The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

That's French for "the ancient system," as in the ancient system of feudal privileges and the exercise of autocratic power over the peasants. The ancien regime never goes away, like vampires and dinosaur bones they are always hidden in the earth, exercising a mysterious influence. It is not paranoia to believe that the elites scheme against the common man. Inform yourself about their schemes here.

Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

Postby admin » Wed Apr 28, 2021 12:30 am


1. Sitting with the feet stretched out and crossed so as to touch the thighs, with the right hand (stretched out and) resting upon the left, with the tongue fixed in the palate, and without bringing the one row of teeth in contact with the other, with the eyes directed to the tip of the nose, and without glancing at any of the (four) quarters of the sky, free from fear, and with composure, let him meditate upon (Purusha), who is separate from the twenty-four entities,

[XCVII. 1. Y. III, 198-200.--9. Y. III, 111, 201. This chapter treats of the means for obtaining that knowledge of the Âtman or Self, which has been declared at the end of the last chapter to be the road to final emancipation. (Nand.)

1. 'The twenty-four (it should be twenty-five) entities are stated in the Sânkhya to consist of the root-principle (mûlaprakriti), the seven productions evolved from it (vikritayah), the sixteen productions evolved from these, and Purusha (the soul), who is neither producer nor produced. (1) The "root-principle" is composed of the three qualities in equipoise: sattva, ragas, and tamas (the most accurate rendering of these terms is perhaps that proposed by Elliot, "pure unimpassioned virtue," "passion," and "depravity inclining to evil." See Fitz-Edward Hall, Preface to Sânkhyapravakanabhâshya, p. 44 (2) The "great entity" (Mahat) is the cause of apprehension. (3) The "self-consciousness" (ahamkâra) is the cause of {p.188} referring all objects to self. (4-2) The "subtile elementary particles" (tanmâtras) are identical with sound, tangibility, form, taste, and odour. (9-19) The eleven senses (i. e. the organs of perception and action enumerated in CXVI, 94, 95, and manas, "the mind"), and (20-24) the five "grosser elements" (ether, air, fire, water, and earth) are productions (from the former entities). Purusha, who is neither producer nor produced, is the twenty-fifth entity.' (Nand.)]

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2. He who is eternal, beyond the cognisance of the senses, destitute of qualities, not concerned with sound, tangibility, form, savour, or odour, knowing everything, of immense size,

3. He who pervades everything, and who is devoid of form,

4. Whose hands and feet are everywhere, whose eyes, head, and face are everywhere, and who is able to apprehend everything with all the senses.

5. Thus let him meditate.

6. If he remains absorbed in such meditation for a year, he obtains the accomplishment of Yoga (concentration of the thought and union with the Supreme).

7. If he is unable to fix his mind upon the being

[2, 3. According to Nand., all the properties of Purusha mentioned in this Sûtra are such as distinguish him from the rest of the entities, the first two distinguishing him from 'self-consciousness' (ahamkâra), the voidness of quality distinguishing him from the 'root-principle' (mûlaprakriti), which is composed of three qualities, &c.

4. The properties of Pûrusha here mentioned are faculties only, so that there is no contradiction to the 'voidness of form' and the other properties enumerated in the preceding Sûtras. (Nand.)

6. The external signs of the accomplishment of Yoga, as stated by Yâgñavalkya (III, 202 seq.), are, the faculty of entering another body and of creating anything at will, and other miraculous powers and qualities. (Nand.)]

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destitute of form[1], he must meditate successively on earth, water, fire, air, ether, mind, intellect, self[2], the indiscrete[3], and Purusha[4]: having fully apprehended one, he must dismiss it from his thoughts and fix his mind upon the next one in order.

8. In this way let him arrive at meditation upon Purusha.

9. If unable to follow this method also, he must meditate on Purusha shining like a lamp in his heart, as in a lotus turned upside down.

