caterina (21 August 2018). "Race, Religion, or Culture? Framing Islam between Racism and Neo-Racism in the Online Network of the French Far Right". Perspectives on Politics. 16 (3): 696–709. doi:10.1017/S1537592718001573. ...the conspiracy theory of the Grand remplacement (Great replacement) positing the 'Islamo-substitution' of biologically autochthonous populations in the French metropolitan territory, by Muslim minorities mostly coming from sub-Saharan Africa and the Maghreb
89. Schneider, Frédérique (26 January 2018). "VIDEO - Une campagne pour déconstruire les discours complotistes sur Internet". La Croix (in French). Archived from the original on 23 September 2018. Retrieved 23 September 2018. ...le " grand remplacement ", une théorie de type conspirationniste selon laquelle il existerait un processus de remplacement des Français sur leur sol par des non-Européens.
90. "Politiques identitaires et mythe du " grand remplacement "" [Identity politics and the myth of the "great replacement"] (in French). The Conversation (website). 16 June 2019. Archived from the original on 11 July 2019. Retrieved 11 July 2019.
91. "At the Iliade Institute, French far-right intellectuals rewrite European history". The Southern Poverty Law Center. 17 April 2019. Archived from the original on 17 May 2019. Retrieved 17 May2019.
92. "Myten om det stora utbytet" [The myth of the great exchange] (in Swedish). Expo. 15 March 2019. Archived from the original on 10 July 2019. Retrieved 10 July 2019.
93. "Racisme, homophobie: ce que l'on trouve sur les comptes des candidats FN" [Racism, homophobia: what we find on the accounts of FN candidates] (in French). France-Soir. 6 June 2017. Archived from the original on 8 July 2019. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
94. "Législatives - Front national : des candidats pas si présentables..." [Legislative - National Front: not so presentable candidates ...] (in French). Le Point. 8 June 2017. Archived from the original on 8 July 2019. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
95. "Le FN en PACA : des propos à caractère raciste et islamophobe des candidats aux législatives" [The FN in PACA: Racist and Islamophobic remarks from candidates for the legislative elections] (in French). France Info. 7 June 2017. Archived from the original on 8 July 2019. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
96. "The Notre Dame wildfire that can't be put out". Politico. 22 April 2019. Archived from the original on 8 May 2019. Retrieved 19 May 2019. Marion Maréchal — pegged as the heir apparent to the Le Pen dynasty and a possible presidential contender in 2022 — is a proponent of the "Great Replacement" theory embraced by the man accused of the Christchurch killings in New Zealand.
97. "Meet Marion Maréchal, the next voice of French nationalism". The Economist. 14 March 2019. Archived from the original on 17 May 2019. Retrieved 17 May 2019.
98. Miller, Nick (19 March 2019). "'The Great Replacement': an idea now at the heart of Europe's politics". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 31 March 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
99. "Die Verschwörungstheorie des Todesschützen" [The Conspiracy Theory of the Gunner]. Der Tagesspiegel (in German). 19 March 2019. Archived from the original on 31 March 2019. Retrieved 27 June 2019.
100. "Jordan Bardella évoque le "Grand remplacement" sans le nommer" [Jordan Bardella evokes the "Great replacement" without naming it] (in French). France-Soir. 16 May 2019. Archived from the original on 17 May 2019. Retrieved 17 May 2019.
101. "Grand remplacement et Kosovo: le fantasme de Zemmour et Marion Maréchal" [Great replacement and Kosovo: the fantasy of Zemmour and Marion Maréchal] (in French). France-Soir. 19 June 2019. Archived from the original on 26 June 2019. Retrieved 25 June 2019.
102. Sowerwine, Charles (2018). France since 1870 : Culture, Politics and Society. London: Palgrave. p. 460. ISBN 978-1-137-40611-8. OCLC 1051356006. Zemmour flirted with a far-right conspiracy theory; the Grand remplacement (Great Replacement)
103. "Rechtsextreme versuchen gerade verzweifelt, das Christchurch-Massaker umzudeuten"[Right-wing extremists are trying desperately to reinterpret the Christchurch massacre] (in German). Vice. 19 March 2019. Archived from the original on 23 June 2019. Retrieved 27 June 2019.
104. "Warum das Innenministerium vor rechtsextremer Rhetorik warnt" [Why the Home Office warns against right-wing rhetoric] (in German). Berliner Morgenpost. 23 March 2019. Archivedfrom the original on 26 June 2019. Retrieved 27 June 2019.
105. Alderman, Liz (10 July 2012). "Greek Far Right Hangs a Target on Immigrants (Published 2012)". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
106. Babington, Renee Maltezou, Deepa (15 April 2014). "'Here comes the mayor!' - Greek far right fires up Athens campaign". Reuters. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
107. "Conspiracy theory linked to Christchurch attack at risk of entering mainstream: report". SBS World News. 8 July 2019. Archived from the original on 8 July 2019. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
108. "Orbán backs away from Weber". Politico. 6 May 2019. Archived from the original on 25 May 2019. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
109. O'Malley, Nick (15 September 2019). "Tony Abbott's European holiday with a racist demagogue". The Sydney Morning Herald.
110. "Americans seeing double as Hungary's Viktor Orbán visits Trump at the White House". ThinkProgress. 13 May 2019. Archived from the original on 25 May 2019. Retrieved 25 May2019.
111. "Manifesto ban divides media". Radio New Zealand. 7 April 2019. Archived from the original on 25 May 2019. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
112. "Population Usually Resident and Present in the State and Actual and Percentage Change 2011 to 2016 by Sex, Nationality, Age Group, CensusYear and Statistic - StatBank - data and statistics". statbank.cso.ie.
113. Gallagher, Conor. "Election 2020: Far-right candidates put in dismal showing". The Irish Times.
114. McDermott, Stephen. "Far-right parties barely register after polling less than 1% in most constituencies". TheJournal.ie.
115. Ryan, Órla. "Twitter defends response to 'absolutely abhorrent' abuse directed at Ryan family". TheJournal.ie.
116. "No denying there is a new era of hatred". Irish Examiner. 16 November 2019.
117. Holl, Kitty; Correspondent, Social Affairs. "Couple in ad campaign left 'shaking and fearful' after online abuse". The Irish Times.
118. Deegan, Gordon. "'We are against direct provision and how it was forced on us'". The Irish Times.
119. Downes, Richard (25 June 2020). "The 'New Nationalists'" – via http://www.rte.ie.
120. "Fergus Finlay: It's high time hatemongers were prosecuted for inciting others". Irish Examiner. 6 January 2020.
121. Security, Conor Lally; Editor, Crime. "Irish far right groups trying to disrupt key State institutions, says Garda Commissioner". The Irish Times.
122. "Garda Commissioner won't allow protesters to 'stampede' down main streets". Extra.ie. 23 October 2020.
123. Association, Press. "Drew Harris says gardaí have stepped up investigations to identify organisers of anti-lockdown protests". TheJournal.ie.
124. "Italy's Matteo Salvini Hopes To Lead Nationalist Wave In Upcoming European Elections". NPR. 22 May 2019. Archived from the original on 24 May 2019. Retrieved 24 May 2019. A recurrent Salvini theme is what is known as the "Great Replacement" conspiracy theory, which he described this way in an interview with Italy's Sky TG24 news
125. "Migranti, Salvini a Sky TG24: "E' in corso una sostituzione etnica"" [Migrants, Salvini on Sky TG24: "An ethnic substitution is underway"] (in Italian). Sky TG24. 29 May 2016. Archived from the original on 24 May 2019. Retrieved 24 May 2019.
126. Schulte, Addie (2019). De strijd om de toekomst: Over doemscenario's en vooruitgang [The struggle for the future: On doom-scenarios and progress] (in Dutch). Cossee Publishers. ISBN 9789059368347.
127. "Zelfs de SGP is niet meer bang voor de islam" [Even the SGP is no longer afraid of Islam] (in Dutch). Trouw. 20 September 2015. Archived from the original on 11 July 2019. Retrieved 11 July2019.
128. "'Omvolking' komt uit een Frans kasteel" ["Omvolking" comes from a French castle]. NRC Handelsblad (in Dutch). 22 January 2018. Archived from the original on 24 April 2018. Retrieved 11 July 2019.
129. "Austria's deputy leader pushes extremist argument to warn against immigration". The Washington Post. 28 April 2019. Archived from the original on 17 May 2019. Retrieved 17 May2019.
130. "The Inspiration for Terrorism in New Zealand Came From France". Foreign Policy. 16 March 2019. Archived from the original on 10 May 2019. Retrieved 17 May 2019.
131. Scheffer, Paul (18 September 2018). "Het doemscenario van 'minderheid in eigen land'" [The doom scenario of 'minority in one's own country]. NRC Handelsblad (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 2 September 2019. Retrieved 11 July 2019.
132. "Brexit and Trump voters more likely to believe in conspiracy theories, survey study shows". University of Cambridge. 23 November 2018. Retrieved 21 January 2021.
133. "Billy Bragg claims it is 'beyond doubt' that Morrissey is spreading far-right ideas". The Guardian. 8 July 2019. Archived from the original on 9 July 2019. Retrieved 9 July 2019.
134. "Billy Bragg accuses Morrissey of sharing 'white supremacist video' about Stormzy". The Independent. 8 July 2019. Archived from the original on 9 July 2019. Retrieved 9 July 2019.
135. "Trump has been retweeting conspiracy theorists and far-right figures. Here's who they are". Business Insider. 7 May 2019. Archived from the original on 8 May 2019. Retrieved 19 May 2019.
136. "New Zealand Terrorist Manifesto Influenced by Far-Right Online Ecosystem, Hatewatch Finds". Southern Poverty Law Center. 15 March 2019. Archived from the original on 2 June 2019. Retrieved 19 May 2019.
137. "Trump promotes far-right conspiracy advocate to defend 'censored' conservatives". ThinkProgress. 5 May 2019. Archived from the original on 16 May 2019. Retrieved 19 May 2019.
138. Rubenstein, Adam (8 November 2018). "King of the Low Road". The Weekly Standard. Archived from the original on 18 April 2019. Retrieved 19 May 2019.
139. "Jewish Insider's Daily Kickoff: November 9, 2018". Haaretz. 9 November 2018. Archivedfrom the original on 30 November 2018. Retrieved 19 May 2019.
140. "Accused New Zealand Shooter Had Canadian Mass Murderer's Name On Weapon". Vice Media. 15 March 2019. Archived from the original on 31 March 2019. Retrieved 19 May 2019.
141. Hamilton, Graeme (10 July 2017). "Former Canadian flag, the Red Ensign, gets new, darker life as far-right symbol". The National Post. Retrieved 10 June 2019.
142. "Conservative Witness for 'Online Hate' Hearing Was a Recent Guest on a White Nationalist's YouTube Channel". PressProgress. 3 June 2019. Archived from the original on 5 June 2019. Retrieved 5 June 2019.
143. "House justice committee votes to expunge words of Christchurch shooter from record after Tory MP reads from manifesto". The Globe and Mail. 4 June 2019. Archived from the original on 5 June 2019. Retrieved 5 June 2019.
144. "Canadian Conservatives Are Having a Bad Time at the Online Hate Hearings". Vice Media. 4 June 2019. Archived from the original on 6 June 2019. Retrieved 5 June 2019.
145. Bergmann (2018), p. 127.
146. Bromley, Roger (2018). "The politics of displacement: the Far Right narrative of Europe and its 'others'" (PDF). From the European South. 3: 13–26. ISSN 2531-4130. Archived (PDF)from the original on 23 March 2019. Retrieved 4 October 2019. [T]he 'Unite the Right', white nationalist, neo-fascist rally chanted 'you will not replace us' and 'the Jews will not replace us,' echoing the 'Great Replacement' claim, with a sharper anti-Semitic edge than is currently deployed publicly in Europe.
147. Weitzmann, Marc (1 April 2019). "The Global Language of Hatred Is French". Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 3 April 2019. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
148. "'I Am Simply a Nationalist.' Rep. Steve King Responds to Backlash Over 'White Supremacy' Remarks". Fortune. 10 January 2019. Archived from the original on 17 May 2019. Retrieved 17 May 2019.
149. "Steve King Asked If White Society Is Superior to Nonwhite: 'I Don't Have an Answer for That'". Newsweek. 20 March 2019. Archived from the original on 17 May 2019. Retrieved 17 May 2019.
150. "Before Trump, Steve King Set the Agenda for the Wall and Anti-Immigrant Politics". New York Times. 10 January 2019. Archived from the original on 10 January 2019. Retrieved 17 May 2019.
151. "'He's so openly racist': why does Iowa keep electing Steve King to Congress?". The Guardian. 27 October 2018. Archived from the original on 17 May 2019. Retrieved 17 May 2019.
152. "Steve King Was Saying Insanely Racist Things Long Before Republicans Decided Enough Was Enough". Mother Jones. 15 January 2019. Archived from the original on 17 May 2019. Retrieved 17 May 2019.
153. "Florida Senator's 'Racist' Replacement Theory Stance Against Abortion Slammed by Reproductive Rights Supporters". Newsweek. 30 May 2019. Archived from the original on 5 June 2019. Retrieved 5 June 2019.
154. "Confederate-Loving Florida Lawmaker Uses White-Supremacist Talking Point to Justify Abortion Ban". Miami New Times. 21 May 2019. Archived from the original on 23 May 2019. Retrieved 24 May 2019.
155. "'We Now Have A Lot To Look At': Florida Republican Says He's Encouraged By Alabama Abortion Law". WLRN-TV. 19 May 2019. Archived from the original on 28 May 2019. Retrieved 24 May 2019.
156. Kesich, Greg (23 June 2019). "The View From Here: Conspiracy theory takes hold in Maine GOP". Portland Press Herald. Archived from the original on 7 October 2019. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
157. Ellison, Keith (9 July 2019). "I was the first Muslim ever elected to US Congress — and what I see happening in the UK scares me". The Independent. Archived from the original on 9 July 2019. Retrieved 10 July 2019.
158. Davis, Mick (10 July 2019). "Our fight against bigotry cannot be fought alongside bigots like Katie Hopkins". The Jewish Chronicle. Archived from the original on 11 July 2019. Retrieved 11 July2019.
159. "Christchurch mosque killer's theories seeping into mainstream, report warns". The Guardian. 7 July 2019. Archived from the original on 8 July 2019. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
160. "Fraser Anning's Conservative National Party has entered the election race". News Corp Australia. 26 April 2019. Archived from the original on 16 May 2019. Retrieved 24 May 2019.
161. "New clues emerge of accused New Zealand gunman Tarrant's ties to far right groups". Reuters. 4 April 2019. Archived from the original on 4 April 2019. Retrieved 24 May 2019.
162. "Fear and loathing inside Fraser Anning's Conservative National Party". News Corp Australia. 17 May 2019. Archived from the original on 22 May 2019. Retrieved 24 May 2019. Last month, Senator Anning’s party made a Facebook post endorsing The Great Replacement, "We need to preserve our ethno-cultural identity, or we will fast become a minority," Senator Anning’s post said.
163. "Parti de L'In-nocence". In-nocence. Retrieved 5 August 2019. Il n’est d’autre chance de retour à la paix civile et à la dignité que la libération du sol national et le retour chez eux des colonisateurs : remigration, Grand Rapatriement.
164. "Le fantasme du "grand remplacement" démographique" [The fantasy of the "great replacement" demographic]. Le Monde (in French). 23 January 2014. Archived from the original on 21 May 2019. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
165. Eligon, John (7 August 2019). "The El Paso Screed, and the Racist Doctrine Behind It". The New York Times – via ProQuest.
166. Dakin Andone; Jason Hanna; Joe Sterling; Paul P. Murphy. "Hate crime charges filed in Pittsburgh synagogue shooting that left 11 dead". CNN. Retrieved 25 June 2020.
167. "Pennsylvania man, Robert Bowers, charged with federal hate crimes, murder in shooting at Pittsburgh synagogue". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved 25 June 2020.
168. Darby, Luke (5 August 2019). "How the 'Great Replacement' conspiracy theory has inspired white supremacist killers". The Telegraph. London – via ProQuest.
169. "Taboos fall away as far-right EU candidates breach red line". Associated Press. 16 May 2019. Archived from the original on 24 May 2019. Retrieved 24 May 2019.
170. Arango, Tim; Bogel-Burroughs, Nicholas; Benner, Katie (3 August 2019). "Minutes Before El Paso Killing, Hate-Filled Manifesto Appears Online". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 17 September 2019. Retrieved 18 September 2019. Available via The Irish Times Archived 4 August 2019 at the Wayback Machine.

Sources

• Bergmann, Eirikur (2018). "The Eurabia Doctrine". Conspiracy & Populism : The Politics of Misinformation. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 123–149. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-90359-0_6. ISBN 978-3-319-90358-3. LCCN 2018939717.
• Boubeker, Ahmed; Bancel, Nicolas; Blanchard, Pascal (2015). Le Grand Repli (in French). La Découverte. ISBN 9782707188229.
• Camus, Jean-Yves; Lebourg, Nicolas (2017). Far-Right Politics in Europe. Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674971530.
• Chatterton Williams, Thomas (27 November 2017). "The French Origins of "You Will Not Replace Us"". The New Yorker. ISSN 0028-792X. Archived from the original on 27 September 2018. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
• Finkielkraut, Alain (24 June 2017). "Le grand déménagement du monde". France Culture (Audio) (in French). Archived from the original on 2 September 2019.
• Fourquet, Jérôme (2016). Accueil ou submersion ?: Regards européens sur la crise des migrants (in French). Éditions de l'Aube. ISBN 978-2-8159-2026-1.
• Polakow-Suransky, Sasha (2017). Go Back to Where You Came From: The Backlash Against Immigration and the Fate of Western Democracy. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9781849049092.
• Taguieff, Pierre-André (2015). La revanche du nationalisme: Néopopulistes et xénophobes à l'assaut de l'Europe (in French). Presses Universitaires de France. ISBN 978-2-13-072950-1.
• Weil, Patrick; Truong, Nicolas (2015). Le sens de la République: essai (in French). Grasset. ISBN 9782246858232.

