The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

That's French for "the ancient system," as in the ancient system of feudal privileges and the exercise of autocratic power over the peasants. The ancien regime never goes away, like vampires and dinosaur bones they are always hidden in the earth, exercising a mysterious influence. It is not paranoia to believe that the elites scheme against the common man. Inform yourself about their schemes here.

Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

Postby admin » Tue Apr 27, 2021 11:19 pm

XVII.

1. If a father makes a partition with his sons, he may dispose of his self-acquired property as he thinks best.

[XVII. I. Y. II, 114.--2. Y. II, 121.--3. M. IX, 216; Y. II, 122; Gaut. XXVIII, 29; Colebrooke, Dig. V, 2, CII.--4-16. M. IX, 185-189; Y. II, 135-137; Âpast. II, 6, 14, 2-5; Gaut. XXVIII, 21.--4-13, 15. Colebrooke, Dig. V, 8, CCCCXVII; V, 8, CCCCLIX.--17. M. IX, 211, 212; Y. II, 138; Gaut. XXVIII, 28.--18. M. IX, 194, 195; Y. II, 143, 144; Colebrooke, Dig. V, 9, CCCCLVII.--19. M. IX, 196; Y. II, 145.--20. M. IX, 197; Y. II, 145.--21. M. IX, 192; Y. II, 145; Gaut. XXVIII, 24; Colebrooke, Dig. V, 9, CCCCXCIV.--22. M. IX, 200; Colebrooke, Dig. V, 9, CCCCLXXIII.--23. Y. II, 120.]

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2. But in regard to wealth 'inherited of the paternal grandfather, the ownership of father and son is equal.

3. (Sons), who have separated from their father, should give a share to (a brother) who is born after partition.

4. The wealth of a man who dies without male issue goes to his wife;

5. On failure of her, to his daughter;

6. On failure of her, to his father;

7. On failure of him, to his mother;

8. On failure of her, to his brother;

9. On failure of him, to his brother's son;

10. On failure of him, to the relations called Bandhu;

11. On failure of them, to the relations called Sakulya;

12. On failure of them, to a fellow-student;

13. On failure of him, it goes to the king, with the exception of a Brâhmana's property.

14. The property of a Brâhmana goes to (other) Brâhmanas.

[8. 'On failure of brothers the sister inherits.' (Nand.)

9. 'On failure of a brother's son the, sister's son inherits.' (Nand.)

10. Bandhu means Sapinda (allied by funeral oblations). The inheritance goes first: to the Sapindas on the father's side in thc following order: (the brother's son), the brother's grandson, the grandfather, his son, grandson, and great-grandson, the great-grandfather, his son, grandson, and great-grandson. Then follow the mother's Sapindas in the same order. (Nand.)

11. Sakulya means distant kinsmen, beginning with the fifth in descent and ascent. On failure of such, the inheritance goes to the spiritual teacher; on failure of him, to a pupil of the deceased, as ordained by Âpastamba (II, 6, 14, 3); and on failure of him, to a fellow-student, as stated in Sûtra 12. (Nand.)]

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15. The wealth of a (deceased) hermit shall be taken by his spiritual teacher;

16. Or his pupil (may take it).

17. But let a reunited coparcener take the share of his reunited coparcener who has died (without issue), and a uterine brother that of his uterine brother, and let them give (the shares of their deceased coparceners and uterine brothers) to the sons of the latter.

18. What has been given to a woman by her father, mother, sons, or brothers, what she has received before the sacrificial fire (at the marriage ceremony), what she receives on supersession, what has been given to her by her relatives, her fee (Sulka), and a gift subsequent, are called 'woman's property' (Strîdhana).

19. If a woman married according to (one of the first) four rites, beginning with the Brâhma rite, dies without issue, that (Strîdhana) belongs to her husband.

20. (If she has been married) according to (one of) the other (four reprehensible rites), her father shall take it.

[18. 'Sulka, "fee," denotes the price or value of a house or other valuable object presented to the bride by her father; or it means the fee paid for her by the bridegroom.' (Nand.) The latter interpretation is evidently the correct one. The bride's 'fee' (see Gaut. XXVIII, 25), from being originally the price due to the parents or guardian of the bride for surrendering her to the bridegroom, became in after times a wedding present, which the bride received from the bridegroom either directly or through her parents. This is the only way to account for the Sulka being enumerated among the constituent parts of Strîdhana in this place. See also I. D. Mayne, Hindu Law and Usage, งง 77, 566; Mayr, Indisches Erbrecht, 170 seq.; Jolly, Stellung der Frauen, 23, note

19, 20, See XXIV, 17-27.]