10. If he cannot do that either, he must meditate upon Bhagavat Vâsudeva (Vishnu), who is adorned with a diadem, with ear-rings, and with bracelets, who has the (mystic mark) Srîvatsa and a garland of wood-flowers on his breast, whose aspect is pleasing, who has four arms, who holds the shell, the discus, the mace, and the lotus-flower, and whose feet are supported (and worshipped) by the earth.

11. Whatever he meditates upon, that is obtained by a man (in a future existence): such is the mysterious power of meditation.

12. Therefore must he dismiss everything perishable

[7. 1 The term nirâkâra, 'the being destitute of form,' evidently refers to Purusha here (cf. Sûtra 3), though Nand. interprets it as an epithet of 'Brahman.'--2 Intellect' (buddhi) and 'self' (âtman), according to Nand., mean 'the great entity' (mahat) and 'self-consciousness' (ahamkâra), cf. note on Sûtra 1.--3 'The indiscrete' (avyaktam) means 'the chief one' (pradhânam), i. c. the Sânkhya 'root-principle' (see XCVI, 96).--4 Nand. takes Purusha, in this Sûtra and in 13, 15 to mean 'the twenty-sixth entity;' but it appears clearly from Sûtra 1, as from 16 also, that the Vishnu-sûtra, like the Sânkhya system, assumes twenty-five entities only, not twenty-six, like Yama, upon whose authority Nand.'s statement is based.

9. 1 Nand. interprets the term Purusha here by âtman. 'self.']

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from his thoughts and meditate upon what is imperishable only.

13. There is nothing imperishable except Purusha.

14. Having become united with him (through constant meditation), he obtains final liberation.

15. Because the great lord pervades the whole universe (pura), as he is lying there (sete), therefore is he denominated Puru-sha by those who reflect upon the real nature (of the Supreme Spirit).

16. In the first part and the latter part of the night must a man bent on contemplation constantly and with fixed attention meditate upon Purusha Vishnu, who is destitute of (the three) qualities (sattva, ragas, and tamas[1]) and the twenty-fifth entity.

17. He (or it) is composed of the entities, beyond the cognisance of the senses, distinct from all the (other) entities, free from attachment (to the producer, &c.), supporting everything, devoid of qualities and yet enjoying (or witnessing the effect of) qualities.

18. It exists without and within created beings (as being enjoyed and as enjoyer), and in the shape both of immovable things (such as trees or stones) and of movable things (such as water or fire); it is undistinguishable on account of its subtlety; it is out of reach (imperceptible), and yet is found in the heart.

[16. 1 See Sûtra 1, note.

17. Thus according to the reading asaktam, which is mentioned and explained as a var. lect. by Nand. He himself reads asaktam, 'independent of Sakti, power, i. e. the producer, the power of creation (prakriti), or illusion (mâyâ).' Mâyâ and prakriti are occasionally used as synonymous terms in the Sânkhya.]

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19. It is not distinct from creation, and yet distinct from it in outward appearance; it annihilates and produces by turns (the world), which consists of everything that has been, that will be, and that is.

20. It is termed the light of the sidereal bodies and the enemy of darkness (ignorance), it is knowledge, it should be known, it may be understood (by meditation), it dwells in every man's heart.

21. Thus the 'field,' knowledge (or meditation), and what should be known[1] have been concisely declared; that faithful adherent of mine who makes himself acquainted therewith, becomes united to me in spirit.
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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

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1. When Vishnu had finished his speech[1], the goddess of the earth inclined her knees and her head before him and said:

2. 'O Bhagavat! Four (out of the five) grosser elements[1] are receiving their support from thee, and are constantly about thee: the ether, in the form of the shell; the air, in the form of the discus; the fire, in the form of the mace; and the water, in the form of the lotus. Now I also desire to attend upon thee, in my own shape, as the ground which Bhagavat's feet tread upon.'