Further reading

• Finnsiö, Morgan (15 March 2019). "Myten om det stora utbytet" [The myth of the great exchange]. Expo.
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 32795
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Tucker Carlson Doubles Down on White Supremacist 'Great

Postby admin » Wed Apr 14, 2021 5:07 am

Part 1 of 3

Christchurch mosque shootings
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 4/13/21

Image
Christchurch mosque shootings
The Al Noor Mosque in August 2019
The mosques are located in Christchurch, New Zealand
Date: 15 March 2019, c. 1:40 pm – 1:59 pm (NZDT; UTC+13)
Target: Muslim worshippers
Attack type: Mass shooting,[1] terrorist attack,[2] shooting spree, hate crime
Weapons: Two AR-15 style rifles; 12-gauge Mossberg 930 semiautomatic shotgun; 12-gauge Ranger 870 pump-action shotgun; .357 Magnum Uberti lever-action rifle; .223-caliber Mossberg Predator bolt-action rifle
Deaths: 51[3]
Injured: 40
Perpetrator: Brenton Harrison Tarrant
Motive: Far-right extremism; Islamophobia[4]; White supremacy[5]; White genocide conspiracy theory; The Great Replacement conspiracy theory; Ecofascism[6]
Convicted: Brenton Tarrant
Verdict: Plead guilty to all charges; sentenced to life in prison without the possibility of parole
Convictions: 51 counts of murder; 40 counts of attempted murder; One count of engaging in a terrorist act

Two consecutive mass shootings occurred at mosques in a terrorist attack in Christchurch, New Zealand, during Friday Prayer on 15 March 2019.[7] The attack, carried out by a single gunman who entered both mosques, began at the Al Noor Mosque in the suburb of Riccarton at 1:40 pm and continued at Linwood Islamic Centre at 1:52 pm.[8][9][10][11][12] He killed 51 people[13][14] and injured 40.[15]

Brenton Harrison Tarrant, a 28-year-old man from Grafton, New South Wales, Australia, was arrested shortly afterward. He was described in media reports as a white supremacist[16][17] and part of the alt-right. He had live-streamed the first shooting on Facebook,[18] and prior to the attack, had published an online manifesto; both the video and manifesto were subsequently banned in New Zealand and Australia.
[19][20][21][22] After police investigation, he was charged with 51 murders, 40 attempted murders, and engaging in a terrorist act. He initially pleaded not guilty to all charges, with the trial expected to start on 2 June 2020.[23][24] On 26 March 2020, he changed his plea to guilty on all charges.[25][26] He was sentenced to life imprisonment without the possibility of parole on 27 August 2020. It was the first time a sentence of life without parole was handed down in New Zealand.[27][28][29]

The attack was linked to an increase in white supremacy and alt-right extremism globally[30][31] observed since about 2015.[32][33] Politicians and world leaders condemned it,[34] and Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern described it as "one of New Zealand's darkest days".[35] The government established a royal commission of inquiry into its security agencies in the wake of the shootings, which were the deadliest in modern New Zealand history and the worst ever committed by an Australian national.[36][37][38] The commission submitted its report to the government on 26 November 2020,[39] the details of which were made public on 7 December.[40]

Background

See also: List of massacres in New Zealand

New Zealand has been considered a safe and tolerant place with low levels of gun violence[41] and was named the second most peaceful country in the world by Global Peace Index in 2019, the year of the attacks.[42] This attack was the first mass shooting in the country since the Raurimu massacre in 1997.[43] Prior to that, the deadliest public mass shooting was the 1990 Aramoana massacre, in which 13 people died.[44] While the country has rarely been associated with the extreme right,[45] experts have suggested that far-right extremism has been growing in New Zealand.[46] The sociologist Paul Spoonley has called Christchurch a hotbed for white supremacists and the extreme nationalist movement,[46] a suggestion rejected by Christchurch MP Gerry Brownlee.[47] Australia, where the gunman, Brenton Tarrant, was from, has also seen an increase in xenophobia, racism, and Islamophobia.[48]

In the 2018 census, over 57,000 New Zealand residents reported their religion as Islam, around 1.2% of the total population.[49][50] The Al Noor Mosque opened in 1985; it was the first mosque in the South Island.[51] The Linwood Islamic Centre opened in early 2018.[52]

Shootings

Al Noor Mosque


Tarrant arrived at the Al Noor Mosque in Riccarton and began shooting worshippers at around 1:40 pm. Police received the first emergency call at 1:41 pm.[53] Approximately 190 people, mostly men, were inside the mosque attending Friday prayer at the time of the shooting.[15][54]

Tarrant live-streamed the first 17 minutes of his attack on Facebook Live, starting with the drive to the Al Noor mosque and ending as he drove away from the mosque.[55] Moments before the shooting, he played several songs, including "The British Grenadiers", a traditional British military marching song; and "Remove Kebab", a Serb nationalist and anti-Muslim propaganda music video cheering Radovan Karadžić, who was found guilty in 2016 of genocide against Bosnian Muslims by the ICTY.[56][57][58] He also continued to play "military music" inside the mosque from a portable audio speaker attached to the front of a tactical vest he was wearing.[15][59] As he approached the front entrance to the mosque, Tarrant appeared to be greeted by one of the worshippers, who said "Hello, brother" and was the first victim to be killed in the attack.[60][61][62][63]

Tarrant spent several minutes inside the mosque, shooting attendees indiscriminately. He first fired nine shots from a semiautomatic shotgun towards the front entrance before dropping it. He then began using an AR-15 style rifle and opened fire on people inside. He killed four men near the entrance and dozens more inside a prayer hall. A strobe-light attached to one of his weapons was used to disorient victims.[15][64] During the attack, a worshipper, Naeem Rashid, charged at him and was shot; Rashid later died from his injuries.[65][66][67][68]

Tarrant fired indiscriminately at worshippers in the prayer hall from close range, shooting many of his victims multiple times. He then left the mosque and fired on more people outside, killing a man. Returning to his vehicle, he retrieved another weapon before heading to the mosque's car park and shot several people fleeing or hiding there. He then reentered the mosque and opened fire again on people who were already wounded in the prayer hall and unable to escape. Afterwards, Tarrant exited the mosque once more and killed a woman lying wounded on the footpath as she pleaded for help. He then returned to his car, which had been parked in a neighbouring driveway, and fled the scene[15][61][69] to the music of "Fire" by The Crazy World of Arthur Brown,[70][71][72] in which the singer proclaims, "I am the god of hellfire!"[73][74][75] He fired at people from the driver's seat who were in cars and on foot as he fled, which left bullet holes in his windscreen and the passenger window of his car smashed.[15][76] Tarrant had been planning to set fire to the mosque, as stated when he drove away to the Linwood Islamic Centre: "It was too quick. I should've stayed longer. There was more time for the fuel."[77] He had four modified petrol containers in his car, which were intended as incendiary devices.[15] A neighbour of the mosque told reporters he saw Tarrant flee and drop what appeared to be a firearm in the driveway.[78]

Tarrant had spent a total of about five minutes at the Al Noor Mosque.[79][76] At 1:46 pm, as he drove away from the mosque, the Armed Offenders Squad (AOS) arrived near the scene. Police Commissioner Mike Bush said at this point he was already leaving the area, his car hidden by a bus. At this time, AOS members did not know how many shooters there were and were not informed that the offender had left the mosque. At 1:51 pm, first responders arrived at the Al Noor Mosque.[80] About three minutes after Tarrant left the mosque, his vehicle passed by one or more police vehicles responding to the shooting. However, he remained undetected by police as he continued on his way eastwards on Bealey Ave to the Linwood Islamic Centre, driving at speeds up to 150 kilometres per hour (93 mph) in a 50 kilometres per hour (31 mph) zone, weaving in and out traffic, driving on the wrong side of the road and up onto the grass median strip.[76][79][81][82][83] As Tarrant drove to the Linwood Islamic Centre, reports came in from the public of a vehicle driving "erratically" along Bealey Ave.[84] Tarrant, on two occasions, also unsuccessfully tried to shoot the driver of a car next to him.[76] At 1:51 pm, one minute before he reached the Linwood Islamic Centre, the livestream abruptly ended. However, the GoPro device attached to his helmet that was recording footage was still active and continued to record until Tarrant was apprehended by police eight minutes later.[76]


Linwood Islamic Centre

Image
Linwood Islamic Centre, March 2020. At the time of the shootings, there was a building at the front of the section and access was along a driveway to the left.

A second attack began at 1:52 pm[8] at the Linwood Islamic Centre,[85][86] a mosque 5 kilometres (3 mi) east of the Al Noor Mosque in Linwood.[61] Tarrant parked his vehicle on the mosque's driveway, preventing other cars from entering or leaving.[15] According to a witness, Tarrant was initially unable to find the mosque's main door, instead shooting people outside and through a window, killing four and alerting those inside. About 100 people were inside the mosque at the time, and had not been alerted to the attack at Al Noor.[76][15][87]

The mosque's acting imam credited a worshipper named Abdul Aziz Wahabzada with stopping the attack.[88][89][90][91] Wahabzada told reporters he had taken a credit card reader and ran out of the mosque, by which time Tarrant outside had already shot several people. Tarrant was about to retrieve another gun from his car, so Wahabzada threw the reader at him. Tarrant took a rifle from his car and fired at Wahabzada, who took cover among nearby cars and retrieved an empty shotgun Tarrant had dropped. Despite Wahabzada's attempt to draw Tarrant's attention away from the mosque by shouting "I'm here!", he entered the mosque and continued firing in a prayer hall, killing an additional three people. When Tarrant returned to his car again, Wahabzada threw the shotgun at the car, shattering the left rear window. Tarrant then drove away from the mosque at 1:55 pm,[8][15][88][89][90][92] and a minute later, a member of the public waved down a police car to report shots had been fired in Linwood.[8]

At 1:59 pm, police arrived at the Linwood Islamic Centre, the same minute Tarrant was arrested on Brougham Street.[8]


Arrest

Early reports indicated "multiple, simultaneous attack[s]",[93] but later, only a single suspect, Tarrant, was implicated.[94][95] A silver Subaru Outback[96] matching the description of Tarrant's vehicle was seen by a police unit and a pursuit was initiated at 1:57 pm. Tarrant was arrested on Brougham Street in Sydenham at 1:59 pm, 18 minutes after the first emergency call.[97] Video footage taken by an onlooker showed his car had been rammed against the kerb by a police car before his arrest at gunpoint.[98][99]

The Prime Minister, Jacinda Ardern, said Tarrant had been planning to continue the attacks at a third location,[100] later identified as the mosque in Ashburton, 90 km (56 mi) southwest of Christchurch.[15] According to Ardern, "There were two other firearms in the vehicle that the offender was in and it absolutely was his intention to continue with his attack".[101] Police Commissioner Mike Bush corroborated this, saying police had stopped Tarrant on his way to a third location.[102] The arresting officers were rural-based police who were coincidentally in Christchurch to attend a training session on dealing with armed offenders.[103]

Victims

Fifty-one people, 47 male and 4 female, were killed in the attacks: 44 at the Al Noor Mosque and 7 at the Linwood Islamic Centre.[15][10] One of the victims died shortly after in Christchurch Hospital, while another died in hospital on 2 May, seven weeks after the attack.[81][104][3] Those killed were between 3 and 77 years old.[105] The hospital's Chief of Surgery said on 16 March that four had died in ambulances en route to the hospital.[106]

Forty others were injured: 35 at the Al Noor Mosque and 5 at the Linwood Islamic Centre.[15] On 17 March, Commissioner Bush said 36 were being treated for gunshot wounds in hospital.[13][14] Two were in a serious condition, and a 4-year-old girl was transferred to Starship Hospital in Auckland in a critical condition.[107]

In the days following the attacks, dozens of people remained missing[108] and several diplomatic offices and foreign ministries released statements regarding the number of victims from their nations.[109][110][111] Police requested that people listed as missing, though actually safe, register themselves on the Restoring Family Links website.[112] The New Zealand Red Cross published a list of missing people which included nationals of Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Jordan, Malaysia, Pakistan and Saudi Arabia.[113] Among the dead listed in New Zealand Police media releases were citizens of Bangladesh, Egypt, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Jordan, Malaysia, Mauritius, New Zealand, Pakistan and Palestine.[114][115][116][117] A citizen from Turkey died in the hospital in early May.[3] Atta Elayyan, an IT entrepreneur and goalkeeper for the New Zealand national futsal team, was among those killed.[118][119]

The known birthplaces of the deceased are as follows.[120][121]

Victims' birth countries

Country / Deaths


Pakistan / 9
India / 7
Bangladesh / 5
Egypt / 4
United Arab Emirates / 3
Fiji / 3
Somalia / 2
Syria / 2
Indonesia / 1
Jordan / 1
Kuwait / 1
New Zealand / 1
Unknown/not stated / 12


Perpetrator

Police charged Brenton Harrison Tarrant, a white, 28-year-old Australian man.[122][123][124][125] He grew up in Grafton, New South Wales and attended Grafton High School.[126] After Tarrant's parents separated when he was young, his mother's subsequent boyfriend abused her and the children.[127] He worked as a personal trainer in his hometown from 2009 to 2011, quitting after an injury,[40][128] and after inheriting A$457,000 from his father, who committed suicide in 2010.[40]

At the time of his mass murder, Tarrant had been living in Andersons Bay in Dunedin since 2017,[40][129] and was a member of a South Otago gun club where he practised shooting at its range.[130] A neighbour, who shared an internal wall with Tarrant in his house in Andersons Bay, described him as a "bit of a recluse" and a "loner, but a friendly loner." The neighbour also said Tarrant would offer to mow the lawns for his and his neighbour's landlord and help out around the property.[131] In 2018, Tarrant was treated for eye and thigh injuries at Dunedin Public Hospital; he told doctors he had sustained the injuries while trying to dislodge a bullet that had been improperly chambered in a gun. The doctors also treated him for issues arising from steroid abuse, but they never reported Tarrant's visit to the authorities, which would have resulted in them visiting his home and reviewing his gun licence.[40][132] Shortly before the attacks, he sent his mother a message that she was "about to see and read 'the most terrible things' about him".[133]

In a report published by Newshub in April 2020, survivors of the attack claimed that a man that they believe to be Tarrant had visited the Al Noor Mosque three times consecutively during Friday Prayer and pretended to pray with worshippers before the attack.[134] Gamal Fouda, the Imam of the Al Noor Mosque, told Newshub that Tarrant dressed up in traditional Pakistani clothing while inside the mosque, and that he had questioned a person about the scheduling of the Friday Prayer times. Fouda also added that Tarrant "...knew the place like his house." Canterbury Police District Commander Superintendent John Price told Newshub that police have found evidence from CCTV footage that Tarrant's vehicle had been parked across the street from the mosque before 15 March. However, Price also said police found no evidence to support the claim that Tarrant had entered the mosque grounds before the attack.[134] Instead, Price said that police believe Tarrant had viewed an online tour of Al-Noor as part of his planning.[135] An Official Information Act request by Newshub also revealed Tarrant flew a drone over the mosque on 8 January, weeks before he would open fire.[15][136] Additionally, he used the Internet to find detailed mosque plans, interior pictures, and prayer schedules to figure out when mosques would be at their busiest levels.[15]


Travels and racist views

Tarrant began expressing racist ideas from a young age and reportedly started using the controversial 4chan internet forum at the age of 14.[40] From 2012 onward, he visited a number of countries in Asia and Europe, using the money he inherited from his father. He always travelled alone, with the exception of a trip to North Korea. Police in Bulgaria and Turkey investigated Tarrant's visits to their countries.[40][127][137][138] Security officials suspected he had come into contact with far-right organisations about two years before the shooting, while visiting European nations.[139] He donated €1,500 to Identitäre Bewegung Österreich (IBÖ), the Austrian branch of Generation Identity (part of the Identitarian movement) in Europe, as well as €2,200 to Génération Identitaire, the French branch of the group, and interacted with IBÖ leader Martin Sellner via email between January 2018 and July 2018, offering to meet in Vienna and a linking to his YouTube channel.[140][141][142]

Captivated with sites of battles between Christian European nations and the Ottoman Empire, Tarrant went on another series of visits to the Balkans from 2016 to 2018, with Croatia, Bulgaria, Hungary, Turkey and Bosnia-Herzegovina confirming his presence there in these years.[143] He posted Balkan nationalist material on social media platforms,[144] and called for the United States to be weakened in order to prevent events such as the NATO intervention in Kosovo in support of Muslim Albanians against Christian Serbs.[57][143][145] He said he was against intervention by NATO because he saw the Serbian military as "Christian Europeans attempting to remove these Islamic occupiers from Europe".[57][145] By June 2016, relatives noted a change in Tarrant's personality, which he claimed was the result of a mugging incident in Ethiopia, and his mother had expressed concern for his mental health.[40]

In 2016, three years prior to the attacks, Tarrant praised Blair Cottrell as a leader of the far-right movements in Australia and made more than 30 comments on the now-deleted "United Patriots Front" and "True Blue Crew" web pages. An Australian Broadcasting Corporation team who studied the comments called them "fragments and digital impressions of a well-travelled young man who frequented hate-filled anonymous messaging boards and was deeply engaged in a global alt-right culture."[146] A Melbourne man said that in 2016, he filed a police complaint after Tarrant allegedly told him in an online conversation, "I hope one day you meet the rope". He said that the police told him to block Tarrant and did not take a statement from him. The police said that they were unable to locate a complaint.[147]

Tarrant claimed that he is racist but not xenophobic. He is thought to have become obsessed with terrorist attacks committed by Islamic extremists in 2016 and 2017, started planning an attack about two years prior to the shootings, and chosen his targets three months in advance.[148] He admitted that he is a fascist. He expressed his hopes to create a "gun conflict" in the United States over gun ownership.
[148] After his arrest, Tarrant told investigators that he frequented right-wing discussion boards on 4chan and 8chan, and he also found YouTube as "a significant source of information and inspiration."[40]

Weapons

Police recovered six guns: two AR-15 style rifles (one manufactured by Windham Weaponry and the other by Ruger), two 12-gauge shotguns (a semiautomatic Mossberg 930 and a pump-action Ranger 870), and two other rifles (a .357 Magnum Uberti lever-action rifle, and a .223-caliber Mossberg Predator bolt-action rifle). They were all purchased between December 2017 and March 2019, along with more than 7,000 rounds of ammunition.[15] Police Commissioner Mike Bush said Tarrant held a firearms licence with an "A" endorsement,[149] and he started buying his arsenal a month after acquiring his licence. According to a city gun store, Tarrant bought four firearms and ammunition online.[150] The shop said none of the four were military-style weapons, and it is not known if these guns were the ones used in the attacks. The shop did not detect anything unusual or extraordinary about the customer.[151] Additionally, he illegally[152] replaced the semi-automatic rifles' small, legal magazines with 30-round magazines purchased online,[153][154] and the triggers of some of the firearms were modified so he could fire them more quickly.[15]