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21. If she dies leaving children, her wealth goes in every case to her daughter.

22. Ornaments worn by women when their husbands were alive, the heirs shall not divide among themselves; if they divide them, they become outcasts.

23. (Coparceners) descended from different fathers must adjust their shares according to the fathers. Let each take the wealth due to his father, no other (has a right to it).
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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

Postby admin » Tue Apr 27, 2021 11:19 pm

XVIII.

1. If there are four sons of a Brâhmana (springing from four different wives) of the four castes, they shall divide the whole estate of their father into ten parts.

2. Of these, let the soil of the Brâhmana wife take four parts;

3. The son of the Kshatriya wife, three parts;

4. The son of the Vaisya wife, two parts;

5. The son of the Sûdra wife, a single part.

[22. My rendering of this Sloka is based upon Kullûka's interpretation of the identical passage of Manu (IX, 200), which is supported by Vigñânesvara (Mitâksharâ I, 4, 19 in Colebrooke's version), Mâdhava (Burnell, Dâya-Vibhâga 51), Varadarâga (Burnell, Varadarâga's Vyavahâranîrnaya 49), and others. Nand. proposes a different interpretation, on which rests Dr. Bühler's rendering, 'Those ornaments, which the wives usually wear, should not be divided by the heirs whilst the husbands are alive.'

XVIII. 1-5. M. IX, 149, 151-153; Y. II, 125.--11, 25-27. Y. II, 125.--1-31, 38-40. Colebrooke, Dig. V, 3, CLIII.--32-37. Colebrooke, Dig. V, 3, CLXXII. V, 2, LXXXVI; V, 1, LIV.--36. Y. II, 114;--Âpast. II, 6, 14, 1.--41. M IX, 210.--42, 43. M. IX, 208, 209; Y. II, 118, 119.--44. M. IX, 219; Gaut. XXVIII, 46, 47.--43, 44. Colebrooke, Dig. V, 2, XCI; V, 5, CCCLXIII.]

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6. Again, if there are three sons of a Brâhmana (by wives of different castes), but no son by a Sûdra (wife) among them, they shall divide the estate into nine parts.

7. (Of these) let them take, each in the order of his caste, shares amounting to four, three, and two parts of the whole respectively.

8. (If there are three sons by wives of different castes, but) no Vaisya among them, they shall divide the estate into eight parts, and take four parts, three parts, and one part respectively.

9. (If there are three sons, but) no Kshatriya among them, they shall divide it into seven parts, and take four parts, two parts, and a single part respectively.

10. If there is no Brâhmana, among them, they hall divide it into six parts, and take three parts, two parts, and a single part respectively.

11. If there are sons of a Kshatriya by a Kshatriya, a Vaisya, and a Sûdra wife, the mode of division shall be the same (i.e. the estate shall be divided into six parts, &c.)

12. Again, if there are two sons of a Brâhmana, the one belonging to the Brâhmana and the other to the Kshatriya caste, they shall divide the estate into seven parts; and of these the Brâhmana son shall take four parts;

13. The Kshatriya son, three parts.

14. Again, if there are two sons of a Brâhmana, and the one belongs to the Brâhmana and the other to the Vaisya caste, the estate shall be divided into six parts; and of these, the Brâhmana shall take four parts;

15. The Vaisya, two parts.

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10. Again, if there are two sons of a Brâhmana, and the one belongs to the Brâhmana and the other to the Sûdra caste, they shall divide the estate into five parts;

17. And of these, the Brâhmana shall take four parts;

18. The Sûdra, a single part.

19. Again, if there are two sons of a Brâhmana or a Kshatriya, and the one belongs to the Kshatriya and the other to the Sûdra caste, they shall divide the estate into five parts;

90. And of these, the Kshatriya shall take three parts;

21. The Sûdra, one part.

22. Again, if there are two sons of a Brâhmana or a Kshatriya, and the one belongs to the Kshatriya, the other to the Sûdra caste, they shall divide the estate into four parts;

23. And of these, the Kshatriya shall take three parts;

24. The Sûdra, a single part.

25. Again, if there are two sons of a Brâhmana or a Vaisya or a Sûdra, and the one belongs to the Vaisya, the other to the Sûdra caste, they shall divide the estate into three parts;

26. And of these, the Vaisya shall take two parts;

27. The Sûdra, a single part,

28. If a Brâhmana has an only son, he shall take the whole estate, provided he be a Brâhmana, Kshatriya, or Vaisya.

29. If a Kshatriya has (an only son who is) either a Kshatriya or a Vaisya, (the rule shall be the same.)

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30. If a Vaisya has (an only son who is) Vaisya, (the rule shall also be the same);

31. (And so shall the only) son of a Sûdra (be sole heir) to his Sûdra (father).