[21. 1 The 'field' has been discussed in XCVI, 43-97, 'knowledge' in XCVI, 43-97, 'knowledge' in XCVII, 1, and 'what should be known' in XCVII, 2-20. (Nand.)

XCVII. 1. 1 Vishnu's speech is contained in Chapters II-XCVII. (Nand.)

2. 1 The fifth grosser element is the earth. See XCVII, 1, note.]

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3. Having been addressed thus by the goddess of the earth, Bhagavat answered, 'So be it.'

4. And the goddess of the earth, her desire having been gratified, did as she had said.

5. And she praised the god of the gods (as follows):

6. 'Om. Adoration be to thee.

7. 'Thou art the god of the gods.

8. 'Thou art Vâsudeva.

9. 'Thou art the creator.

10. 'Thou art the god (who, creates, preserves, and destroys) at will.

11. 'Thou art the gratifier of human desires.

12. 'Thou art the guardian of the earth.

13. 'There is neither beginning, nor middle, nor end in thee.

14. 'Thou art the lord (protector) of creatures.

15. 'Thou art the strong lord of creatures.

16. 'Thou art the exalted lord of creatures.

17. 'Thou art the lord of strength.

18. 'Thou art the lord of holy speech.

19. 'Thou art the lord (creator and preserver) of the world.

20. 'Thou art the lord of heaven.

21. 'Thou art the lord of woods (who makes the trees grow).

[10. 'Or Kâmadeva means the god (or brilliant one) who is sought by those striving for religious merit, gain, love, or final liberation,' (Nand.) The same interpretation is given by Sankara in his Commentary on the Vishnu-sahasranâma. The ordinary meaning of Kâmadeva is 'the god of love.'

15, 16. Nand. renders the terms supragâpati and mahâpragâpati by 'the protector of those who have a splendid progeny (such as Kasyapa)' and the lord of him who has a large progeny (Brahman).']

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22. 'Thou art the lord (producer) of (mother's) milk.

23. 'Thou art the lord of the earth (and causest it to yield its produce)

24. 'Thou art the lord of the waters.

25. 'Thou art the lord of the (eight) quarters of the sky.

26. 'Thou art the lord of (the principle) Mahat.

27. 'Thou art the lord of the wind.

28. 'Thou art the lord of happiness.

29. 'Thou art Brahman personified.

30. 'Thou art dear to Brâhmanas.

31. 'Thou pervadest everything.

32. 'Thou surpassest all conception.

33. 'Thou art attainable by knowledge (meditation).

34. 'Thou art invoked at many (offerings).

35. 'Thou art praised with many (hymns of the Veda).

36. 'Thou likest everything sacred.

37. 'Thou art fond of Brahman (the Veda).

38. 'Thou belongest to the (gods called) Brahmakâyas.

39. 'Thy size is immense.

40. 'Thou belongest to the Mahârâgas.

[26. See XCVII, 1, note.

28. Lakshmîpati has been translated according to Nand.'s interpretation. It usually denotes the husband of Lakshmî.

30. Or 'Brâhmanas are dear to thee.' Both explanations of the term brâhmanapriya are admissible, and mentioned by Nand. and by Sankara.

40, 41. Nand. interprets the two terms mahârâgika and katurmahârâgika by 'he whose series of transmigrations is immense,' and 'he whose immense series of transmigrations is fourfold,' and {footnote p. 394} he refers the latter epithet to the four parts, of which Purusha is said to consist. He quotes Rig-veda X, 90, 4, where it is said that Purusha ascended to the sky with three of his constituent parts, and that the fourth remained in this world. But both terms cannot be separated etymologically from Mahârâga, the name of a certain class of deities in the Buddhistic system of religion.]

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41. 'Thou belongest to the four Mahârâgas.

42. 'Thou art brilliant.

43. 'Thou art most brilliant.

44. 'Thou art the seven (parts of a Sâman, or the seven divisions of the universe).

45. 'Thou art most blessed.