According to Stuff, Tarrant was wrongly granted a firearms licence due to police failures. Sources said that police failed to interview a family member as required for obtaining a firearms licence, instead interviewing two men that Tarrant had met through an online chatroom. In the days after the attacks, the police had quashed concerns that Tarrant had obtained the weapons inappropriately. Police have not given comment to this allegation, saying they do not wish to interfere with the ongoing inquiry into the event.[155]

The guns and magazines used were covered in white writing naming historical events, people, and motifs related to historical conflicts, wars, and battles between Muslims and European Christians,[57][145][156][157] as well as the names of recent Islamic terrorist attack victims and the names of far-right attackers.[158] The markings also included references to "Turkofagos" (Turk eater), a term used by Greeks during the Greek War of Independence and white supremacist slogans such as the anti-Muslim phrase "Remove Kebab" that originated from Serbia and the Fourteen Words.[57][156][157] Apart from the Latin alphabet, writings on the weaponry were in the Cyrillic, Armenian and Georgian alphabets.[156] The writings were names dedicated to historic individuals that fought against Muslim forces. On his pack was a Black Sun patch, and two dog tags: one with a Celtic cross, and one with a Slavic swastika design.[159] Police also found two improvised explosive devices attached to a car; these were defused by the New Zealand Defence Force.[160] No explosives were found on the gunman.[161]

Manifesto

Tarrant claims to be the author of a 74-page manifesto titled "The Great Replacement", a reference to the "Great Replacement" and "white genocide" conspiracy theories.[162][163] It said that the attacks were planned two years prior, and the location was selected three months prior.[164] Minutes before the attacks began, the manifesto was emailed to more than 30 recipients, including the prime minister's office and several media outlets,[165] and links were shared on Twitter and 8chan.[166][167]

In the manifesto several anti-immigrant sentiments are expressed, including hate speech against migrants, white supremacist rhetoric, and calls for all non-European immigrants in Europe who are claimed to be "invading his land" to be removed.[168] The manifesto displays neo-Nazi symbols such as the Black Sun and the Odin's cross. However, the author denies being a Nazi,[169] describing himself instead as an "ethno-nationalist",[145][170][171] an "eco-fascist",[172][173][174][175] and a "kebab removalist", in reference to a meme exalting the genocide of Bosnian Muslims that occurred during the Bosnian War.[176] The author cites Norwegian terrorist Anders Behring Breivik and others as an inspiration. The author says he originally targeted the Al Huda Mosque in Dunedin, but changed his mind after visiting Christchurch, because the Christchurch mosques contained "more adults and a prior history of extremism".[177][178] In 2014 and 2015, local press reported an allegation that a congregation member had been radicalised at the mosque.[179][180][181]


The manifesto was described by some media outlets as "shitposting"—trolling designed to engender conflict between certain groups and people.[182][183][184] Readers of the manifesto described it as containing deliberately provocative and absurd statements, such as sarcastically claiming to have been turned into a killer by playing violent video games.[185][186][187] On 23 March 2019, the manifesto was deemed "objectionable" by the Chief Censor of New Zealand, making it unlawful to possess or distribute it in New Zealand.[188] Exemptions to the ban were available for journalists, researchers and academics.[189] In August 2019, The New Zealand Herald reported that printed copies of the manifesto were being sold online outside New Zealand, something New Zealand law could not prevent.[190]

Genocide scholar A. Dirk Moses analyzed the manifesto, concluding that "Tarrant's words yield insights into the subjectivity of genocidaires more generally, namely that they commit terrorist acts with genocidal intent as – in their own mind – preventative self-defence; not as acts of aggression but, as he writes, 'a partisan action against an occupying force'". According to Moses, it is hypocritical for Tarrant to complain about supposed "white genocide" from immigration without recognizing that he himself comes from a settler colony that resulted from what Moses characterizes as genocide against the indigenous peoples of Australia.[191]

Legal proceedings

Arraignment


Tarrant appeared in the Christchurch District Court on 16 March, where he was charged with one count of murder.[192] The judge ordered the courtroom closed to the public except for accredited media, and allowed the accused to be filmed and photographed on the condition that his face be pixellated.[193] In court, Tarrant smiled at reporters and made an inverted OK gesture below his waist, said to be a "white power" sign.[194]

The case was transferred to the High Court and he was remanded in custody, as his lawyer did not seek bail.[195] He was subsequently transferred to the country's only maximum-security unit at Auckland Prison.[196] He has lodged a formal complaint regarding his prison conditions, on the grounds that he has no access to newspapers, television, Internet, visitors or phone calls.[197] On 4 April, police announced they had increased the total number of charges to 89, 50 for murder and 39 for attempted murder, with other charges still under consideration.[198] At the next hearing on 5 April, he was ordered by the judge to undergo a psychiatric assessment of his mental fitness to stand trial.[199]

On 21 May 2019, Commissioner Bush announced that a new charge of engaging in a terrorist act had been laid against Tarrant under section 6A of the Terrorism Suppression Act 2002. One murder charge and one attempted murder charge were also added, bringing the total to 51 and 40 respectively.[200]

Initial plea and pre-trial detention

On 14 June 2019, Tarrant appeared at the Christchurch High Court via audio-visual link from Auckland Prison. Through his lawyer, he pleaded not guilty to engaging in a terrorist act, 51 counts of murder, and 40 counts of attempted murder. Mental health assessments had indicated no issues regarding his fitness to plead or stand trial. The trial start date was set for 4 May 2020; the Crown prosecutor estimated the trial would last around six weeks.[24] On 12 September 2019, the trial date was pushed back to 2 June 2020, to avoid coinciding with the Islamic holy month of Ramadan.[201]

On 14 August 2019, it was reported that Tarrant had been able to send seven letters from prison, two to his mother and five to unnamed recipients. One of these letters was subsequently posted on the Internet message boards 4chan and 8chan by a recipient. Minister of Corrections Kelvin Davis and the Department of Corrections were criticised for allowing the distribution of these letters.[202][203][204] On 19 August, Prime Minister Ardern announced that the Government would explore amending the Corrections Act 2004 to further restrict what mail can be received and sent by prisoners.[205][206]

Guilty plea and sentencing arrangements

On 26 March 2020, Tarrant appeared at the Christchurch High Court via audio-visual link from Auckland Prison. During the appearance, he pleaded guilty to all 92 charges: one of engaging in a terrorist act, 51 of murder, and 40 of attempted murder. Due to the nationwide COVID-19 pandemic lockdown, the general public was barred from the hearing; however, media representatives and representatives for the Al-Noor and Linwood mosques were present in the courtroom.[207] According to media reports, Tarrant's lawyers Shane Tait and Jonathan Hudson had informed the courts that Tarrant was considering changing his plea. On 25 March, Tarrant issued his lawyers with formal written instructions confirming that he wanted to change his pleas to guilty. In response, court authorities began making arrangements for the case to be called as soon as possible in the midst of the COVID-19 lockdown.[208][209] The judge convicted Tarrant on all charges and remanded him in custody to await sentencing.

On 10 July, the government announced that overseas-based victims of the Christchurch mosque shootings would receive border exemptions and financial help in order to fly to New Zealand for the duration of Tarrant's sentencing.[210] On 13 July, it was reported that Tarrant had dismissed his lawyers and would be representing himself during sentencing proceedings.[211][212]

Sentencing

Image
Armed police outside the entrance to the Christchurch courthouse on 24 August 2020, the first day of sentencing.

Sentencing began on 24 August 2020 before Justice Cameron Mander at the Christchurch High Court.[213] Capacity in the main courtroom was limited to comply with social distancing requirements of COVID-19 alert level 2, with the proceedings livestreamed to seven other courtrooms to accommodate victims and media. In addition, the sentencing proceedings were livestreamed to people at home who were unable to attend the proceedings in person.[214] Extra security was implemented at the Christchurch courthouse; roads around the precinct were closed, armed police including police dogs and snipers were deployed, and non-urgent court business was suspended. Tarrant was flown from Auckland to Christchurch aboard an RNZAF C-130 Hercules, and held in the court cells to mitigate the risk of him being attacked on the 19 km (12 mi) journey between the courthouse and Christchurch Men's Prison.[215]

During the sentencing phase, the Crown prosecutors read the statement of facts to the court, showing how Tarrant had meticulously planned the two mosque shootings as well as more attacks.[216][217] Numerous survivors of the mosque shooting and their relatives gave victim impact statements, which were covered by national and international media. Tarrant remained mostly unemotional and expressionless during these victim impact statements, except for certain moments such as when he smiled when Abreem Naeem, a widow of a victim, called Tarrant a loser.[218][219][220][221]

On 27 August 2020, the day of sentencing, Philip Hall QC, who had been appointed as Tarrant's standby counsel, said that his only instruction from Tarrant was that he did "not oppose the application that he should be sentenced to the term of life without parole". Justice Mander gave Tarrant the opportunity to address the court, however Tarrant replied, "No, thank you".[222][223] Justice Mander sentenced Tarrant to life imprisonment without the possibility of parole for each of the 51 murders.[28] He was also sentenced to life imprisonment on the charge of engaging in a terrorist act and 40 attempted murder charges.[27] It was the first time that life imprisonment without parole, the maximum sentence available in New Zealand, had been imposed.[note 1] In his sentencing remarks, Justice Mander said Tarrant's crimes "are so wicked that even if you are detained until you die, it will not exhaust the requirements of punishment and denunciation."[27][29]

Following the sentencing, Deputy Prime Minister Winston Peters called for Tarrant to serve his sentence in Australia in order to avoid New Zealand having to pay the costs for his life imprisonment. The cost of housing Tarrant in prison was estimated at NZ$4,930 per day,[225] compared to an average cost of $338 per sentenced prisoner per day.[226] Peters's remarks were also motivated[citation needed] by Australia's policy of deporting New Zealand citizens who had committed crimes or breached character requirements. Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern has said there is currently no legal basis for extradition and that respecting the wishes of his victims and their relatives would be paramount. Justice Minister Andrew Little said Parliament would need to pass a law to deport Tarrant to Australia. University of Otago law professor Dr Andrew Geddis said it was "legally impossible" under New Zealand law to deport Tarrant to Australia to serve his sentence. Other New Zealand politicians including Leader of the Opposition and National Party leader Judith Collins, fellow National MP Simon Bridges, Greens co-leader James Shaw, and ACT Party leader David Seymour welcomed Tarrant's life sentence. Australian Prime Minister Scott Morrison also welcomed Tarrant's life sentence, saying Australians were horrified by Tarrant's "despicable act" and regarded New Zealand as "family".[227][228] On 28 August, Morrison and the Australian Minister for Home Affairs Peter Dutton advised that while no formal request had been made by the New Zealand Government to repatriate Tarrant to Australia and for him to serve his life sentence in an Australian correctional facility, the Australian Government was open to considering a request.[229]

Aftermath

Emergency services response


In April 2019, police released a final timeline of the event.[230] It said police were at the first scene within minutes of the incident being reported at 1:41 pm.[8] It was initially understood that the arrest had taken 36 minutes, but it was later clarified that it had taken 18 minutes.[8][231] In response to criticism that police were too slow to react, District Commander John Price said: "That is an incredibly fast response time. You had a mobile offender across a large metropolitan city."[232]

St. John Ambulance sent 20 ambulances and other vehicles to the mosques.[233] Most of the wounded were taken to Christchurch Hospital. Forty-eight people with gunshot wounds, including young children, were treated at the hospital,[234][235] with some taken to other hospitals within Christchurch and nationally.[236] Canterbury District Health Board activated its mass-casualty plan.[234] Paramedics describe a 'river of blood' coming out of the mosque[237] and having to step over bodies to collect the wounded.[238]

Police advised all mosques in the country to close until further notice, and sent officers to secure various sites in Christchurch.[239] All Air New Zealand Link services departing from Christchurch Airport were cancelled as a precaution, due to the absence of security screening at the regional terminal.[240][241] Security was increased at Parliament, and public tours of the buildings were cancelled.[242] In Dunedin, the Armed Offenders Squad searched a house, later reported to have been rented by the gunman,[243][244] and cordoned off part of the surrounding street in Andersons Bay because Tarrant had indicated on social media that he had originally planned to target the Al Huda Mosque in that city.[245][246]

Governmental response

For the first time in New Zealand history, the terrorism threat level was raised to high.[247] Prime Minister Ardern called the incident an "act of extreme and unprecedented violence" on "one of New Zealand's darkest days".[248][249][250] She described it as a "well-planned" terrorist attack.[236] She said she would render the person accused of the attacks "nameless" and urged the public to speak the victims' names instead.[251] A meeting of the Officials Committee for Domestic and External Security Co-ordination was convened to coordinate the government's response.[252] Ardern, who had just left a school climate-strike rally in New Plymouth,[253] returned to her hotel along with the Minister for Security and Intelligence, Andrew Little, to give a press statement. Ardern cancelled her remaining public engagements scheduled for that day, including opening the WOMAD international arts festival.[254] She then boarded an RNZAF plane to fly to Wellington to join official meetings taking place at the Beehive.[255] Ardern issued a directive that flags on "all Government and public buildings" should be flown at half-mast until further notice.[256]

In May 2019, the NZ Transport Authority offered to replace any vehicle number plates with the prefix "GUN" (issued in 2013) on request, although they were not withdrawn.[257]

In mid-October 2019, Prime Minister Ardern awarded bravery awards to the two police officers who had apprehended the shooter Tarrant at the annual Police Association Conference in Wellington. Due to the legal proceedings against Tarrant, the two officers had interim name suppression, but in December 2019 this was lifted.[258][259][260]

On 1 September 2020, Prime Minister Ardern designated Tarrant as a terrorist entity, explaining, "This entity freezes all his assets and also makes it a criminal offence for anyone to support the shooter financially, and ensures the offender cannot be involved in the financing of terrorism in the future".[261]

Royal commission of inquiry

Cabinet agreed to hold an inquiry into the attacks, and announced on 25 March that it would take the form of a royal commission of inquiry.[37] Little told Radio New Zealand, "I have given authority to the agencies to do intrusive activities under warrant, the number of those (warrants) I'm not at liberty to disclose."[262] He said that the intelligence services usually put 30 to 40 people under monitoring at a time. Although more people than usual were being monitored, he was not willing to reveal how many. He also said the operations could be anything from physical surveillance to watching telecommunications activity.[263]

On 8 April 2019, Prime Minister Ardern confirmed the terms of reference for the royal commission of inquiry, and announced that Supreme Court justice Sir William Young would chair the inquiry.[264]

On 26 November 2020, the Royal Commission formally presented its 792-page report to the government.[39] This report was made public on 8 December. Though it acknowledged there were no signs an attack in New Zealand was imminent at the time, it highlighted failures by the police system to properly vet gun purchases, as well as the country's intelligence services' strong focus on Islamic extremism at the expense of other potential threats such as white supremacy. The report also made 44 recommendations, including the establishment of a new national intelligence agency specializing in counterterrorism strategies. After the report's recommendations were made public, Ardern said the government has agreed to implement all of them.[40][265][266][267] The report also found that YouTube had radicalized the shooter.[268][269]

Other responses in New Zealand

Image
Patsy Reddy laying flowers at the Christchurch Botanic Gardens on 19 March

Within an hour of the attack, all schools in the city were placed in "lockdown".[270][271] A ministry report launched after the attacks said schools' handling of the events were varied: some schoolchildren in lockdown still had their mobile phones and some were able to view the footage of the first attack online, meanwhile some schools had children "commando crawl" to the bathroom under teacher supervision.[272][273] Student climate strikers at the global School Strike for the Climate rally in Cathedral Square, near the sites of the attacks, were advised by police either to seek refuge in public buildings or go home.[274][275] The citywide lockdown lasted nearly 3 hours.[272]

In response to security concerns, the University of Otago postponed its sesquicentennial street parade which had been scheduled for 16 March.[245][246]

The third Test cricket match between New Zealand and Bangladesh, scheduled to commence at Hagley Oval in Hagley Park on 16 March, was likewise cancelled due to security concerns.[276] The Bangladesh team were planning to attend Friday prayer at the Al Noor Mosque, and were moments from entering the building when the incident began.[277][278] The players then fled on foot to Hagley Oval.[279] Two days later, Canterbury withdrew from their match against Wellington in the Plunket Shield cricket tournament.[280] Likewise the Super Rugby match between the Crusaders, based in Christchurch, and Highlanders, based in Dunedin, due to be played the next day was cancelled as "a mark of respect for the events".[281] After the attacks, there were renewed calls to rename the Crusaders team, since its name derives from the medieval Crusades against Muslims.[282][283]

Image
Vigil in Wellington for the victims of the attack

Canadian rock singer-songwriter Bryan Adams and American thrash metal band Slayer both cancelled their concerts that were scheduled to be held in Christchurch on 17 March, two days after the shootings.[284] The Polynesian cultural festival Polyfest was cancelled after the shootings, with security concerns cited as the reason.[285] The music and cultural festival WOMAD went ahead in New Plymouth despite the attacks, with armed police stationed around the festival perimeter, inside the event, and outside artists' hotels.[286]

The mosques involved in the attacks, and others around the country and the world, became the focus of vigils, messages, and floral tributes.[287][288][289][290] The mayor of Christchurch, Lianne Dalziel, encouraged people to lay flowers outside the city's Botanic Gardens.[291] As a mark of sympathy and solidarity, school pupils and other groups performed haka and waiata to honour those killed in the attacks.[292][293] Street gangs including the Mongrel Mob, Black Power, and the King Cobras sent members to mosques around the country to help protect them during prayer time.[294][295][296] One week after the attacks, an open-air Friday prayer service was held in Hagley Park. Broadcast nationally on radio and television, it was attended by 20,000 people, including Ardern,[297][298][299] who said "New Zealand mourns with you. We are one." The imam of the Al Noor Mosque thanked New Zealanders for their support and added, "We are broken-hearted but we are not broken."[300] A national remembrance service was held on 29 March, a fortnight after the attacks.[301]

Operation Whakahaumanu

Shortly after the attack, New Zealand Police launched Operation Whakahaumanu. The operation was designed to reassure New Zealanders after the attack and to also investigate possible threats who shared a similar ideology to the gunman. Police increased visibility in streets and visited many schools, businesses, and religious places as part of the operation. In Canterbury alone, there were almost 600 people of interest to police, where hundreds of properties were searched. On 14 July 2020, the Independent Police Conduct Authority (IPCA) deemed three of these searches to be unlawful.[302]