32. A Sûdra, who is the only son of a father belonging to a twice-born caste, shall inherit one-half of his property;

33. The other half shall devolve in the same way as the property of one who died without leaving issue.

34. Mothers shall receive shares proportionate to their son's shares;

35. And so shall unmarried daughters.

36. Sons, who are equal in caste (to their father), shall receive equal shares.

37. A best part (the twentieth part of the inheritance, &c.) shall be given to the eldest, as his additional share.

38. If there are two sons by a Brâhmana and one by a Sûdra wife, the estate shall be divided into nine parts; and of these, the two sons of the Brâhmana wife shall take two parts, the one son of the Sûdra wife, a single part.

39. If there are two sons by a Sûdra, and one son by a Brâhmana wife, the estate shall be divided into six parts; and of these, the son of the Brâhmana wife shall take four parts, and the two sons of the Sûdra wife together shall take two parts.

40. Upon the same principles the shares have to be adjusted in other cases also.

[33. See XVII, 4 seq.

34. 'That is to say, a Brâhmana wife shall take four parts, a Kshatriya wife, three parts,' &c. (Nand.)

37. See Gaut. XXVIII, 5.]

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41. If (brothers), who after a previous division of the estate live again together as parceners, should make a second partition, the shares must be equal in that case, and the eldest has no right to an additional share.

42. What a brother has acquired by, his own efforts, without using the patrimony, he must not give up (to his brothers or other co-heirs), unless by his own free will; for it was gained by his own exertion.

43. And if a man recovers (a debt or other property), which could not before be recovered by his father, he shall not, unless by his own free will, divide it with his sons; for it is an acquisition made by himself.

44. Apparel, vehicles[1] (carriages or riding-horses), and ornaments (such as are usually worn according to the custom of the caste), prepared food, water (in a well or pool), females (slaves or mistresses of the deceased), property destined for pious uses or sacrifices, a common pasture-ground[2], and a book, are indivisible.

[42. The term svayamîhitalabdham has been translated according to Kullûka (on M. IX, 208). Nand. interprets this Sloka thus, 'What a brother has acquired by his own efforts, and what has been given to him, at his desire (by friends or others), he must not give up,' &c.

43. Here again I have followed Kullûka (on M. IX, 209), and deviated from Nand.'s interpretation, who renders this Sloka as follows, 'If a man recovers property, &c., or if he gains property by himself (by his learning or valour, &c.) . . . '

44. 1 The term pattra has been rendered above in accordance with the first interpretation proposed by Nand., and with Kullûka's interpretation (on M. IX, 219). Vigñânesvara (in his comment upon the same passage of Manu) refers it to written documents, such especially as relate to a debt to be paid to the deceased; and {footnote p. 75} this interpretation is mentioned by Nand. also. But there is no reason why an unliquidated demand should not be divided; and written documents are only twice referred to in the code of Manu (VIII, 168, and IX, 232).--2 in translating the term prakâra I have again followed Kullûka loc. cit.; see also Petersburg Dictionary s. v. Nand. interprets this term as denoting 'a path leading to or from the house.']

p. 75
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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

Postby admin » Tue Apr 27, 2021 11:20 pm

XIX.

1. He must not cause a member of a twice-born caste to be carried out by a Sûdra (even though he be a kinsman of the deceased);

2. Nor a Sûdra by a member of a twice-born caste.

3. A father and a mother shall be carried out by their sons (who are equal in caste to their parents).

4. But Sûdras must never carry out a member of a twice-born caste, even though he be their father.

5. Those Brâhmanas who carry out (or follow the corpse of) a (deceased) Brâhmana who has no relatives shall attain a mansion in heaven.

6. Those who have carried out a dead relative and burnt his corpse, shall walk round the pile from left to right, and then plunge into water, dressed in their clothes.

7. After having offered a libation of water to the deceased, they must place one ball of rice on blades of Kusa grass, (and this ceremony has to be repeated on each subsequent day, while the period of impurity lasts.)

8. Then, having changed their dress, they must

[XIX. 1. M. V, 104.--2. V. III, 26.--6 M.V, 103; Y. III, 26.--7, 8. Y. III, 7, 12, 13.--14-17. M. V, 73; Y. III, 16. 'Chapters XIX-XXXII contain the section on Âkâra, "Holy Usage." (Nand.)]