46. 'Thou art tone.

47. 'Thou art Tushita (or "satisfied with the honours shown to thee by faithful attendants").

48. 'Thou art Mahâtushita (or "highly satisfied even without being worshipped").

49. 'Thou art the tormentor (destroyer of the world).

50. 'Thou art wholly created.

51. 'Thou art uncreated.

52. 'Thou art obsequious (to thy followers).

53. 'Thou art sacrifice.

54, 'Thou art the (recipient of the) great sacrifice.

55. 'Thou art connected with sacrifices.

56. 'Thou art the fit recipient of offerings.

57. Thou art the consummation of offerings.

58. Thou art invincible.

[44. Thus Nand. Compare I, 56, note.

46. Nand.'s interpretation of the epithet svara, 'tone' (or 'air breathed through the nostrils'), as being a compound of the prefix su and the root ri in the sense of 'acquisition, insight,' and meaning 'most wise,' is inadmissible.

54. This epithet, according to Nand., refers to the sacrifice mentioned in a text of the Vâgasan. Samhitâ (XIX, 12), which begins with the words 'The gods prepared a sacrifice']

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59. 'Thou art Vaikuntha.

60. 'Thou art unbounded (both in time and space).

61. 'Thou surpassest (the organs of sense, mind, and intelligence).

62. 'Thou art of old.

63. 'Thou art friendly to the gods.

64. 'Thou art the protector of living beings.

65. 'Thou wearest radiant locks of hair.

66. 'Thou takest thy share of acts of worship.

67. 'Thou takest thy sacrificial cake.

68. 'Thou art lord over everything.

69. 'Thou art the support of all.

70. 'Thy ears are pure.

71. 'Never ceasing homage is paid to thee.

72. 'Thou art blazing fire (or "Thou art shining with clarified butter offered up to thee").

73. 'Thou cuttest (foes) to pieces with thy axe.

74. 'Thou hast a lotus springing from thy navel.

75. 'Thou holdest a lotus (in thy hand).

76. 'Thou wearest a garland of lotus-flowers.

77. 'Thou art the lord of the senses.

78. 'Thou hast one horn.

[59. Nand. proposes two interpretations of this epithet: 2. the producer of Mâyâ (the power of illusion); 2. the son of Vikunthâ, the mother of Vishnu in one of his Avatâras. Vaikuntha is also the name of Vishnu's paradise.

70. 'I.e. "thou hearest the sacred revelation." Or sukisrava = "he whose names are pure."' (Nand.) The same interpretation is given by Sankara. See also Mahâbhârata XII, 13250.

73. 'The epithet khandaparasu refers either to Vishnu's slaying the Daityas in the form of Siva, or to his wearing an axe as the slayer of the Kshatriyas in the form of Parasurâma.' (Nand.) The latter interpretation is proposed by Sankara also, and khandaparasu is a very common epithet of Parasurâma.

78. The one horn is meant, by which Vishnu, in his descent as {footnote p. 296} a fish, is said to have dragged the ship of Manu behind him. (Nand.)]

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79. 'Thou art the great boar.

80. 'Thou art the tormentor (of the Asuras, or of the righteous and the unrighteous).

81. 'Thou art eternal.

82. 'Thou art infinite. 83. Thou art Purusha. 84. Thou art the great (unbounded) Purusha. 85. Thou art (the sage) Kapila. 86. Thou art the teacher of the Sânkhya. 87. Thy powers are everywhere. 88. Thou art virtue. 89. Thou art the giver of virtue. go. Thy body is virtue (law). 91. Thou art the giver of both virtue and wealth. 92. Desires are gratified by thee. 93. Thou art Vishnu. 94. Thou art triumphant everywhere. 95. Thou art capable of bearing (the extremities of heat and cold and any others). 96. Thou art Krishna. 97. Thou art the lotus-eyed god. 98. Thou art Nârâyana (the son of Nara). 99. Thou art the final aim. 100. Thou art the resort of all beings. 101. Adoration, adoration (be to thee)!'