Fundraisers and philanthropy

An online fundraiser on the fundraising website "Givealittle" started to support victims and their families had, as of August 2020, raised over NZ$10,903,966.[303][304] Counting other fundraisers, a combined total of $8.4 million had been raised for the victims and their families (as of 20 March 2019).[305] Prime Minister Ardern reiterated that those injured or killed in the shootings and their immediate families are covered by the country's accident-compensation scheme, ACC, which offers compensation for lost income and a $10,000 funeral grant, among other benefits.[306][307]

In late June, it was reported that the Jewish Federation of Greater Pittsburgh had raised more than NZ$967,500 (US$650,000) through its New Zealand Islamophobia Attack Fund for the victims of the Christchurch mosque shootings. This amount included $60,000 raised by Tree of Life – Or L'Simcha Congregation. These funds will be donated to the Christchurch Foundation, a registered charity which has been receiving money to support victims of the Christchurch shootings. This philanthropy was inspired by local Muslim support for the Pittsburgh Jewish community following the Pittsburgh synagogue shooting in late October 2018.[308][309][310]
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 32795
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Tucker Carlson Doubles Down on White Supremacist 'Great

Postby admin » Wed Apr 14, 2021 5:11 am

Part 2 of 3

Global response

Image
Vigil in Melbourne, Australia

On 15 May 2019, Ardern and French President Emmanuel Macron co-hosted the Christchurch Call summit in Paris,[311][312] which called for major technology companies to step up their efforts to combat violent extremism.[313] The accord's founding signatory nations were Australia, Canada, the European Commission, France, Germany, Indonesia, India, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Jordan, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Senegal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. In addition, the technology companies Amazon, DailyMotion, Facebook, Google, Microsoft, Qwant, Twitter and YouTube also signed.[314]

Related arrests and incidents

New Zealand


Police arrested four people on 15 March in relation to the attacks,[315][270][247] including a woman and a man, after finding a firearm in a vehicle in which they were travelling together.[316] The woman was released uncharged, but the man was held in custody and was charged with a firearms offence.[317] Additionally, a 30-year-old man said he was arrested when he arrived, unarmed, at Papanui High School to pick up his 13-year-old brother-in-law. He was in camouflage clothing, which he said he habitually wore.[318] He said police gave him a verbal warning for disorderly behaviour.[319] He is seeking compensation for a wrongful arrest. The actions were defended by police, who mentioned the threat level after the massacre and that they had to deal with reports possibly related to the attacks.[318]

On 4 March 2020, a 19-year-old Christchurch man was arrested for allegedly making a terror threat against the Al Noor mosque on an encrypted social media platform, Telegram.[320][321][322] Media reports subsequently identified the man as Sam Brittenden, a member of the white supremacist group Action Zealandia.[323][324]

On 4 March 2021, a 27-year-old man was charged with "threatening to kill" after making an online threat against both the Linwood Islamic Centre and Al Noor mosque on the social media site 4chan.[325] The suspect was granted name suppression and remanded into custody until 19 March.[326]

Outside New Zealand

On 19 March, an Australian man who had posted on social media praising the Christchurch shootings was indicted on one count of aggravated possession of a firearm without a licence and four counts of using or possessing a prohibited weapon. He was released on bail on the condition that he stay offline.[327][328][329][330]

On 18 March 2019, the Australian Federal Police's NSW Joint Counter Terrorism Team conducted raids on the homes of Tarrant's sister and mother near Coffs Harbour and Maclean in New South Wales. These raids were carried out by Australian Police to assist New Zealand Police with their investigation into the shootings. Tarrant's sister and mother reportedly cooperated with Australian police.[331][332]

A 24-year-old man from Oldham, Greater Manchester, United Kingdom was arrested on 16 March for sending Facebook posts in support of the shootings.[333][334]

On 20 March, an employee for Transguard, a company based in the United Arab Emirates, was fired by his company and deported for making comments supporting the shootings.[335][336]

In Canada, neo-Nazis Paul Fromm and Kevin Goudreau were put under investigation after the former shared the shooter's manifesto on the website of his organisation Canadian Association for Free Expression.[337][338]

Thomas Alan Bolin, a 22-year-old self-described "Folk Odinist" and founder of a Facebook group known as Odin's Warriors, and his cousin Austin Witkowski attempted to commit a copycat attack in Baltimore, Maryland. Under the aliases "Peter Vincent" and "Ragnar Odinson", the duo sent threatening messages on Facebook Messenger and planned to buy food, ammunition, and firearms in preparation for a similar attack. Bolin also praised the shooter's live-stream and manifesto, saying "Brugh dude killed 40 Muslims". Bolin was later convicted of lying to the FBI for claiming he did not possess any firearms.[339]

Inspired incidents

Nine days after the attack, a mosque in Escondido, California, was set on fire. Police found graffiti on the mosque's driveway that referenced the Christchurch shootings, leading them to investigate the fire as a terrorist attack.[340][341] A mass shooting later took place at a synagogue in nearby Poway on 27 April 2019, killing one person and injuring three others. The suspect in the shooting, John T. Earnest, also claimed responsibility for the fire and praised the Christchurch shootings in a manifesto. He and Tarrant were said to have been radicalised on 8chan's /pol/ discussion board.[342][343]

On 3 August 2019, Patrick Crusius killed 23 people and injured 23 others in a mass shooting at a Walmart in El Paso, Texas. In a manifesto posted to 8chan's /pol/ board, he expressed support for and inspiration from the Christchurch shootings.[344][345]

On 10 August 2019, Philip Manshaus tried to attack a mosque in Bærum, Norway, and livestream it on Facebook. He referred to Tarrant as a saint online and posted an image depicting Tarrant, Crusius, and Earnest as "heroes".[346]

On 27 January 2021, the Singaporean Internal Security Department reported it had arrested a 16-year old Protestant Indian youth under the Internal Security Act for plotting to attack the Assyafaah and Yusof Ishak Mosques on the anniversary of the Christchurch mosque shootings. The youth had produced a manifesto which described Tarrant as a "saint" and praised the Christchurch mosque shootings as the "justifiable killing of Muslims." Unable to obtain firearms and explosives due to Singapore's strict gun control laws, the youth had instead purchased a machete and vest.[347][348]

Reactions

World leaders


Image
Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern visited members of the Muslim community at the Phillipstown Community Hub in Christchurch the day after the attack.

Queen Elizabeth II, New Zealand's head of state, said she was "deeply saddened" by the attacks.[349][350] Other politicians and world leaders also condemned the attacks,[34][note 2] with some attributing them to rising Islamophobia.[387][388] The prime minister of Pakistan, Imran Khan, announced that Pakistani emigrant Naeem Rashid, who charged at the gunman and died as a result of the attack on the Al Noor Mosque, would be posthumously honoured with a national award for his courage.[389] The prime minister of Bangladesh, Sheikh Hasina, announced that "In the future, whenever we send our cricket team abroad, we will do that after examining and reviewing the security matters of the host countries" and added that Bangladesh had always provided highest security to visiting foreign teams.[390] Serbia's Foreign Minister Ivica Dačić condemned the Christchurch attack and said that the shooter "has nothing to do with Serbia."[391] Serbian President Aleksandar Vučić criticised media for implying that Serbs should be blamed for the shootings.[143]

The president of Turkey, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, showed footage taken by Tarrant to his supporters at campaign rallies for upcoming local elections.[392][393] The New Zealand and Australian governments,[394] as well as Turkey's main opposition party, criticised his actions.[395] U.S. President Donald Trump condemned the "horrible massacre".[396] When asked after the attacks if he thought white nationalists were a growing threat around the world, Trump replied, "I don't really. I think it's a small group of people that have very, very serious problems. It's certainly a terrible thing."[397]

Far-right

Two New Zealand-based anti-immigration groups, the Dominion Movement and the New Zealand National Front, quickly condemned the attacks, distanced themselves from the perpetrator, and shut their websites down.[398] However, the broader far-right culture celebrated the attacks and "sanctified" Tarrant as a central figure.[399] Tarrant's manifesto was translated and distributed in more than a dozen different languages,[399] and a number of supporters on 8chan made photo and video edits of the shooting.[176][400] Some extremists were inspired by Tarrant, committing violent incidents and deadly attacks of their own, such as those in Poway, El Paso, and Bærum.[399] The United Kingdom's domestic intelligence service, MI5, launched an inquiry into Tarrant's possible links to the British far-right.[401]

Islamic groups

Ahmed Bhamji, chair of the largest mosque in New Zealand,[402] spoke at a rally on 23 March in front of one thousand people.[403][404] He claimed that Mossad, the Israeli foreign intelligence agency, was behind the attack. The claim has been widely described as an unfounded, antisemitic conspiracy theory. The chairman of the Federation of Islamic Associations of New Zealand said that Bhamji's statement did not represent other New Zealand Muslims, but Bhamji defended his statements.[402][403][405]

Sri Lankan Defence Ministry

According to Sri Lankan State Defence Minister Ruwan Wijewardene, an early inquiry indicated that the 2019 Sri Lanka Easter bombings on 21 April were retaliation for the Christchurch attack.[406][407][408][409] However, some analysts believe the attacks to have been planned before the Christchurch attack,[410][411] and any linkage was questioned by New Zealand's government—with Prime Minister Ardern saying she was not aware of any intelligence linking the two.[412]

Video distribution

Copies of the live-streamed video were reposted on many platforms and file-sharing websites, including Facebook,[413] LiveLeak, and YouTube.[414] Police, Muslim-advocacy groups, and government agencies urged anyone who found the footage to take it down or report it.[415] The New Zealand Office of Film and Literature Classification quickly classified the video as "objectionable", making it a criminal offence in the country to distribute, copy, or exhibit the video, with potential penalties of up to 14 years' imprisonment for an individual, or up to $100,000 in fines for a corporation.[416][417][418]

Arrests and prosecutions

At least eight people have been arrested for possessing or sharing the video or manifesto; most of their names have been suppressed either to prevent threats against them or in support of freedom of expression online.[419] On 5 March 2019, an 18-year-old man was arrested and charged with inciting racial disharmony under the Human Rights Act.[420] Although authorities said he was not involved in the shootings,[13] he was denied bail, and faces up to 14 years in prison if convicted on all charges.[421] He appeared in Christchurch District Court on 18 March faced with a charge of distributing the video, and a second charge of making an objectionable publication by posting, between 8 and 15 March, a photo of the Al Noor Mosque bearing the message "target acquired", as well as other chat messages "inciting extreme violence".[422][423]

On 20 March 2019, Christchurch man Philip Arps was indicted on two charges of sharing a live-stream of the mosque shootings under the Films, Videos, and Publications Classification Act 1993. He was denied bail and remanded into police custody until his next court appearance, which is scheduled for 15 April. His company also attracted criticism for its use of Nazi symbols.[424][425][426][427] Arps subsequently pleaded guilty to two charges of distributing video footage of the Al Noor attack, one count of sharing the accused live-stream footage to approximately 30 people on Facebook, and requesting that another person add a cross-hair and kill count to the footage. In June 2019, he was sentenced to 21 months' imprisonment.[428][429] On 27 August, Arps' appeal of his sentence was dismissed.[430][431] Arps had also expressed neo-Nazi views and sent letters advocating violence against New Zealand politicians.[432][433] In late January 2020, Arps was released from prison under strict conditions including wearing a GPS electronic monitor, avoiding Muslims and Muslim buildings and prayer rooms, and not owning or touching firearms.[434][435]

On 2 July 2019, a 16-year-old boy pleaded guilty to possessing footage of the Christchurch shootings. Though he was released on bail and ordered to appear at a Family Group Conference on 30 July, he was subsequently returned to prison on 9 July for breaching his bail conditions.[436][437]

On 12 July 2019, a Dunedin man appeared in the Dunedin District Court on the charge of possessing footage of the Christchurch mosque shootings among other charges. He was remanded into police custody.[438]

On 12 February 2020, a Palmerston North man was sentenced to 12 months' imprisonment for posting footage of the Christchurch shooting on his Facebook page.[439]

On 26 February 2020, a Christchurch man was jailed for nearly two years for doctoring footage of the mosque shootings with a Call of Duty tagline for white supremacist Philip Arps two days after the attacks.[440]

Media outlets

Several media organisations in Australia and tabloid-news websites in the UK broadcast parts of the video, up to the point the gunman entered the building, despite pleas from the New Zealand Police not to show it.[441][442] Sky Television New Zealand temporarily stopped its syndication of Sky News Australia after that network showed the footage, and said it was working with Sky News Australia to prevent further displays of the video.[443] At least three Internet service providers in New Zealand blocked access to 8chan and other sites related to the attacks,[444] and temporarily blocked other sites hosting the video such as 4chan, LiveLeak, and Mega until they comply with requests to take down copies of the video.[445] The administrator of the online message board Kiwi Farms refused a New Zealand Police request for the data of users who made posts related to Tarrant and the attack.[446][447]

Social media

Social media sites including Facebook, YouTube, Reddit, and Twitter said they were working diligently to remove the video from their platforms and would also remove anything posted in support of the attacks.[448][449] According to Facebook, no complaints were made about the video until 12 minutes after the live-stream ended;[450] the original video from Tarrant himself had been viewed fewer than 200 times before Facebook was notified of its content, and it had been viewed only 4,000 times before it was removed, which happened within minutes of notification. Facebook created a digital hash fingerprint to detect further uploads, however by this point the video had been propagated on other sites.[451] Facebook said it had blocked 1.5 million uploads of the video and images from it in the day after the attacks, including edited versions, with most blocking occurring through use of the fingerprint to prevent visibility.[451][452] Reddit banned "subreddits" named "WatchPeopleDie" and "Gore", saying threads there had glorified the attacks, in violation of user agreements.[453][454][455] Microsoft, in light of how social media sites handled the content related to the shooting, proposed the establishment of industry-wide standards that would flag such content quickly, and, in the wake of similar major events, operate a joint virtual command center to manage and control the spread of such information via social media.[456]

Despite the networks' attempts to self-police, New Zealand officials and other world leaders have asked them to take responsibility for extremist content posted on their services.[451] Australia introduced legislation that would fine content providers and potentially imprison their executives if they do not remove violent imagery of these types of attacks.[457] The French Council of the Muslim Faith filed a lawsuit against Facebook and YouTube, accusing the companies of "broadcasting a message with violent content abetting terrorism, or of a nature likely to seriously violate human dignity and liable to be seen by a minor".[458] Facebook has contested the lawsuit, saying, "Acts of terror and hate speech have no place on Facebook, and our thoughts are with the families of the victims and the entire community affected by this tragedy. We have taken many steps to remove this video from our platform, we are cooperating with the authorities".[458]

International

Stuart Bender of Curtin University in Perth noted that the use of live video as an integral part of the attacks "makes [them] a form of 'performance crime' where the act of video recording and/or streaming the violence by the perpetrator is a central component of the violence itself, rather than being incidental."[459] Just before carrying out the attacks, the gunman said to-camera, "Remember lads, subscribe to PewDiePie", referring to the most subscribed YouTuber at the time, Felix Kjellberg, who goes by the alias PewDiePie who at the time was having a race to 100 million subscribers with Indian music channel T-Series. PewDiePie has been accused of using far-right content in his videos.[460][461][462][182][463] In response, Kjellberg tweeted, "Just heard news of the devastating reports from New Zealand Christchurch. I feel absolutely sickened having my name uttered by this person. My heart and thoughts go out to the victims, families and everyone affected by this tragedy."[461]—he later called for the phrase to be discontinued.[464]

Gun laws

For broader coverage of this topic, see Gun law in New Zealand.

Gun laws in New Zealand came under scrutiny in the aftermath, specifically the legality of military-style semi-automatic rifles[465] compared to Australia, which banned them after the Port Arthur massacre in 1996.[466] In 2018, for example, it was reported that of the estimated 1.5 million firearms in New Zealand, 15,000 were registered Military Style Semi-Automatic weapons as well as perhaps 50,000 and 170,000 unregistered A-Category semi-automatics.[467] As Philip Alpers of GunPolicy.org noted, "New Zealand is almost alone with the United States in not registering 96 percent of its firearms ... one can assume that the ease of obtaining these firearms may have been a factor in his decision to commit the crime in Christchurch."[468][469] Cabinet, however, remains undecided on the creation of a register.[470][471][472]

Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern announced: "Our gun laws will change, now is the time ... People will be seeking change, and I am committed to that."[468] She continued, "There have been attempts to change our laws in 2005, 2012 and after an inquiry in 2017. Now is the time for change."[473] Attorney-General David Parker was later quoted as saying that the government would ban semi-automatic guns,[474] but subsequently backtracked, saying that the government had not yet committed to anything and that regulations around semi-automatic weapons was "one of the issues" the government would consider.[475]

The day after the attacks, some gun-store owners reported an increase in sales, particularly of semi-automatic weapons, in response to the prospect of stricter laws.[476] The New Zealand auction website Trade Me banned the sale of semi-automatic weapons on its platform,[477] and some gun owners responded to the attacks by voluntarily handing in their weapons to police.[478]

At a press conference on 18 March, Ardern said details of the proposed reforms would be given by 25 March.[479] On 21 March, she announced a ban, adding that she was working to have legislation in place as early as 11 April. As a transitional measure, from 3:00 pm that day, some semi-automatic rifles and shotguns were classified as requiring the owner to hold a licence with an "E" endorsement. "After a reasonable period for returns, those who continue to possess these firearms will be in contravention of the law," Radio New Zealand reported. A "gun buy-back" scheme was also considered.[480]

The Arms (Prohibited Firearms, Magazines, and Parts) Amendment Act 2019 was introduced in the House of Representatives on 1 April, and passed its first reading the following day.[481] The final reading was passed on 10 April, supported by all parties in Parliament except ACT, and it became law by the end of the week.[482][483][484] All legally obtained semiautomatic and military-grade firearms and their relevant ammunition were able be handed over to police in a buy-back scheme.[485][486][487] On 13 July, the gun buy-back scheme was initiated,[488] where 607 collection points for owners to turn in their prohibited firearms were held.[489] On 20 December, the gun buy-back scheme ended.[490] Provisional data from police as of show of 21 Decembered that a total of 33,619 hand-ins had been completed, 56,250 firearms had been collected (51,342 as buy-back and 4,908 under amnesty), 2,717 firearms had been modified, and 194,245 parts had been collected (187,995 as buy-back and 6,250 under amnesty).[489]

Police Minister Stuart Nash hailed the buy-back scheme as a success,[491] but Nicole McKee, the spokeswoman of the Council of Licensed Firearms Owners, said that the buyback had been a failure and claimed that there are 170,000 prohibited guns in New Zealand, so "50,000 is not a number to boast about".[491]