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bite Nimba leaves between their teeth, and having stepped upon the stone threshold, they must enter the house.

9. Then they must throw unbroken grains into the fire.

10. On the fourth day they must collect the bones that have been left.

11. And they must throw them into water from the Ganges.

12. As many bones of a man are contained in the water of the Ganges, so many thousands of years will he reside in heaven.

13. While the term of impurity lasts, they must continually offer a libation of water and a ball of rice to the deceased.

14. And they must eat food which has been bought, or which they have received unsolicited.

15. And they, must eat no meat.

16. And they must sleep on the ground.

17. And they must sleep apart.

18. When the impurity is over, they must walk forth from the village, have their beards shaved, and having cleansed themselves with a paste of sesamum, or with a paste of mustard-seed, they must change their dress and re-enter the house.

19. There, after reciting a propitiatory prayer, they must honour the Brâhmanas.

[13. The duration of the impurity varies according, to the caste &c. of the deceased. See XXII.

14. The particle ka, according to Nand., indicates that factitious salt must also not be used by them, as stated in a Smriti.

15. Nand. refers the particle ka to an implied prohibition to eat fish, which he quotes from a text of Gautama (not found in his Institutes).]

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20. The gods are invisible deities, the Brâhmanas are visible deities.

21. The Brâhmanas sustain the world.

22. It is by the favour of the Brâhmanas that the gods reside in heaven; a speech uttered by Brâhmanas (whether a curse or a benediction) never fails to come true.

23. What the Brâhmanas pronounce, when highly pleased (as, if they promise sons, cattle, wealth, or some other boon to a man), the gods will ratify; when the visible gods are pleased, the invisible gods are surely pleased as well.

24. The mourners, who lament the loss of a relative, shall be addressed by men gifted with a tranquil frame of mind with such consolatory speeches as I shall now recite to thee, O Earth, who art cherished to my, mind.
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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

Postby admin » Tue Apr 27, 2021 11:20 pm

XX.

1. The northern progress of the sun is a day, with the gods.

2. The southern progress of the sun is (with them) a night.

3. A year is (with them) a day and a night;

4. Thirty such are a month;

5. Twelve such months are a year.

6. Twelve hundred years of the gods are a Kaliyuga.

[XX. 1-3. M. I, 67.--6-9. M. I, 69, 70.--10. M. I, 71.--11. M. I, 79.--12-14. M. I, 72.--30. Y. III, 11.

6. The Kaliyuga itself consists of a thousand years only; but it is both preceded and followed by a twilight lasting a hundred years. It is similar with the three other Yugas. (Nand.)]

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7. Twice as many (or two thousand four hundred) are a Dvâpara (Yuga).

S. Thrice as many (or three thousand six hundred) are a Tretâ (Yuga).

9. Four times as many (or four thousand eight hundred) are a Krita Yuga.

10. (Thus) twelve thousand years make a Katuryuga (or period of four Yugas).

11. Seventy-one Katuryugas make a Manvantara (or period of a Manu).

12. A thousand Katuryugas make a Kalpa.

13. And that is a day of the forefather (Brahman).

14. His night also has an equal duration.

15. If so many such nights and days are put together that, reckoned by the month and by the year, they make up a period of a hundred years (of Brahman) it is called the age of one Brahman.

16. A day of Purusha (Vishnu) is equal in duration to the age of one Brahman.

17. When it ends, a Mahâkalpa is over.

18. The night following upon it is as long.

19. The days and nights of Purusha that have gone by are innumerable;

20. And so are those that will follow.

21. For Kâla (time) is without either beginning or end.

22. Thus it is, that in this Kâla (time), in whom there is nothing to rest upon, and who is everlasting, I can espy nothing created in which there is the least stability.

23. The sands in the Ganges and (the waters pouring down from the sky) when Indra sends rain

[21. 'Kâla means Vishnu in this place.' (Nand.)]

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can be counted, but not the number of 'Forefathers' (Brahmans) who have passed away.

24. In each Kalpa, fourteen chiefs of the gods (Indras) go to destruction, as many rulers of the world (kings), and fourteen Manus.

25. And so have many thousands of Indras and hundred thousands of princes of the Daityas (such as Hiranyakasipu, Hiranyâksha, and others) been destroyed by Kâla, (time). What should one say of human beings then?

26. 'Many royal Rishis too (such as Sagara), all of them renowned for their virtues, gods and Brahmanical Rishis (such as Kasyapas) have perished by the action of Kâla.