102. The goddess of the earth, after her desire had been gratified, and after she had thus praised

[79. This epithet refers to Vishnu's boar-incarnation. See I, 1 seq.

85, 86. See Introduction.

101. Nand. observes that the divers epithets which are given to Vishnu in this chapter are precisely equal in number to the ninety-six chapters, of which the law part of the Vishnu-sûtra is composed. This coincidence is curious enough, though it is not quite perfect. For it is by a highly artificial interpretation only that Nand. makes out Sûtra 101 to contain an epithet of Vishnu, viz. by interpreting the two separate words namo nama as a compound, meaning 'he who is worshipped by the worshipful, i. e. by Brahman and the other gods;' and Sûtra 6 contains no epithet at all.]

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(Vishnu) with a cheerful mind I addressed herself to the goddess (Lakshmî).
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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

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1. After having seen Sri (Lakshmî), the goddess of the earth, highly pleased, questioned (in the following manner) that goddess, who was stroking the feet of Vishnu, the god of the gods, who was shining with the splendour of her austerities, and whose face was radiant like melted gold.

2. 'O charming lady! Thy hands are as beautiful as the expanded red lotus. Thou art holding the feet of him whose navel resembles the expanded red lotus. Thou art constantly residing in an abode resembling the expanded red lotus. Thy waist has the colour of the expanded red lotus.

3. 'Thy eyes resemble blue lotus-flowers; thy hue is radiant like gold; thy robe is white; thy body is adorned with gems; thy face is radiant like the moon; thou art resplendent like the sun; thy power is immense; thou art the sovereign (or producer) of the world.

4. 'Thou art repose (final liberation), the highest among the (four) objects of human pursuit; thou art Lakshmî; thou art a support (in danger); thou art Srî; thou art indifference (the freedom from all worldly pursuits and appetites, which is the consequence of final emancipation); thou art victory;

[4. The 'four objects of human pursuit' are, kâma, 'desire' (and its gratification), artha, 'gain,' dharma, 'religious merit,' and moksha, 'final emancipation.' The goddess is called Lakshmî, because she is the aim (lakshyate) of all beings. She is called Srî, because she serves Purushottama (Vishnu), or because she is the resort of all. (Nand.)]

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thou art beauty; thou art the splendour (of the sun and moon personified); thou art renown; thou art prosperity; thou art wisdom; thou art the power of expression; thou art the Purifier.

5. 'Thou art the food of the manes; thou art forbearance; thou art the earth (or the repository of wealth); thou art fixity; thou art the basis (or stability); thou art the source of the benefit derived from sacrifices; thou art highest prudence; thou art wide-spread renown; thou art freedom from envy; thou art the food given to the gods; thou art mental power; thou art intelligence.

6. 'As the first of the gods (Vishnu) pervades the whole aggregate of the three worlds (sky, atmosphere, and earth), even so doest thou, O black-eyed bestower of gifts. Yet I inquire for the dwelling, in which thy superhuman power is residing.'

7. The goddess of the earth having thus spoken to her, Lakshmî, standing by the side of the chief of the gods, enunciated the following answer: 'I am constantly at the side of the brilliant destroyer of Madhu, O goddess, who shinest like gold.

8. 'But learn from me, where I reside (besides), O support of the world, from the instruction of him, whom I am constantly reflecting upon in my mind, and whom the virtuous call the husband of Srî, and from my own recollection.

9. 'I reside in the sun, in the moon, and in the cloudless atmosphere in which the flock of the stars is spread out. (I reside) in that cloud, from which the waters of the rain pour down, in that cloud

[6. Lakshmî is said to pervade everything, like Vishnu himself, because she is his Sakti, i. e. his energy or active power personified as his wife. (Nand.)]