See also

• Bayonne mosque shooting
• Christchurch Call to Action Summit
• Far-right terrorism in Australia
• Halle synagogue shooting
• List of massacres in New Zealand
• List of Islamophobic incidents
• List of right-wing terrorist attacks
• List of terrorist incidents in March 2019
• List of rampage killers (religious, political or racial crimes)

Notes

1. New Zealand abolished the death penalty for murder in 1961 and for all crimes in 1989. Since then, life imprisonment has been the maximum available sentence. The option to sentence an offender to life imprisonment without parole was introduced in 2010.[224]
2. Australian prime minister Scott Morrison expressed support for New Zealand and condemned the shootings as a "violent, extremist, right-wing terrorist attack." He confirmed that an Australian had been detained as a suspect in connection with the attack.[351][352][353] British prime minister Theresa May described the incident as a "horrifying terrorist attack", and said "my thoughts are with all of those affected by this sickening act of violence".[354] Canadian prime minister Justin Trudeau expressed "deepest condolences" and said "Canada remembers too well the sorrow we felt when a senseless attack on the Centre culturel islamique de Québec in Ste-Foy claimed the lives of many innocent people gathered in prayer", referencing the Quebec City mosque shooting in 2017.[355] U.S. president Donald Trump extended his "warmest sympathy and best wishes...to the people of New Zealand", and he and the FBI offered them assistance[356][357][358][359] while security at mosques around the United States was increased.[360][361] Russian president Vladimir Putin sent Prime Minister Ardern a message of condolence, saying "This attack on civilians who gathered for prayer is shocking in its violence and cynicism".[362] The lighting of the Ostankino Tower in Moscow, the tallest free-standing structure in Europe, was off for one hour as a sign of mourning.[363] King Salman of Saudi Arabia said: "The heinous massacre of the worshipers at mosques in New Zealand is a terrorist act."[364] He also called on the international community to confront hate speech and terrorism.[364][365] Cardinal Pietro Parolin, the Secretary of State of Vatican City, sent a letter of condolences on behalf of Pope Francis, assuring the Muslim community in New Zealand of the Pope's "heartfelt solidarity in the wake of these attacks" and saying, "His Holiness prays for the healing of the injured, the consolation of those who grieve the loss of their loved ones, and for all affected by this tragedy."[366] Prime Minister Narendra Modi of India expressed "deep shock and sadness" over the deaths and expressed India's solidarity with the people of New Zealand.[367] Condolences were also provided by Azerbaijani,[368] Bangladeshi,[369] Bruneian,[370] Cambodian,[371] Chinese,[372] Fijian,[373] Filipino,[374] Hungarian,[375] Indonesian,[376] Japanese,[377] South Korean,[378] Kosovar,[379] Malaysian,[380] Pakistani,[381] Singaporean,[382] Taiwanese,[383] Thai,[384] Turkish,[385] and Vietnamese[386] leaders.
References
1. Roy, Eleanor Ainge; Sherwood, Harriet; Parveen, Nazia (15 March 2019). "Christchurch attack: suspect had white-supremacist symbols on weapons". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 16 March 2019. A bomb disposal team was called in to dismantle explosive devices found in a stopped car.
2. "'There Will Be Changes' to Gun Laws, New Zealand Prime Minister Says". The New York Times. 17 March 2019. Archived from the original on 17 March 2019. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
3. "Turkish citizen hurt in Christchurch attacks dies, NZ death toll at 51: Minister". Channel News Asia. Archived from the original on 2 May 2019. Retrieved 3 May 2019.
4. Welby, Peter (16 March 2019). "Ranting 'manifesto' exposes the mixed-up mind of a terrorist". Arab News. Archived from the original on 17 March 2019. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
5. Perrigo, Billy. "The New Zealand Attack Exposed How White Supremacy Has Long Flourished Online". Time. Archived from the original on 21 March 2019. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
6. Achenbach, Joel (18 August 2019). "Two mass killings a world apart share a common theme: 'ecofascism'". The Washington Post. Archived from the originalon 22 June 2020.
7. Gelineau, Kristen; Gambrell, Jon (15 March 2019). "New Zealand mosque shooter is a white supremacist angry at immigrants, documents and video reveal". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on 2 June 2020. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
8. "Mosque attacks timeline: 18 minutes from first call to arrest". RNZ. 17 April 2019. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
9. "New Zealand mosque shootings kill 49". BBC. 15 March 2019. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
10. "Christchurch shootings: Death toll rises to 49 following terrorist attack". Stuff. 15 March 2019. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March2019.
11. "Christchurch shootings see 49 people killed in attacks on mosques". ABC Online. 15 March 2019. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
12. "Man who scared away gunman at Christchurch mosque hailed a hero". Stuff. 17 March 2019. Archived from the original on 12 June 2020. Retrieved 17 March2019.
13. "Police with the latest information on the mosque shootings". Radio New Zealand. 17 March 2019. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
14. "Christchurch shooting death toll rises to 50 after unaccounted victim is discovered at mosque". ABC News. 17 March 2019. Archived from the original on 16 March 2019. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
15. Bayer, Kurt; Leasl, Anna (24 August 2020). "Christchurch mosque terror attack sentencing: Gunman Brenton Tarrant planned to attack three mosques". New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 24 August 2020.
16. Perry, Nick (25 August 2020). "New Zealand survivor to mosque gunman: 'You are the loser'". Associated Press. Retrieved 22 January 2021.
17. Garrison, Joey (21 March 2019). "'Violent terrorist': Who is the white supremacist suspected in New Zealand mosque shootings?". USA Today. Retrieved 22 January2021.
18. Wakefield, Jane (16 March 2019). "Anger as shooter video spreads around world". BBC News. Archived from the original on 17 March 2019. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
19. Boseley, Matilda (17 March 2019). "Inside the 's—tposting' subculture the alleged Christchurch shooter belonged to". The Sydney Morning Herald.
20. Koziol, Michael. "Christchurch shooter's manifesto reveals an obsession with white supremacy over Muslims". Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
21. "Christchurch mosque terror: Accused killer smirked in court". Otago Daily Times Online News. 16 March 2019. Archived from the original on 28 May 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
22. Keoghan, Sarah; Chung, Laura. "From local gym trainer to mosque shooting: Alleged Christchurch shooter's upbringing in Grafton". Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 13 June 2020. Retrieved 28 April 2019.
23. Quinlivan, Mark; McCarron, Heather. "Christchurch shooting: Alleged gunman Brenton Tarrant's trial delayed". Newshub. Archived from the original on 13 June 2020. Retrieved 2 January 2020.
24. "Man accused of Christchurch mosque shootings pleads not guilty to 51 murder charges". Stuff. 14 June 2019. Archived from the original on 24 July 2020. Retrieved 13 June 2019.
25. Ensor, Blair; Sherwood, Sam. "Christchurch mosque attacks: Accused pleads guilty to murder, attempted murder and terrorism". Stuff. Archived from the original on 8 July 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
26. Bayer, Kurt (3 July 2020). "Christchurch mosque shooting: Gunman's sentencing confirmed to start on August 24". New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 3 July 2020.
27. R v Tarrant, 2020 NZHC 2192 (Christchurch High Court 27 August 2020).
28. Lourens, Mariné (27 August 2020). "Christchurch mosque gunman jailed 'until his last gasp'". Stuff. Archived from the original on 27 August 2020. Retrieved 27 August 2020.
29. "New Zealand mosque shooter given life in prison for 'wicked' crimes". Reuters. 27 August 2020. Archived from the original on 27 August 2020. Retrieved 27 August 2020.
30. Clun, Rachel (18 March 2019). "Christchurch shooting live: questions over alt-right hate monitoring following shooting". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 18 March 2019. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
31. "Alt-right extremists are not being monitored effectively". The Sydney Morning Herald. 17 March 2019. Archived from the original on 18 March 2019.
32. "New Zealand Massacre Highlights Global Reach of White Extremism". The New York Times. 17 March 2019. Archived from the original on 17 March 2019. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
33. Observer editorial (17 March 2019). "The Observer view on the Christchurch shootings: we've been too slow to see the far right threat". the Guardian. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
34. "World leaders condemn Christchurch mosque terrorism attack". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
35. "PM on mosque shooting: 'One of New Zealand's darkest days'". Newstalk ZB. 15 March 2019. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
36. "Pakistan to honour Christchurch mosque 'hero' with national award". http://www.aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on 20 March 2019. Retrieved 20 March 2019. It was the deadliest mass shooting in the country's modern history.
37. "Royal Commission of Inquiry announced following the Christchurch terror attacks". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
38. Graham-McLay, Charlotte (27 August 2020). "Christchurch shooting: mosque gunman sentenced to life without parole". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 27 August 2020.
39. Roy, Eleanor Roy (25 November 2020). "Christchurch attacks: royal commission hands in report on New Zealand mosque shootings". The Guardian. Archivedfrom the original on 8 December 2020. Retrieved 26 November 2020.
40. Perry, Nick (7 December 2020). "Report shows how New Zealand mosque shooter eluded detection". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 8 December 2020. Retrieved 7 December 2020.
41. "Mosque shooting erodes New Zealand reputation for safety, tolerance". Reuters. 15 March 2019. Retrieved 8 April 2020.
42. "New Zealand second most peaceful country despite Christchurch attacks". Newshub. Retrieved 8 April 2020.
43. "New Zealand Went More Than 20 Years Between Mass Shootings". The Atlantic Magazine – theatlantic.com. 15 March 2019. Archived from the original on 22 March 2019. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
44. Brockell, Gillian (15 March 2019). "'Garry's getting shot': This 1990 massacre was New Zealand's worst before mosque attacks". The Washington Post.
45. Kingsley, Patrick (15 March 2019). "New Zealand Massacre Highlights Global Reach of White Extremism". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archivedfrom the original on 17 March 2019. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
46. "Warning signs of terror attack in New Zealand have been apparent, experts say". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
47. "Gerry Brownlee: Royal Commission need into Christchurch massacre". Newstalk ZB. 19 March 2019. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
48. Wilson, Jason (17 March 2019). "Australians are asking how did we get here? Well, Islamophobia is practically enshrined as public policy". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 19 March 2019. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
49. "Losing our religion". Stats NZ. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
50. Donnell, Ethan (15 March 2020). "Building unity in New Zealand a year after Christchurch attacks". aljazeera.
51. "'Welcome, brother': A community that stressed peace is undone by violence". Stuff. Retrieved 8 April 2020.
52. Akerman, Tessa (16 March 2019). "Linwood mosque reflects a growing Muslim community". The Australian. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
53. Bush, Mike (17 March 2019). "Update 15: Christchurch terror attack" (Press release). New Zealand Police. Archived from the original on 20 March 2019. Retrieved 18 March 2019 – via Scoop.
54. "LIVE: Mass shooting at Christchurch mosque as police respond to 'active shooter' situation". 1 News NOW. 15 March 2019. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
55. "Christchurch mosque shootings: Gunman livestreamed 17 minutes of shooting terror". The New Zealand Herald. 15 March 2019. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
56. Koziol, Michael. "Christchurch shooter's manifesto reveals an obsession with white supremacy over Muslims". Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
57. Coalson, Robert. "Christchurch Attacks: Suspect Took Inspiration From Former Yugoslavia's Ethnically Fueled Wars". http://www.rferl.org. Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
58. Doyle, Gerry. "New Zealand mosque gunman's plan began and ended online". Reuters. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
59. Lyons, John; Taylor, Rob; Emont, Jon (18 March 2019). "'People Were Breaking the Windows': In New Zealand Massacre, No Exit and Few Hiding Places". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 21 March 2019. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
60. Pulver, Andrew (24 March 2019). "'The nation is behind us': New Zealand shares pain of Christchurch Muslims". the Guardian.
61. Perry, Nick; Baker, Mark (15 March 2019). "Mosque shootings kill 49; white racist claims responsibility". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on 21 March 2019.
62. "'Hello brother': Muslim worshipper's 'last words' to gunman". Al Jazeera. 15 March 2019. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March2019.
63. "'Hello brother', first Christchurch mosque victim said to shooter". Toronto City News. 15 March 2019.
64. Horton, Alex (15 March 2019). "With strobe lights and guns bearing neo-Nazi slogans, New Zealand gunman plotted a massacre". The Washington Post. Retrieved 19 April 2019.
65. Shah, Saeed. "Trapped in Christchurch Mosque, Worshiper Attempted to Disarm Shooter". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 17 March 2019. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
66. Redmond, Adele; Harris, Dominic; Lewis, Oliver; Christian, Harrison. "Heroic worshippers tried to stop terror attacks at Christchurch mosques". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
67. "Christchurch shootings: Stories of heroism emerge from attacks". BBC. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
68. Mackenzie, James; Russell, Ros. "Pakistan salutes hero of New Zealand mosque shooting". Reuters. Archived from the original on 19 March 2019. Retrieved 21 March 2019.
69. Perry, Nick; Genileau, Kristen; Williams, Juliet. "New Zealand's darkest day: 36 minutes of terror". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 19 March 2019. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
70. Campbell, Charlie. "New Zealand Picks Up the Pieces After the Worst Massacre in Its History". Time. Archived from the original on 19 March 2019. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
71. Lin, Rong-Gong; Lee, Wendy. "Mosque attack that left 49 dead was the worst mass killing in New Zealand's history". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 19 March 2019. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
72. "Terrorist attack at New Zealand mosques leaves at least 49 people dead, more than 20 hurt". WPTZ. Archived from the original on 27 March 2019. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
73. Perry, Nick; Baker, Mark. "New Zealand mosque shooter broadcast slaughter on Facebook". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 19 March 2019. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
74. Hendrix, Steve; Miller, Michael. "'Let's get this party started': New Zealand shooting suspect narrated his chilling rampage". The Washington Post. Retrieved 20 March2019.
75. Code, Bill. "New Zealand mosque attack suspect Brenton Tarrant grins in court". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 20 March 2019. Retrieved 20 March2019.
76. "The terrorist attack". Royal Commission of Inquiry into the Attack on Christchurch Mosques on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
77. Hendrix, Steve (16 March 2019). "'Let's get this party started': New Zealand shooting suspect narrated his chilling rampage". The Washington Post.
78. "Reports of multiple casualties in Christchurch mosque shooting". ABC News. 15 March 2019. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March2019.
79. "Christchurch shootings: Mosque attacks mapped". BBC. 16 March 2019. Archived from the original on 16 March 2019. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
80. "Christchurch terror attack: Police release official timeline". Newshub. Retrieved 28 February 2020.
81. Menon, Praveen; Greenfield, Charlotte (15 March 2019). "Dozens killed as gunman livestreams New Zealand mosque shootings". Reuters.
82. Gambrell, Jon (15 March 2019). "Mosque shooter brandished white supremacist iconography". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
83. Cave, Damien (17 March 2019). "Quick Action, Near Miss and Courage in New Zealand Attacks". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 22 April2019.
84. "New Zealand's Darkest Day". shorthand.radionz.co.nz. Retrieved 29 March2020.
85. "Christchurch gets its second mosque". Indian Weekender. Archived from the original on 8 March 2018. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
86. Barraclough, Breanna (15 March 2019). "Christchurch mosque shooting: Footage emerges of alleged gunman". Newshub. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
87. Macdonald, Nikki (18 March 2019). "Alleged shooter approached Linwood mosque from wrong side, giving those inside time to hide, survivor says". Stuff.co.nz. Archived from the original on 18 March 2019. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
88. Perry, Nick. "Man who stood up to mosque gunman probably saved lives". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 17 March 2019. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
89. Saber, Nasim; Ahmadi, Naser. "New Zealand terror attacks: The hero of Christchurch talks". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
90. "Dodging bullets, a father of 4 confronted the New Zealand shooter and saved lives". CNN. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
91. "New Zealand shootings: Hero picked up mosque attacker's gun and chased him". Sky News. Archived from the original on 16 March 2019. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
92. "Abdul Aziz: Saved lives by running at gunman in mosque". Radio New Zealand. 17 March 2019. Archived from the original on 17 March 2019. Retrieved 18 March2019.
93. Molyneux, Vita (15 March 2019). "Live updates: Six people have reportedly been killed in Christchurch shootings near mosque". Newshub. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
94. Mackintosh, Eliza; Mezzofiore, Gianluca (15 March 2019). "Suspect in New Zealand mass shooting charged with murder". CNN. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
95. Saldiva, Gabriela. "Number of Dead Rises To 50 in New Zealand Mass Shooting". NPR. Archived from the original on 16 March 2019. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
96. "Christchurch terror attack: The gunman's next target". Newshub. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
97. "Mosque attacks timeline: 18 minutes from first call to arrest". RNZ. 17 April 2019. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
98. "Christchurch mosque shootings: Footage shows arrest". BBC. 16 March 2019. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
99. "New Zealand terror attack: 49 dead in shootings at Christchurch mosques". ITV News. 15 March 2019. Retrieved 17 March 2019 – via YouTube.
100. "Christchurch shooting: gunman intended to continue attack, says PM". The Guardian. 16 March 2019. Archived from the original on 16 March 2019. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
101. Chavez, Nicole; Regan, Helen; Sidhu, Sandi; Sanchez, Ray. "Suspect in New Zealand mosque shootings was prepared 'to continue his attack,' PM says". CNN. Retrieved 8 April 2019.
102. Berlinger, Joshua; Whiteman, Hilary (19 March 2019). "New Zealand terror suspect planned third attack, police chief says". CNN. Archived from the original on 20 March 2019. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
103. Sherwood, Sam (16 October 2019). "Hero cops who took down mosque shootings suspect: 'We were doing our job'". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 27 August 2020.
104. "What we know so far about the New Zealand shooting". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
105. "NZ terror attack victims' age range 3–77". Dhaka Tribune. 17 March 2019. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
106. Robertson, Greg (16 March 2019). "Canterbury District Health Board". Facebook.com (timestamp 3:55). Retrieved 26 March 2019.
107. Robertson, Greg (16 March 2019). "Canterbury District Health Board". Facebook.com (timestamp 3:45). Retrieved 26 March 2019.[unreliable source?]
108. "Dead, injured or missing: Victims of Christchurch begin to be identified". 15 March 2019. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 16 March2019.
109. "Foreigners among those targeted in New Zealand mosque attack". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
110. "Nine Indian-origin people in Christchurch go missing after mosque massacre: Envoy". News Nation. 15 March 2019.
111. "At least 6 Palestinians said among dead in New Zealand shooting". http://www.timesofisrael.com. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
112. "Christchurch Firearms Incident in New Zealand". familylinks.icrc.org. Archivedfrom the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
113. "Several nationalities among Christchurch mosque victims". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
114. "Name Release 1 – Christchurch Terror Attack". New Zealand Police. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
115. "Name release 2 – Christchurch terror attacks". New Zealand Police. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
116. "Name release 3: Christchurch terror attacks". New Zealand Police. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
117. "Name Release 4 – Christchurch Terror Attack". New Zealand Police. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
118. "Goalkeeper Atta Elayyan who died in Christchurch mosque shooting inspired others". Stuff. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
119. "CIO100 2018 #31–100: Atta Elayyan, LWA Solutions". CIO. Archived from the original on 18 March 2019. Retrieved 18 August 2020.
120. "Martyrs of Christchurch Mosques". Federation of Islamic Associations of New Zealand. Retrieved 18 August 2020.
121. "Six Palestinians confirmed killed in New Zealand mosque attacks". Al Jazeera. 18 March 2019. Archived from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 18 August2020.
122. Kaye, Byron (16 March 2019). "In New Zealand, a journey around the world and into darkness". Reuters. Retrieved 26 January 2021 – via http://www.reuters.com.
123. Feuerherd, Ben; Tacopino, Joe (15 March 2019). "49 dead, more than 20 seriously injured in New Zealand mosque shootings". New York Post. Retrieved 18 February2021.
124. Roy, Eleanor Ainge; Graham-McLay, Charlotte (25 March 2020). "Christchurch gunman pleads guilty to New Zealand mosque attacks that killed 51". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 February 2021.
125. Donna-Marie Lever and Julia Hollingsworth (27 August 2020). "New Zealand mosque terrorist will spend the rest of his life in prison". CNN. Retrieved 18 February 2021.
126. Keogan, Sarah; Chung, Laura (15 March 2019). "From local gym trainer to mosque shooting: Alleged Christchurch shooter's upbringing in Grafton". Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 21 March 2019. Retrieved 24 March 2019.
127. Beynen, Martin van; Sherwood, Sam (8 December 2020). "New Zealand 'ideal' for mosque shooter to plan his terrorist attack, royal commission finds". Stuff. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
128. "Christchurch shooting accused Brenton Tarrant was a personal trainer in Grafton". ABC Network. 15 March 2019. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
129. "Christchurch massacre: Brenton Tarrant's life in Dunedin, NZ". http://www.news.com.au. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
130. "Christchurch mosque shootings: Bruce Rifle Club closes in wake of terror". The New Zealand Herald. 17 March 2019. ISSN 1170-0777. Archived from the original on 18 March 2019. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
131. "Christchurch shooting accused Brenton Tarrant described as a 'recluse' by neighbours". Stuff. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
132. O'Callaghan, Jody (7 December 2020). "March 15 terrorist accidentally shot himself months before mosque attack". Stuff. Retrieved 7 December 2020.
133. Maley, Paul (7 September 2019). "The ruin of Brenton Tarrant". The Australian. Retrieved 9 September 2019.
134. "Christchurch shooting: Survivors convinced gunman visited mosque to learn layout". Newshub. Archived from the original on 15 April 2020. Retrieved 12 April2020.
135. "Christchurch mosque shootings: Police rule out that gunman entered mosque prior to attack". NZ Herald. 12 April 2020. ISSN 1170-0777. Retrieved 15 May 2020.
136. Gower, Patrick (23 July 2020). "Exclusive: Christchurch gunman flew a drone over mosque weeks before March 15 shooting". Newshub. Retrieved 18 August 2020.
137. "Who is Christchurch mosque shooting accused? Brenton Tarrant member of Bruce Rifle Club in Milton". New Zealand herald. 15 March 2019. Archived from the original on 16 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
138. "Perpetrator of New Zealand terrorist attack visited Turkey 'twice'". TRT World. 15 March 2019. Archived from the original on 17 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March2019.
139. "Brenton Tarrant: Suspected New Zealand attacker 'met extreme right-wing groups' during Europe visit, according to security sources". The Independent. 15 March 2019. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019. The man arrested over the murder of 49 people at mosques in New Zealand is believed to have met extreme right-wing groups during a visit to Europe two years ago, according to security sources.
140. "Suspected New Zealand attacker donated to Austrian far-right group, officials say". Reuters/NBC News. 5 April 2019. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
141. "Christchurch mosque shootings: Accused gunman donated $3650 to far-right French group Generation Identity". New Zealand Herald. 5 April 2019. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
142. Wilson, Jason (15 May 2019). "Christchurch shooter's links to Austrian far right 'more extensive than thought'". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
143. Gec, Jovana (16 March 2019). "New Zealand gunman entranced with Ottoman sites in Europe". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 16 March 2019. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
144. Schindler, John R. (20 March 2019). "Ghosts of the Balkan wars are returning in unlikely places". Spectator. Archived from the original on 22 March 2019. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
145. Zivanovic, Maja. "New Zealand Mosque Gunman 'Inspired by Balkan Nationalists'". Balkaninsight.com. Balkaninsight. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
146. Mann, Alex; Nguyen, Kevin; Gregory, Katharine (23 March 2019). "Christchurch shooting accused Brenton Tarrant supports Australian far-right figure Blair Cottrell". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 23 March 2019. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
147. Nguyen, Kevin (10 April 2019). "'This marks you': Christchurch shooter sent death threat two years ago". ABC News. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
148. "Brenton Tarrant: The 'ordinary white man' turned mass murderer". The Daily Telegraph. 16 March 2019. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
149. "Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern's focus on strengthening current gun laws after Christchurch terror attacks". Radio New Zealand. 18 March 2019. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
150. Pannett, Rachel; Taylor, Rob; Hoyle, Rhiannon. "New Zealand Shootings: Brenton Tarrant Bought Four Guns Legally Online". The Wall Street Journal. Archivedfrom the original on 19 March 2019. Retrieved 21 March 2019.
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 32795
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Tucker Carlson Doubles Down on White Supremacist 'Great

Postby admin » Wed Apr 14, 2021 5:11 am

Part 3 of 3

151. "New Zealand cabinet backs change to gun laws within 10 days after mosque shooting". The Independent. 18 March 2019. Retrieved 29 March 2019.
152. "Christchurch mosque shootings: Briefing to Police Minister Stuart Nash shows gun law loophole also exploited by Northland siege killer Quinn Paterson". The New Zealand Herald. 20 March 2019. Retrieved 28 April 2019.
153. Perry, Nick; Williams, Juliet (21 March 2019). "Thousands descend on site of New Zealand mosque attacks to observe emotional Muslim prayer". The Globe and Mail. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 22 March 2019. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
154. "Christchurch shootings: NZ cabinet backs tighter gun laws". BBC News. 18 March 2019. Archived from the original on 20 March 2019. Retrieved 22 March2019.
155. "Mosque terrorist was wrongly granted firearms licence due to police mistakes, sources say". Stuff. 15 June 2020. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
156. "Mosque shooter brandished material glorifying Serb nationalism". www.aljazeera.com. Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
157. "New Zealand mosque shooter names his 'idols' on weapons he used in massacre". Daily Sabah. Istanbul. 15 March 2019. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
158. "New Zealand terror suspect wrote Italian shooter's name on his gun". www.thelocal.it. 15 March 2019. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
159. Pai, Akshay (15 March 2019). "New Zealand mosque shooting: Attacker had "kebab remover" written on gun, sported neo-nazi symbolism". MEAWW. Retrieved 17 March 2019.[unreliable source?]
160. "Christchurch mosque shooting kills 49, gun laws will change PM says". Stuff.co.nz. 16 March 2019. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
161. "49 People Have Been Killed After Mass Shootings at Mosques in New Zealand". BuzzFeed. 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
162. Gilsinan, Kathy (15 March 2019). "How White-Supremacist Violence Echoes Other Forms of Terrorism". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on 17 March 2019. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
163. Darby, Luke (5 August 2019). "How the 'Great Replacement' conspiracy theory has inspired white supremacist killers". The Telegraph. London – via ProQuest.
164. "Terrorism security expert Chris Kumeroa says New Zealanders need to be alert to potential threats". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
165. "Jacinda Ardern's office received manifesto from Christchurch shooter minutes before attack". ABC.net. 17 March 2019. Archived from the original on 17 March 2019. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
166. Wong, Charlene (15 March 2019). "The Manifesto of Brenton Tarrant – a right-wing terrorist on a Crusade". Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
167. "Australian man named as NZ mosque gunman". The West Australian. 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
168. Gelineau, Kristen; Gambrell, Jon. "New Zealand mosque shooter is a white nationalist who hates immigrants, documents and video reveal". Associated Press. Retrieved 21 March 2019.
169. Dearden, Lizzie (16 March 2019). "New Zealand attack: How nonsensical white genocide conspiracy theory cited by gunman is spreading poison around the world". Independent. Archived from the original on 16 March 2019. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
170. "Invaders from India, Enemies in East: New Zealand Shooter's Post After a Q&A Session With Himself". News18. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
171. "Attacker posted 87-page "anti-immigrant, anti-Muslim" manifesto". CNN. 15 March 2019.
172. Achenbach, Joel (18 August 2019). "Two mass killings a world apart share a common theme: 'ecofascism'". The Washington Post.
173. "New Zealand suspect Brenton Tarrant 'says he is racist eco-fascist who is mostly introverted'". ITV News. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
174. Weissmann, Jordan (15 March 2019). "What the Christchurch Attacker's Manifesto Tells Us". Slate Magazine. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
175. Bolt, Andrew. "Mosque Shooting in New Zealand. Man Dead". Herald Sun. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
176. Purtill, James. "Fuelled by a toxic, alt-right echo chamber, Christchurch shooter's views were celebrated online". www.abc.net.au. ABC. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
177. Kidd, Rob; Miller, Tim (16 March 2019). "Police confirm Dunedin property linked to terror attack". Otago Daily Times. Retrieved 2 August 2019.
178. Sherwood, Sam (21 March 2019). "Ashburton Muslims in gunman's sights 'feeling lucky' Christchurch shooter stopped". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 2 August 2019.
179. Wall, Tony; Ensor, Blair; Vance, Andrea (27 July 2014). "A Kiwi Lad's Death by Drone". Sunday Star-Times. Auckland. Retrieved 2 August 2019.
180. "Christchurch Mosque Linked to al-Qaida Suspect". Newshub. Auckland. 4 June 2014.
181. Matthewson, Nicole (3 December 2015). "Fighting, Killing 'Not the Muslim Way'". The Press. Christchurch, NZ. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
182. Lorenz, Taylor (18 March 2019). "The Shooter's Manifesto Was Designed to Troll". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
183. Kupfer, Theodore (15 March 2019). "A Mass Murder for the Age of Sh**posting". National Review. Archived from the original on 18 March 2019. Retrieved 18 March2019.
184. Victor, Daniel (15 March 2019). "In Christchurch, Signs Point to a Gunman Steeped in Internet Trolling". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
185. Groll, Elias. "How the Christchurch Shooter Played the World's Media". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 1 July 2020.
186. Kirkpatrick, David. "Massacre Suspect Traveled the World but Lived on the Internet". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 July 2020.
187. Lerman, Rachel. "'Fortnite trained me to be a killer': Twisted humor of dark internet culture in focus after another attack". KFDA. Associated Press. Retrieved 1 July2020.
188. "Christchurch mosque shootings: 'Manifesto' deemed objectionable". 23 March 2019. Retrieved 2 July 2019.
189. "Legal experts say censorship on gunman's manifesto went too far". RNZ. 24 March 2019. Retrieved 13 March 2021.
190. "Christchurch mosque shooting accused's manifesto being sold overseas is 'disgusting': Jacinda Ardern". 21 August 2019. Retrieved 26 August 2019.
191. Moses, A. Dirk (2019). ""White Genocide" and the Ethics of Public Analysis". Journal of Genocide Research. 21 (2): 201–213. doi:10.1080/14623528.2019.1599493. S2CID 132394485.
192. Chavez, Nicole; Regan, Helen; Sidhu, Sandi; Sanchez, Ray. "Suspect in New Zealand mosque shootings was prepared 'to continue his attack,' PM says". CNN. Archived from the original on 16 March 2019. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
193. NZ Police v Tarrant, 2019 NZDC 4784 (16 March 2019).
194. "Mosque attacks suspect gives "white power" sign in Christchurch court". Axios. Archived from the original on 16 March 2019. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
195. "New Zealand mosque attack suspect Brenton Tarrant grins in court". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 21 August 2020. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
196. "Mental health tests for NZ attack suspect". BBC News. 4 April 2019. Archivedfrom the original on 24 June 2020. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
197. "Christchurch shooter: Brenton Tarrant complains about jail". News.com.au. 1 April 2019. Archived from the original on 5 September 2019. Retrieved 4 April2019.
198. "Accused to face 50 murder charges, police confirm". Radio New Zealand. 4 April 2019. Archived from the original on 12 August 2020. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
199. "Mental health tests for NZ attack suspect". BBC News. 4 April 2019. Archivedfrom the original on 24 June 2020.
200. "Accused mosque shooter now facing terrorism charge". Stuff. 21 May 2019. Archived from the original on 12 August 2020. Retrieved 21 May 2019.
201. "Christchurch mosque shooting trial delayed for Ramadan". Stuff. 12 September 2019. Archived from the original on 9 August 2020. Retrieved 12 December 2019.
202. Bateman, Sophie (15 August 2019). "Alleged Christchurch shooter Brenton Tarrant sent seven letters from prison". Newshub. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
203. Perry, Nick (14 August 2019). "Alleged Christchurch gunman sends letter from prison cell". The Washington Post. Associated Press. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
204. "Officials admit letting accused Christchurch shooter send letter to supporter from prison". Brisbane Times. Associated Press and Stuff. 14 August 2019. Archivedfrom the original on 12 August 2020. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
205. "Prison letters: Cabinet pushes ahead with law changes to Corrections Act". Radio New Zealand. 19 August 2019. Archived from the original on 12 August 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2019.
206. Sachdeva, Sam (20 August 2019). "Govt mulls law change after prisoner letter fiasco". Newsroom. Archived from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2019.
207. "Christchurch gunman pleads guilty to 51 murders". BBC News. 25 March 2020. Archived from the original on 15 July 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
208. Bayer, Kurt; Leask, Anna (26 March 2020). "Christchurch mosque shootings: Brenton Tarrant's shock guilty plea to murders". New Zealand Herald. Archivedfrom the original on 20 August 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
209. Bayer, Kurt (26 March 2020). "Shock guilty plea: Brenton Tarrant admits mosque shootings". Newstalk ZB. Archived from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
210. Bayer, Kurt (10 July 2020). "Christchurch mosque shooting: Border exceptions for victims based overseas to attend gunman's sentencing". New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on 10 July 2020. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
211. Andelane, Lana (13 July 2020). "Christchurch mosque shooting: Brenton Tarrant to represent himself at sentencing". Newshub. Archived from the original on 13 July 2020. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
212. Bayer, Kurt (13 July 2020). "Christchurch mosque shooting: Brenton Tarrant sacks lawyers, will represent himself at sentencing". New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on 13 July 2020. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
213. "Significantly fewer victims to attend Christchurch mosque gunman's sentencing due to Covid restrictions". Stuff. 18 August 2020. Archived from the original on 22 August 2020. Retrieved 18 August 2020.
214. Leask, Anna (18 August 2020). "Christchurch mosque attacks: More details released about gunman's sentencing". New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on 18 August 2020. Retrieved 18 August 2020.
215. "Mosque shooting survivor: seeing gunman again will 'freshen everything'". Stuff. 23 August 2020. Archived from the original on 28 August 2020. Retrieved 24 August 2020.
216. "New Zealand court hears how mosque shooter planned deadly attacks". TRT World. 25 August 2020. Archived from the original on 26 August 2020. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
217. "Christchurch shooting: Gunman Tarrant wanted to kill 'as many as possible'". BBC News. 24 August 2020. Archived from the original on 25 August 2020. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
218. Lourens, Marine (25 August 2020). "Applause as victim tells terrorist: 'You are the loser and we are the winners". Stuff. Archived from the original on 26 August 2020. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
219. "Christchurch mosque shooter sniggers as victim reads out his impact statement". 1 News. 25 August 2020. Archived from the original on 28 August 2020. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
220. Leask, Anna; Bayer, Kurt (26 August 2020). "Christchurch mosque attack sentencing: Victim's son describes Brenton Tarrant as trash who should be buried in a landfill". New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on 26 August 2020. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
221. Miller, Barbara; Ford, Mazoe (25 August 2020). "Christchurch mosque survivors and families stare down gunman Brenton Tarrant in sentencing hearing". ABC News. Archived from the original on 26 August 2020. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
222. Leask, Anna; Bayer, Kurt (27 August 2020). "Christchurch mosque attack sentencing: Brenton Tarrant will never be released from jail". New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on 27 August 2020. Retrieved 27 August 2020.
223. Graham-Mclay, Charlotte (27 August 2020). "Christchurch shooting: mosque gunman sentenced to life without parole". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 28 August 2020. Retrieved 27 August 2020.
224. "The ins and outs of life without parole". Newswroom. 28 March 2019. Archivedfrom the original on 28 August 2020. Retrieved 27 August 2020.
225. Maiden, Samantha (27 August 2020). "Mosque gunman Brenton Tarrant could serve out sentence in Australia, Scott Morrison reveals". NZ Herald. ISSN 1170-0777. Retrieved 28 August 2020.
226. "Annual Report 2018/19" (PDF). www.corrections.govt.nz. Department of Corrections (New Zealand). 17 October 2019. p. 16. Retrieved 28 August 2020.
227. Cheng, Derek (27 August 2020). "Christchurch mosque shootings sentencing: Jacinda Ardern, Winston Peters at odds over extraditing Brenton Tarrant". New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on 27 August 2020. Retrieved 28 August 2020.
228. Satherley, Dan (28 August 2020). "Christchurch shooting: Winston Peters' call for terrorist to be deported 'legally impossible' – expert". Newshub. Retrieved 28 August 2020.
229. Massola, James; Galloway, Anthony (28 August 2020). "Australia open to taking Christchurch gunman from New Zealand". The Sydney Morning Herald. Reuters. Retrieved 29 August 2020.
230. "Threat level change and release of Christchurch attack response timeline". New Zealand Police. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
231. "Memorial service held for Christchurch attack victims – NZ mosque attacks". TRT World. 29 March 2019. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
232. "One shooter in twin mosque attacks, police". Port Stephens Examiner. Australian Associated Press. 16 March 2019. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
233. "Police confirm 49 people dead in Christchurch mosque terror attacks, man charged with murder". TVNZ. Archived from the original on 16 March 2019. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
234. "Deadly mass shooting at New Zealand mosques". BBC. 15 March 2019. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
235. "Four arrested after mass shooting at mosque, Islamic centre". www.9news.com.au. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
236. "Three in custody after 49 killed in Christchurch mosque shootings". Stuff.co.nz. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March2019.
237. "'A river of blood coming out the door' – emergency services' harrowing tales of Christchurch attacks". TVNZ.
238. "Paramedics had to step over bodies to collect the wounded at Christchurch mosque". Stuff.co.nz. Archived from the original on 18 March 2019. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
239. "Armed police guard mosques around New Zealand". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
240. Cooke, Henry; Kirk, Stacey (15 March 2019). "New Zealand officially on high terror alert, in wake of Christchurch terror attacks". Stuff.co.nz. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
241. Edmunds, Susan (15 March 2019). "Air New Zealand cancels flights, offers 'flexibility'". Stuff.co.nz.
242. "Parliament security increased while security threat level high". Radio New Zealand. Archived from the original on 19 March 2019. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
243. Miller, Tim (16 March 2019). "Neighbours say Tarrant kept to himself, liked to travel". Otago Daily Times. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
244. "Christchurch mosque shootings: Accused gunman Brenton Tarrant was a 'model tenant' in Dunedin". New Zealand Herald. 18 March 2019. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
245. Kidd, Rod; Miller, Tim (15 March 2019). "Part of Dunedin street evacuated after report city was original target". Otago Daily Times. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
246. "Mosque shootings: AOS on Dunedin street after report city was original target". The New Zealand Herald. 15 March 2019. ISSN 1170-0777. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
247. "New Zealand officially on high terror alert, in wake of Christchurch terror attacks". Stuff.co.nz. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
248. "Live stream: 1 News at 6 pm". 15 March 2019. Archived from the original on 30 January 2019. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
249. "PM on mosque shooting: 'One of New Zealand's darkest days'". Newstalk ZB. 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
250. "Christchurch mosque shootings: 'This can only be described as a terrorist attack' – PM Jacinda Ardern". Radio New Zealand. 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March2019.
251. Wahlquist, Calla (19 March 2019). "Ardern says she will never speak name of Christchurch suspect". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 19 March 2019. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
252. "Top level crisis meeting in Wellington after Christchurch mosque shooting". Stuff.co.nz. 15 March 2019. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
253. "Striking students in New Plymouth surprised by Prime Minister". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
254. Mitchell, Stephanie (15 March 2019). "Prime Minister cancels Womad appearance after mosque shooting in Christchurch". Stuff.co.nz. Archived from the original on 22 March 2019. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
255. "Top level crisis meeting in Wellington after Christchurch mosque shooting". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
256. "New Zealand Flag half-masting directive – Friday 15 20 March" (Press release). Ministry For Culture And Heritage. Retrieved 17 March 2019 – via Scoop.
257. "NZTA to replace GUN number plates for free". Stuff.co.nz. 1 May 2019.
258. "Christchurch mosque shooting: Police officers who apprehended alleged gunman named". RNZ. 10 December 2019. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
259. Leask, Anna (16 October 2019). "Hero cops: Christchurch terror arrest officers' bravery recognised at national ceremony". New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 16 October 2019.
260. "Officers who captured Christchurch terrorist attack suspect awarded for their bravery". 1 News. 16 October 2019. Retrieved 16 October 2019.
261. "PM designates Christchurch mosque shooter a 'terrorist entity'". www.msn.com. Retrieved 1 September 2020.
262. "More NZers under surveillance: Andrew Little authorises spy agencies to do more 'intrusive' activities". Radio New Zealand. 27 March 2019. Retrieved 1 April 2019.
263. "New Zealand allows 'intrusive' spy operations after Christchurch mosque shootings". Japan Times. 27 March 2019. ISSN 0447-5763. Retrieved 27 March2019.
264. "Supreme Court Justice William Young to head Royal Commission of Inquiry into Christchurch terror attacks". Stuff.co.nz.
265. "Mosque terror inquiry: Failings, apologies but no blame on Govt". Otago Daily Times. 8 December 2020. Archived from the original on 8 December 2020. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