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which is adorned with Indra's bow and in that cloud from which the rays of lightning flash forth.

10. '(I reside) in bright gold and silver, and in spotless gems and clothes, O goddess of the earth. (I reside) in rows of whitewashed palaces and in temples decorated with the attributes of deities.

11. '(I reside) in fresh cow-dung, in a noble elephant in rut, in a horse exulting in his vigour, in a proud bull, and in a Brâhmana who studies the Veda.

12. 'I reside in a throne, in an Âmalaka (Dhâtrî) shrub, in a Bel tree, in an umbrella, in a shell (trumpet), in a lotus-flower; in blazing fire, and in a polished sword or mirror.

13. 'I reside in jars filled with water and in painted (halls), in which there are chowries and fans; in splendid golden vessels, and in earth recently thrown up.

14. '(I reside) in milk, butter, fresh grass, honey, and sour milk; in the body of a married woman, in the frame of an unmarried damsel, and in the frame of (images of) gods, of ascetics, and of officiating priests.

15. '(I reside) in an arrow, in one who, has returned (victorious) from battle, and in one who has fallen on the field of honour and proceeded to a scat in heaven; in the sound of (repeating) the Veda, in the flourish of the shell (trumpet), in the sacrificial exclamations addressed to the gods and to the manes, and in the sound of musical instruments.

16. '(I reside) in the consecration of a king, in the marriage ceremony, in a sacrifice, in a bridegroom, in one who has washed his head, in white flowers, in mountains, in fruits, in (islets in the

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middle of a river and other) pleasant spots, and in large streams.

17. '(I reside) in lakes filled with water, in (pure) waters, and in ground covered with fresh grass, in a wood abounding in lotuses (and fruits), in a newborn infant, in a suckling, in one exulting in joy, in a virtuous man, and in one wholly bent upon practising the law.

18. '(I reside) in a man who observes approved usages, in one who constantly acts up to the sacred law, in one modestly, and in one splendidly attired, in one who keeps his organs of sense and his mind under control, in one free from sin, in one whose food is pure, and in one who honours his guests.

19. '(I reside) in one who is satisfied with his own wife (and does not covet other men's wives), in one bent upon doing his duty, in one eminently virtuous, in one who refrains from eating too often (i. e. three or four times a day), in one constantly adorned with flowers, in one who associates with such as anoint their limbs with fragrant unguents, in one who is scented with perfumes (himself), and in one adorned (with bracelets and ear-rings).

20. '(I reside) in one habitually veracious, in one friendly towards all creatures, in a married householder, in one forbearing, in one free from wrath, in one skilled in his own business, and in one skilled in other men's business, in one who never thinks of any but propitious things, and in one constantly humble.

.21. '(I reside) in women who wear proper ornaments always, who are devoted to their husbands, whose speeches are kind, who keep up saving habits, who have sons, who keep their household utensils in

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good order, and who are fond of offering domestic oblations.

22. '(I reside) in women who keep the house clean (by scouring it, plastering it with cow-dung, and the like), who keep their organs, of sense under control, who are not quarrelsome, contented, strictly, observing the law, and charitable; and I always reside in the destroyer of Madhu.

23. 'I do not remain separated from Purushottama[1] for a single moment.'
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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

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1. Those among the twice-born who will act according to (the precepts promulgated in) this excellent law-code, which has been proclaimed by the god himself, shall obtain a most excellent abode in heaven.

2. It purifies from sin, it is auspicious, it leads to heaven, procures long life, knowledge (of the four objects of human pursuit) and renown, and increases wealth and prosperity.

3 . It must be studied, it must be borne in mind, it must be recited, it must be listened too, and it must be constantly repeated at Srâddhas by persons desirous of prosperity.

[4. This most sublime, mysterious collection of

doctrines has been proclaimed to thee, O goddess of the earth. In a kindly spirit and for the best of the world (have I promulgated) this body of eternal

[23. 1 See 1, 51.