266. Graham-McLay, Charlotte (7 December 2020). "Christchurch Inquiry Says New Zealand Couldn't Have Prevented Mosque Attacks". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 8 December 2020. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
267. Sullivan, Heather (8 December 2020). "Christchurch inquiry report released – as it happened". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 8 December 2020. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
268. Lopatto, Elizabeth (8 December 2020). "Christchurch shooter was radicalized on YouTube, New Zealand report says". The Verge. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
269. Shead, Sam (8 December 2020). "YouTube radicalized the Christchurch shooter, New Zealand report concludes". CNBC. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
270. "LIVE: Gunman named, four arrested, as Christchurch mosque attacks leave 'significant' number of fatalities". TVNZ. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
271. "As it happened: 49 killed, 48 injured in Christchurch terror attack". Newshub. 16 March 2019. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 22 March2019.
272. "Variation in schools' lockdowns during Christchurch shootings apparent as ministry launches review". Stuff. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
273. "Mosque terror attacks: Christchurch schools faced angry parents during lockdown". Radio New Zealand. 21 March 2019. Archived from the original on 22 March 2019. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
274. "Deadly Christchurch mosque shootings: 49 dead after 'well-planned' attack". Radio New Zealand. 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
275. "Thousands of students protest against climate change". Radio New Zealand. 15 March 2019. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March2019.
276. "Black Caps v Bangladesh test cancelled after gunmen attack Christchurch mosques". Stuff.co.nz. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
277. "Bangladesh cricket team flees mosque shooting". City News 1130. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
278. "Cricketers escape NZ mosque shooting". Cricket Australia. Retrieved 15 March2019.
279. "Bangladesh tour of New Zealand called off after Christchurch terror attack". ESPNcricinfo. 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
280. "Canterbury withdraw from final Plunket Shield match, handing CD title". Stuff. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
281. "Highlanders-Crusaders cancelled after massacre | Sporting News". www.sportingnews.com. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
282. "Crusaders' name change discussions 'a responsible action', says Grant Robertson". TVNZ. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
283. "Crusaders respond to criticism of name in light of attacks". Radio New Zealand. 17 March 2019. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
284. "'Spill the Blood' band Slayer pulls out of Christchurch concert". Stuff.co.nz. Archived from the original on 16 March 2019. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
285. "Auckland's Polyfest and St Patrick's celebrations cancelled after Christchurch mosque attack". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
286. "Womad festival chooses not to cancel in wake of Christchurch terror attacks". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
287. Olito, Frank. "The internet is applauding a man's raw reaction to the New Zealand mass shooting after he laid flowers at a local mosque". INSIDER. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
288. "'We love you': mosques around world showered with flowers after Christchurch massacre". The Guardian. 16 March 2019. Archived from the original on 18 March 2019. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
289. "Hamilton mosque makes sure flowers live on". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 19 March2019.
290. "Christchurch terror attack: How to support NZ's Muslim communities". The Spinoff. 16 March 2019. Archived from the original on 19 March 2019. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
291. Mahony, Maree (16 March 2019). "Christchurch mosque attacks: Mayor Lianne Dalziel says city turning to practical help". RNZ. Radio New Zealand. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
292. "Mass haka and waiata performed outside Christchurch mosque to honour shooting victims". The New Zealand Herald. 21 March 2019. Archived from the original on 21 March 2019. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
293. Hassan, Jennifer; Tamkin, Emily (18 March 2019). "The power of the haka: New Zealanders pay traditional tribute to mosque attack victims". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 19 March 2019. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
294. "Mongrel Mob gang members to stand guard at local mosque, in support of Muslim Kiwis". Stuff.co.nz. Archived from the original on 20 March 2019. Retrieved 21 March 2019.
295. "Black Power perform haka outside Al Noor Mosque cordon in Christchurch". The New Zealand Herald. 17 March 2019. Archived from the original on 19 March 2019. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
296. "Fear of 'mosque today, marae tomorrow' partly behind gangs reaching out to Muslim community – expert". TVNZ. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
297. "New Zealand marks one week since mosque attacks". New Straits Times. Reuters. 22 March 2019. Archived from the original on 22 March 2019. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
298. "New Zealand marks one week since mosque attack with prayers, headscarves". The Straits Times. Reuters. 22 March 2019. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
299. "NZ falls silent for mosque attack victims". BBC. 22 March 2019. Archived from the original on 22 March 2019. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
300. Perry, Nick (22 March 2019). "New Zealand Observes Muslim Call to Prayer 1 Week After Deadly Mosque Attacks". Time Magazine. Archived from the originalon 24 March 2019. Retrieved 24 March 2019.
301. "Christchurch attacks: National remembrance service held". BBC. BBC. 29 March 2019. Retrieved 29 March 2019.
302. "Inside police investigation that sparked hundreds of raids after March 15 attack". Stuff. 14 July 2020. Retrieved 15 July 2020.
303. "Victim Support Official Page: Christchurch Shooting Victims' Fund". GiveALittle.co.nz. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
304. "New Zealand Givealittle page raises more than $400k for victims of Christchurch terror attack". Stuff.co.nz. 16 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
305. "New Zealand raises $8.4m for victims of Christchurch mosque shootings". Stuff.co.nz. 17 March 2016. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
306. "Christchurch shooting victims' bodies being returned as volunteers arrive to help with burials". Stuff.co.nz.
307. "PM statement on Christchurch shooting – 4 pm 17 March". The Beehive.
308. Tabachnick, Tony (16 July 2019). "Federation sends more than $650,000 to Christchurch, New Zealand". Pittsburgh Jewish Chronicle. Retrieved 16 July 2019.
309. "Pittsburgh Jewish community to donate almost NZ$1 million to victims of Christchurch terror attacks". 1 News. 30 June 2019. Retrieved 16 July 2019.
310. "US Jewish federation donates nearly $1m to victims of Christchurch mosque attacks". Stuff.co.nz. 1 July 2019. Retrieved 16 July 2019.
311. Rt Hon Jacinda Ardern (12 May 2019). "Comment from Jacinda Ardern on Facebook livestreaming announcement". New Zealand Government.
312. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade (New Zealand). "Christchurch Call".
313. "Christchurch call – France and NZ take action to eliminate terrorist and violent extremist content online". Embassy of France in Wellington. 16 May 2019.
314. "Christchurch Call – Supporters". Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade (New Zealand). 16 May 2019.
315. "Watch: Christchurch mosque shooting – Four in custody". Radio New Zealand. 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
316. "Christchurch mosque shootings: One man faces murder charges, what happened to the other three arrested?". The New Zealand Herald. 16 March 2019. ISSN 1170-0777. Archived from the original on 17 March 2019. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
317. "Dozens killed in Christchurch mosque attack". www.cnn.com. 15 March 2019. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
318. "Christchurch mosque shooting: Wrong man arrested for wearing camo". www.news.com.au. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
319. "Christchurch mosque shootings: Camouflage wearer claims wrongful arrest". The New Zealand Herald. 16 March 2019. Archived from the original on 16 March 2019. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
320. "New threat made against Christchurch mosque". Newsroom. 2 March 2020. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
321. Sherwood, Sam (4 March 2020). "Man arrested after Al Noor mosque terror threat raid". Stuff. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
322. "New Zealand police step up patrols after new threat against Christchurch mosque". Reuters. 4 March 2020. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
323. Daalder, Marc (5 March 2020). "Action Zealandia member arrested for threat". Newsroom. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
324. Sherwood, Sam; Manch, Thomas (5 March 2020). "Father of teen arrested in raid after Al Noor mosque threat 'extremely disappointed'". Stuff. Retrieved 9 March2020.
325. Hunt, Elle (11 March 2021). "New Zealand police charge man over online threat to Christchurch mosques". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 11 March 2021. Retrieved 11 March 2021.
326. Sherwood, Sam; Ensor, Blair; Allott, Amber (5 March 2021). "Christchurch mosque attack threat granted name suppression during court appearance". Stuff. Archived from the original on 5 March 2021. Retrieved 11 March 2021.
327. "Australian who posted comments about Christchurch shootings cries in court". Stuff. 19 March 2019. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
328. Bermingham, Kathryn (18 March 2019). "Chad Vinzelberg appears in court on firearm charges after allegedly supporting Christchurch terror attack online". The Advertiser. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
329. "Man in SA court for posting comments in support of mosque shooting". New Zealand Herald. 19 March 2019. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
330. Opie, Rebecca (2 April 2019). "Alleged Christchurch massacre supporter has internet ban upheld, calls media 'animals'". ABC News. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
331. Rawsthorne, Sally (18 March 2019). "Police raid homes of the gunman's mother and sister". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
332. McKinnell, Jamie; Miller, Barbara (18 March 2019). "Christchurch shooting investigation reaches NSW, police raid the gunman's sister's house". ABC News. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
333. Drury, Colin (16 March 2019). "Oldham man arrested for Facebook post 'supporting' New Zealand mosque attack". The Independent. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
334. "Christchurch shootings: Arrest over 'malicious' social media post". BBC News. 16 March 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
335. "Man sacked, deported from UAE for 'celebrating' New Zealand mosque shooting". Reuters. 20 March 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
336. "Man fired and deported in UAE for celebrating Christchurch mosque shootings online". The Straits Time. 20 March 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
337. Burrows, Matt (20 March 2019). "Canadian neo-Nazis under investigation for posts about Christchurch terror attack". Newshub. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
338. Lamoureux, Mack (19 March 2019). "Two Canadian Neo-Nazis Are Under Investigation For Post-Christchurch Acts". Vice News. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
339. Reilly, Ryan J. (4 April 2019). "Feds Say White Supremacist Cousins Used Facebook To Discuss Attack on Muslims". Huffington Post. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
340. Johnson, Andrew (24 March 2019). "Suspect of Possible Arson Attack at Escondido Mosque Leaves Note Referencing New Zealand Terrorist Attacks". nbcsandiego.com. NBC San Diego. Retrieved 4 May 2019.
341. Winkley, Lyndsay; Schroeder, Lauryn (24 March 2019). "Arsonist strikes mosque in Escondido, refers to New Zealand massacre in note". Los Angeles Times.
342. Evans, Robert (28 April 2019). "Ignore The Poway Synagogue Shooter's Manifesto: Pay Attention To 8chan's /pol/ Board". Bellingcat. Retrieved 9 May 2019.
343. Baele, Stephane J.; Brace, Lewys; Coan, Travis G. (2021). "Variations on a Theme? Comparing 4chan, 8kun, and Other chans' Far-Right "/pol" Boards". Perspectives on Terrorism. 15 (1): 65–80. ISSN 2334-3745 – via JSTOR.
344. Evans, Robert (4 August 2019). "The El Paso Shooting and the Gamification of Terror". Bellingcat.
345. Ainge Roy, Eleanor (14 August 2019). "'It brings everything back': Christchurch despairs over white supremacist attacks". The Guardian.
346. Burke, Jason (11 August 2019). "Norway mosque attack suspect 'inspired by Christchurch and El Paso shootings'". The Guardian.
347. Lim, Min Zhang (27 January 2021). "16-year old Singaporean detained under ISA for planning terror attacks on two mosques". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on 27 January 2021. Retrieved 27 January 2021.
348. Mahmud, Aqil Haziq (27 January 2021). "16-year-old Singaporean detained under ISA after planning to attack Muslims at 2 mosques". Channel News Asia. Archived from the original on 27 January 2021. Retrieved 27 January 2021.
349. Picheta, Rob. "Harry, Meghan and other royals lead global tributes after Christchurch mosque attack". CNN. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
350. Barcelona, Ainhoa (15 March 2019). "The Queen and Prince Charles send condolences following heartless mosque attacks in New Zealand". Hello!. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
351. Morrison, Scott. "I'm horrified by the reports I'm following of the serious shooting in Christchurch, New Zealand. The situation is still unfolding but our thoughts and prayers are with our Kiwi cousins". Twitter. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
352. "'We're not just allies': Scott Morrison says Australia grieves with New Zealand". YouTube. ABC News. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
353. Shield, Bevan (15 March 2019). "Scott Morrison confirms Australian taken into custody after 'vicious, murderous' terrorist attack". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
354. "Christchurch shootings: Outpouring of UK support to Muslim community". BBC. 15 March 2019. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
355. "Statement by the Prime Minister on terrorist attack on two mosques in New Zealand" (Press release). PMO. 15 March 2019. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
356. "49 dead in terror attack at New Zealand mosques". CNN. CNN. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
357. "Christchurch shootings: 49 dead in New Zealand mosque attacks". BBC. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
358. "Dozens killed as gunman livestreams New Zealand mosque shootings". Reuters. 14 March 2019.
359. Trump, Donald J. (15 March 2019). "My warmest sympathy and best wishes goes out to the people of New Zealand after the horrible massacre in the Mosques. 49 innocent people have so senselessly died, with so many more seriously injured. The U.S. stands by New Zealand for anything we can do. God bless all!". @realDonaldTrump. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
360. "Live reaction to NZ mosque attack". BBC. 14 March 2019.
361. "Security Increased at American Mosques After New Zealand Attack". NYT. NYT. 15 March 2019. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March2019.
362. "Condolences to Prime Minister of New Zealand Jacinda Ardern". Kremlin. 15 March 2019.
363. "Moscow Ostankino Tower to go dark in honor of New Zealand victims". TASS. 15 March 2019.
364. "World reacts to New Zealand terrorist attacks on mosque". Arab News. 15 March 2019. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 16 March2019.
365. "King Salman in tweet calls for combating hate speech, terrorism". english.alarabiya.net. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
366. "Pope Francis sends message of condolences for the attacks on two mosques in New Zealand, in the city of Christchurch". Rome Reports. 15 March 2019. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
367. "Prime Minister Narendra Modi writes to New Zealand PM, condemns Christchurch attack". India Today. 15 March 2019. Retrieved 8 April 2019.
368. Aliyev, Ilham (15 March 2019). "Yeni Zelandiyanın Baş naziri Zati-aliləri xanım Casinda Ardernə" [To Prime Minister of New Zealand, Her Excellency Mrs. Jacinda Ardern] (Press release) (in Azerbaijani). president.az. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
369. "PM condemns New Zealand terror attack". Dhaka Tribune. 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
370. "Message of Condolence to the Prime Minister of New Zealand on the attacks of the Linwood Mosque and Masjid Al-Noor in Christchurch" (Press release). Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Brunei. 16 March 2019. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
371. "Statement of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation on the fatal shooting in New Zealand Mosques on 15 March 2019" (Press release). Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation, Cambodia. 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
372. "Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Lu Kang's Remarks on the Shootings in the New Zealand City of Christchurch" (Press release). Ministry of Foreign Affairs, China. 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
373. Pratap, Ritika (16 March 2019). "Fiji stands with Pacific family in this difficult time: Bainimarama". FBC. Retrieved 21 March 2019.
374. "Bulletin: On the Mass Shootings in New Zealand" (Press release). Department of Foreign Affairs, Philippines. 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
375. "Áder sends condolences over terrorist attacks in New Zealand". Hungary Matters. 17 March 2019. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
376. "Perkembangan Informasi terkait Serangan Teror di Christchurch, Selandia Baru"[Recent Information related to Terror Attacks in Christchurch, New Zealand] (Press release) (in Indonesian). Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Indonesia. 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.[permanent dead link]
377. "Message of condolences from Foreign Minister Taro Kono following the shooting incident in Christchurch, New Zealand" (Press release). Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Japan. 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
378. "MOFA Spokesperson's Statement on Terrorist Attacks in Christchurch, New Zealand" (Press release). Ministry of Foreign Affairs, South Korea. 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
379. "Sulmi terrorist në Zelandën e Re" [Terrorist Attack in New Zealand] (Press release) (in Albanian). Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Kosovo. 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
380. "Shooting Incident at Mosques in Christchurch, New Zealand" (Press release). Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Malaysia. 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
381. "Terrorist Attack on Two Mosques in Christchurch, New Zealand" (Press release). Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Pakistan. 15 March 2019. Archived from the original on 18 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
382. "MFA Spokesperson's Comments on the Shooting Incidents in Christchurch, New Zealand, 15 March 2019" (Press release). Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Singapore. 15 March 2019. Archived from the original on 21 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March2019.
383. "President Tsai offers condolences to New Zealand attack victims". Focus Taiwan. 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
384. "Press Release : Messages of Condolence from the Prime Minister of Thailand and the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Thailand on the Shooting Incident in Christchurch on 15 March 2019" (Press release). Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Thailand. 15 March 2019. Archived from the original on 17 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
385. "No: 56, 15 March 2019, Press Release Regarding the Terrorist Attacks Against Mosques in New Zealand" (Press release). Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Turkey. 15 March 2019. Archived from the original on 24 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March2019.
386. "Vietnam strongly condemns shooting attacks in New Zealand [Vietnamese leaders offer sympathy to New Zealand over shooting incidents]". Vietnam Net. 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
387. "Erdoğan condemns 'deplorable' terror attacks on New Zealand mosques, rising Islamophobia". Daily Sabah.
388. "Christchurch shooting: 'Beyond awful', Nicola Sturgeon and world react to terror attack". The Scotsman. 15 March 2019. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
389. "Pakistan to honour Christchurch mosque 'hero' with national award". Aljazeera. Archived from the original on 20 March 2019. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
390. "Bangladesh to send cricketers abroad reviewing hosts' security steps: PM". The Independent. 17 March 2019. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
391. "Why the accused New Zealand killer was fascinated with Serbia, Ottoman Empire". CBC News. 20 March 2019.
392. "Turkey's Recep Tayyip Erdogan uses New Zealand attack video at campaign rally". Deutsche Welle. 18 March 2019. Archived from the original on 19 March 2019. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
393. "Erdogan again airs attack video at rally despite criticism". The Associated Press. 20 March 2019. Archived from the original on 20 March 2019. Retrieved 20 March2019.
394. "NZ foreign minister headed to Turkey to 'confront' Erdogan's mosque..." Reuters. 20 March 2019. Archived from the original on 20 March 2019. Retrieved 20 March2019.
395. "Turkey's Erdogan sparks diplomatic row with NZ, Australia". ABC News. 21 March 2019. Archived from the original on 22 March 2019. Retrieved 22 March2019.
396. "New Zealand mosque attacks suspect praised Trump in manifesto". Al-Jazeera. 16 March 2019.
397. Itkowitz, Colby; Wagner, John (15 March 2019). "Trump says white nationalism is not a rising threat after New Zealand attacks: 'It's a small group of people'". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 16 March 2019. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
398. "Christchurch terror attack: Anti-immigration websites taken down after shootings". Radio New Zealand. 16 March 2019. Retrieved 21 March 2019.
399. "Revered as a saint by online extremists, how the Christchurch shooter inspired copycat terrorists around the world". The Independent. 24 August 2019. Retrieved 24 August 2019.
400. McMillan, Robert (20 March 2019). "After New Zealand Shooting, Founder of 8chan Expresses Regrets". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 31 August 2019. Retrieved 1 September 2019.
401. Lagan, Bernard; Brown, David; Karim, Fariha; Simpson, John (16 March 2019). "MI5 investigates New Zealand shooter". The Times. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
402. Jump up to:a b "Mossad behind Christchurch attacks, head of New Zealand's biggest mosque claims". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. Retrieved 27 May 2019. I stand here and I say I have a very very strong suspicion that there’s some group behind him and I am not afraid to say I feel Mossad is behind this," he said as a person in the audience shouted "It’s the truth. Israel is behind this. That’s right!"
Bhamji continued: "And not only them. There are some business houses, also, who are around … you know, Zionist business houses that are behind him.
403. Benjamin, Henry. "New Zealand Muslim leader dismisses colleague's claims Mossad ordered killings". Times of Israel. Retrieved 27 May 2019.
404. "Dangerous antisemitic conspiracy mainstreamed in New Zealand". Israel Institute of New Zealand. 26 March 2019. Retrieved 27 May 2019.
405. Palmer, Scott (26 March 2019). "Jews outraged after mosque leader blames Mossad for Christchurch attack". NBC News. Retrieved 27 May 2019.
406. Wade, Matt (23 April 2019). "Sri Lankan attacks 'retaliation for Christchurch': minister". The Sydney Morning Herald.
407. "Bombings were response to Christchurch shooting – State Minister". Adaderana.lk. DeranaTV. Retrieved 23 April 2019.
408. "State Defense Minister: Bombings were retaliation for Christchurch killings". 23 April 2019. Retrieved 23 April 2019.
409. "Sri Lanka blasts were in retaliation for New Zealand mosque shootings, official says". 23 April 2019. Retrieved 23 April 2019.
410. "Sri Lanka: Nearly 300 dead, Kiwi security expert says attacks unlikely to be linked to Christchurch". NZ Herald. 23 April 2019.
411. "ISIS fanatics celebrate SL attacks". www.dailymirror.lk. Retrieved 23 April 2019.
412. "New Zealand PM says no intelligence linking Sri Lanka attacks to Christchurch". Reuters. 24 April 2019.
413. Anderson, Charles (24 March 2019). "Censor bans 'manifesto' of Christchurch mosque shooter". The Guardian.
414. Sherwood, Sam; Kenny, Lee. "Christchurch mosque shootings: Man claims responsibility for shootings, records assault on video". Stuff.co.nz.
415. "Facebook battles to stamp out horror footage of Christchurch shooting". Stuff.co.nz. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March2019.
416. "OFLC Response to Christchurch – What You Can Do : Latest news : OFLC". www.classificationoffice.govt.nz. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
417. Webb-Libell, Alice (19 March 2019). "Chief Censor bans Christchurch shooting video, distributors could face jail". Newshub. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
418. "Films, Videos, and Publications Classification Act 1993". New Zealand Legislation Online. Parliamentary Counsel Office. Archived from the original on 24 January 2019. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
419. Clarkson, David (15 April 2019). "Warning over threats in Christchurch terror attack video prosecutions". Stuff.
420. McBride, Jessica (15 March 2019). "Daniel John Burrough Accused of Inciting Racial Hatred". Heavy.com. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
421. Stanley-Becker, Isaac; Rosenberg, Eli; Horton, Alex; Brice-Saddler, Michael (15 March 2019). "Primary suspect, one alleged accomplice identified in terrorist attack that killed 49 in New Zealand". Morning Mix. The Washington Post.
422. "Christchurch shootings: Teen charged with sharing live-stream refused bail". The New Zealand Herald. AAP. 18 March 2019. Archived from the original on 18 March 2019. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
423. Clarkson, Dave (18 March 2019). "Christchurch teen appears in court over alleged re-posting of mosque shootings live stream". Stuff. Archived from the original on 18 March 2019. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
424. Clarkson, David; Clarkson, Anne (20 March 2019). "Philip Arps charged with sharing live stream of Christchurch mosque massacre". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
425. Longley, Mark; Cropper, Emma (20 March 2019). "Christchurch business owner in custody after reposting livestream of the Christchurch terror attack". Newshub. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
426. "Second man charged with sharing live stream of Christchurch massacre". The Straits Times. 20 March 2019. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
427. Davison, Isaac (20 March 2019). "Christchurch mosque shootings: Philip Neville Arps in custody for allegedly sharing footage of shooting". New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
428. Bayer, Kurt (18 June 2019). "Mosque shooting: White supremacist Philip Neville Arps jailed for 21 months for distributing footage". New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
429. "Man who shared mosque shooting livestream sentenced to 21 months in prison". Radio New Zealand. 18 June 2019. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
430. Clarkson, David (27 August 2019). "White supremacist Philip Arps' loses appeal against sentence". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
431. Bayer, Kurt (27 August 2019). "Mosque shooting video: White supremacist Philip Arps' appeal against jail dismissed". New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 28 August2019.
432. Morrah, Michael (16 August 2019). "Second letter from Philip Arps calls for traitors' execution, disdain for Jacinda Ardern and Winston Peters". Newshub. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
433. Gower, Patrick (12 May 2019). "Christchurch attack: The dark truth about New Zealand's white supremacists". Newshub. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
434. "Christchurch white supremacist Philip Arps released". Radio New Zealand. 29 January 2020. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
435. Molyneux, Vita; Sadler, Rachel; Tukia, Annabelle (29 January 2020). "White supremacist Philip Arps released from prison, banned from contact with Muslims". Newshub. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
436. Bayer, Kurt (9 July 2019). "Teen, 16, charged over Christchurch mosque shootings video returned to custody". New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 13 July 2019.
437. "Christchurch mosque shootings: Boy, 16, admits possessing footage". New Zealand Herald. 2 July 2019. Retrieved 13 July 2019.
438. "Christchurch mosque shooting: Dunedin man charged with possessing livestream footage". New Zealand Herald. 12 July 2019. Retrieved 13 July 2019.
439. Galuzska, Jono (12 February 2020). "Homeless man jailed for sharing Christchurch mosque shooting video on Facebook". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
440. "Jail for man who gave mosque shooting 'Call of Duty' edit". Newstalk ZB. 26 February 2020. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
441. Meade, Amanda (15 March 2019). "Australian media broadcast footage from Christchurch shootings despite police pleas". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
442. "The Daily Mail Let Readers Download The New Zealand Mosque attacker's Manifesto Directly From Its Website". BuzzFeed. 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
443. Hollister, Sean (16 March 2019). "Sky New Zealand yanks Sky Australia after Christchurch footage sparks outrage". The Verge. Archived from the original on 17 March 2019. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
444. "Christchurch mosque shootings: Gunman livestreamed 17 minutes of shooting terror". The New Zealand Herald. 15 March 2019. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
445. "New Zealand Mobile Carriers Block 8chan, 4chan, and LiveLeak". BleepingComputer. Archived from the original on 18 March 2019. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
446. O'Neill, Marnie (19 March 2019). "Website Kiwi Farms refuses to surrender data linked to accused Christchurch terrorist Brendan Tarrant". news.com.au. Archived from the original on 18 March 2019. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
447. "Christchurch mosque shootings: Website Kiwi Farms refuses to surrender data linked to accused". The New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on 18 March 2019. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
448. Lam, Kristen (15 March 2019). "Social media scrambles to remove videos of New Zealand Christchurch mosque shooting". USA Today. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019.
449. D'Anastasio, Cecilia (15 March 2019). "Valve Removes Over 100 Steam Tributes To Suspected New Zealand Shooter". Kotaku. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
450. "Christchurch shootings: 'Bad actors' helped attack videos spread online". BBC News. 21 March 2019. Retrieved 21 March 2019.
451. "Facebook: NZ attack video viewed 4,000 times". BBC. 19 March 2019. Archived from the original on 19 March 2019. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
452. Fingas, Jon (17 March 2019). "Facebook pulled over 1.5 million videos of New Zealand shooting". Engadget. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
453. Stephan, Bijan (15 March 2019). "Reddit bans r/watchpeopledie in the wake of the New Zealand mosque massacres". The Verge. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
454. Lawler, Richard (15 March 2019). "Reddit bans gore-, death-focused channels following NZ mosque attack". Engadget. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
455. "Beelden aanslag blijven opduiken, ondanks inspanningen Facebook, Twitter en YouTube". de Volkskrant (in Dutch). 15 March 2019. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
456. Lecher, Colin (25 March 2019). "Microsoft calls for 'industrywide' moderation plan after New Zealand shooting". The Verge. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
457. Fingas, Jon (30 March 2019). "Australian bill could imprison social network execs over violent content". Engadget. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
458. "Facebook, YouTube sued over shootings video". BBC News. 26 March 2019. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
459. Stevenson, Rebecca; Anthony, John (16 March 2019). "'Thousands' of Christchurch shootings videos removed from YouTube, Google says". Stuff.co.nz.
460. Chokshi, Niraj. "PewDiePie Put in Spotlight After New Zealand Shooting". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 16 March 2019. Retrieved 16 March2019.
461. Paton, Callum (15 March 2019). "PewDiePie 'Sickened' by New Zealand Mosque Shooter Telling Worshippers to Follow Him Before Opening Fire". Newsweek. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
462. "49 killed in terrorist attack at mosques in Christchurch, New Zealand". The Washington Post. Retrieved 15 March 2019. Further afield, Felix Kjellberg, a YouTube celebrity from Sweden who goes by "PewDiePie" and flirts openly with Nazi symbolism, distanced himself from the violence after the man who live-streamed his rampage asked viewers to "subscribe to PewDiePie.
463. Dickson, Ed (15 March 2019). "Why Did the Christchurch Shooter Name-Drop YouTube Phenom PewDiePie?". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on 19 March 2019. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
464. Alexander, Julia (19 March 2019). "YouTube creators are trying to move on from 'subscribe to PewDiePie'". The Verge. Archived from the original on 20 March 2019. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
465. Wright, Stephen; Gelineau, Kristen. "New Zealand welcomes gun control after mosque massacre: 'There will be no opposition'". The Washington Times. The Associated Press. Archived from the original on 19 March 2019. Retrieved 21 March 2019.
466. "Prime Minister says NZ gun laws will change in wake of Christchurch terror attack". Stuff. 16 March 2019. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
467. Stieb, Matt (17 March 2019). "In New Zealand, Only One Mass Shooting Is Necessary for Gun Reform to Begin". Intelligencer. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
468. Damien Cave, Matt Stevens (15 March 2019). "New Zealand's Gun Laws Draw Scrutiny After Mosque Shootings". The New York Times.
469. Vsontay, Elias; Ritchie, Emily (16 March 2019). "Weapon exposes gun-law weakness". The Australian.
470. Manch, T. (2018). "NZ's battle over semi-automatics: Police frustrated by the law, firearm owners frustrated by police". Stuff. Archived from the original on 16 March 2019. Retrieved 5 August 2018.
471. Devlin, C. (21 March 2019). "Military-style semi-automatic weapons and assault rifles to be banned after mass shooting: PM". Stuff. Retrieved 21 March 2019.
472. "Police union calls for firearms register in New Zealand as gun violence grows". Newshub. 2019. Archived from the original on 20 March 2019. Retrieved 21 March2019.
473. Swaine, Jon (15 March 2019). "New Zealand PM vows to toughen gun control laws after Christchurch attack". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 17 March 2019. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
474. Walls, Jason (16 March 2019). "Christchurch mosque shootings: New Zealand to ban semi-automatic weapons". The New Zealand Herald.
475. "Attorney-General David Parker back-tracks on comments about gun control". Radio New Zealand. 16 March 2019. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
476. "'Panic buying' of guns to beat law change after Christchurch shooting". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
477. "Live: Day four Christchurch mosque shootings". rnz.liveblog.pro. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
478. "New Zealand gun owners voluntarily giving up firearms in wake of mosque massacre". New York Post. 18 March 2019. Archived from the original on 19 March 2019. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
479. "NZ cabinet backs action on gun laws – PM". BBC. 18 March 2019. Archivedfrom the original on 18 March 2019. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
480. "PM Jacinda Ardern says New Zealand will ban all military-style semi-automatic weapons and all assault rifles". Radio New Zealand. 21 March 2019. Archivedfrom the original on 21 March 2019. Retrieved 21 March 2019.
481. "Arms (Prohibited Firearms, Magazines, and Parts) Amendment Bill". New Zealand Parliament. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
482. "Firearms Amendment Bill passes final reading in Parliament". Radio New Zealand. 10 April 2019. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
483. "Bill banning military style semi-automatic weapons passes final reading". Newstalk ZB. 10 April 2019. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
484. "Gun bill to become law". Otago Daily Times. 10 April 2019. Retrieved 10 April2019.
485. Patterson, Jane (10 April 2019). "First details about gun buyback scheme released". Radio New Zealand. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
486. Devlin, Collette (10 April 2019). "Gun buyback framework established as first step towards determining compensation". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
487. Lynch, Jenna (10 April 2019). "Government's firearm buyback scheme gets bigger, more expensive, as new details revealed". Newshub. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
488. "Gun buyback scheme: Firearms collection events announced by police". Newshub. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
489. "Amnesty and buy-back statistics". New Zealand Police. Retrieved 3 March2020.
490. "Over 50,000 guns collected as buy-back scheme comes to an end". NZ Herald. 19 December 2019. ISSN 1170-0777. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
491. "Gun buyback: Over 56,000 guns collected as police release official figures". NZ Herald. 21 December 2019. ISSN 1170-0777. Retrieved 3 March 2020.

External links

• Quotations related to Christchurch mosque shootings at Wikiquote
• Media related to Christchurch mosque shootings at Wikimedia Commons
• The last prayer: surviving Christchurch terror attack, a documentary about the mosque shootings by Turkish news channel TRT World
• Information on The Royal Commission of Inquiry into the Attack on Christchurch Mosques
• Christchurch terror attack: The day NZ changed forever, a documentary about the shootings by New Zealand media company RNZ
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 32795
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am


Return to YouTube Picks

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 1 guest

cron