C. 2. See XCIX, 4, note.

4. This last clause I consider, for divers reasons, to be an addition made by a modern copyist. 1. It is not commented upon in {footnote p. 302} Dr. Bühler's copy of the Vaigayantî. 2. It takes up, without any purpose, the speech of Vishnu, which had been concluded in XCVII, 21. 3. Recommendations to study and recite the laws just promulgated, like those contained in C, 1-3, form the conclusion of several other Dharmasâstras, 4. The substantive saubhâgyam is used like an adjective. 5. The first part of the whole passage is a detached hemistich.]

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laws, which is conducive to happiness, the best means of purification, destructive of bad dreams, productive of a great deal of religious merit, and the source of prosperity.]
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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

Postby admin » Wed Apr 28, 2021 12:31 am


I, 17 (p. 4) read Râkshasas--I, 22 (p. 5) for bow read shaft--V, 48 (p. 29) and V, 77 (p. 31) for or one read and one--VIII, 9 (p. 49) before one add and approved by both (parties)--XIV, 4 (p. 61) close before an--XVIII, 19, 22 (p. 72) for Sûdra read Vaisya--XVIII 38 (p. 73) for two parts read eight parts--XXI, 1 (p. 83) read clothes, ornaments, and--XXI, 5 (p. 84) for added fuel to read strewed grass round--XXII, 68 (p. 94) for head read beard--XXIII, 22 (p. 100) for sesamum read mustard--XXIII, 36 (p. 101) read grain exceeding--XXIII, 38 (p. 102) read cow, trodden or sneezed--XXIV, 7 (p. 106) for whip read goad--XXX, 3 (p. 123) invert the position of Upâkarman and Utsarga--XLIX, 8 (p. 156) ditto of full and new--LI, 57, 58 (p. 169) for left read given.

Notes: page 12, after --4-9 add (14) and after --16, 17. add M, X, 63; Y. I, 122--p. 14, note 1, before --79, 80. add 77, 78. Y. I, 308, 313-78. M. VII, 79.--p. 26, note 1, read 140-146 . . . XLV, L. Add at the end of this note --196. M. VIII, 386 --p. 30 add 52. I have translated the reading pañkâsatam, which however is hardly so appropriate as the reading pañkâstam, 'fifty' kârshâpanas. See M. VIII, 2, 97 --p. 32 add 88. It is perhaps more advisable to translate '(shall pay) . . . (as a fine),' than to supply the above parentheses. The reading of Nand.'s gloss is doubtful --p. 42, 1. 7 from below, after 45 add ; Colebrooke, Dig. I, 5, CLXXXV.--37. Y. II, 48.--p. 54 add 20, 22. The translation of sîrsha by 'fine' rests upon Nand.'s comment--p. 62 add Gautama (XVIII, 6) speaks of the appointment of 'one who belongs to the same caste' (Bühler); but the term yonimâtra is ambiguous, and may be referred to 'relatives on the mother's side' as well.--p. 123, note 1, read 34-38 and 43-47--p. 131, 17, read The next proverb (18)--p. 132, 3, read XXXIII--p. 138, 35, read XLVII and XLVI, 18.--p. 162 add 5. Thus Nand. Taken as part of a Dvandva compound, vratâni would mean 'and the Vratas.' See M. XI, 152--p. 185, 3 and p. 186, 26 read X, 190 and X, 90.--p. 190 read LIX, Y. M. III, 67--p. 198, 5 add 'ekakara' "one who has one hand only", (Nand.), may also mean "with one hand."' See Âpast. I, 1, 4, 21; Gaut. IX, 11.--p. 202, 36.1 Professor Max Müller points out to me, That the Buddhist Bhikshus do 'wear the marks of an order to which they do not belong'--na vidhivat pravraganti. Viewed in this light, Nand.'s interpretation tends to confirm my own, Cf. Âpast. I, 6,18, 31.
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