27. Those even who have the power of creating and annihilating in this world (the sun, moon, and other heavenly bodies) continually perish by the act of Kâla; for Kâla (time) is hard to overcome.

28. Every creature is seized upon by Kâla and carried into the other world. It is the slave of its actions (in a former existence). Wherefore then should you wail (on its death)?

29. Those who are born are sure to die, and those who have died are sure to be born again. This is inevitable, and no associate can follow a man (in his passage through mundane existence).

30. As mourners will not help the dead in this world, therefore (the relatives) should not weep, but perform the obsequies to the best of their power.

31. As both his good and bad actions will follow

[27. Here also Kâla, the god of time, is another name for Vishnu. (Nand.)

29. The same proverb occurs in the Râmâyana II, 84, 21, and in the Bhagavadgitâ II, 27. See Böhtlingk, Ind. Sprüche, 2383.]

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him (after death) like associates. what does it matter to a man whether his relatives mourn over him or no?

32. But as long as his relatives remain impure, the departed spirit finds no rest, and returns to visit (his relatives), whose duty it is to offer tip to him the funeral ball of rice and the water libation.

33. Till the Sapindîkarana[1] has been performed, the dead man remains a disembodied spirit (and is afflicted with hunger and thirst). Give rice and a jar with water to the man who has passed into the abode of disembodied spirits.

34. Having passed into the abode of the manes (after the performance of the Sapindîkarana) he enjoys in the shape of celestial food his portion of the Srâddha (funeral oblation); offer the Srâddha, therefore, to him who has passed into the abode of the manes.

35. Whether he has become a god, or stays in hell, or has entered the body of an animal, or of a human being, he will receive the Srâddha offered to him by his relatives.

36. The dead person and the performer of the Srâddha are sure to be benefitted by its performance. Perform the Srâddha always, therefore, abandoning bootless grief.

37. This is the duty which should be constantly discharged towards a dead person by his kinsmen; by mourning a man will neither benefit the dead nor himself.

38. Having seen that no help is to be had from this world, and that his relations are dying (one after

[33. 1 See XXI, 12.]

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the other), you must choose virtue for your only associate, O ye men.

39. Even were he to die with him, a kinsman is unable to follow his dead relative: all excepting his wife are forbidden to follow him on the path of Yama.

40. Virtue alone will follow him, wherever he, may go; therefore do your duty unflinchingly in this wretched world.

41. To-morrow's business should be done to-day, and the, afternoons business in the forenoon; for death will not wait, whether a person has done it or not.

42. While his mind is fixed upon his field, or traffic, or his house, or while his thoughts are engrossed by some other (beloved) object, death suddenly carries him away as his, prey, as a she-wolf catches a lamb.

43. Kâla (time) is no one's friend and no one's enemy: when the effect of his acts in a former existence, by which his present existence is caused, has expired, he snatches a man away forcibly.

44. He will not die before his time has come, even though he has been pierced by a thousand shafts; he will not live after his time is out, even though he has only been touched by the point of a blade of Kusa grass.

45. Neither drugs, nor magical formulas, nor

[39. This is an allusion to the custom of Sattee. (Nand.) See XXV, 14.

41. This proverb is found in the Mahâbhârata also (XII, 6536. &c.) See Böhtlingk, Ind. Sprüche, 6595.

43. This proverb is also found in the Mahâbhârata XI, 68, and Râmâyana IV, 18, 28, and other works. See Böhtlingk, 3194.

45. 'Neither will presents of gold (to Brâhmanas) or other such {footnote p 82} acts of liberality save him, as the use of the particle ka implies.' (Nand.)]

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burnt-offerings, nor prayers will save a man who is in the bonds of death or old age.

46. An impending evil cannot be averted even by a hundred precautions; what reason then for you to complain?

47. Even as a calf finds his mother among a thousand cows, an act formerly done is sure to find the perpetrator.

48. Of existing beings the beginning is unknown, the middle (of their career) is known, and the end again unknown; what reason then for you to complain?

49. As the body of mortals undergoes (successively the vicissitudes of) infancy, youth, and old age, even so will it be transformed into another body (hereafter); a sensible man is not mistaken about that.

50. As a man puts on new clothes in this world, throwing aside those which he formerly wore, even so the self of man puts on new bodies, which are in accordance with his acts (in a former life).

51. No weapons will hurt the self of man, no fire burn it, no waters moisten it, and no wind dry it up.

52. It is not to be hurt, not to be burnt, not to be moistened, and not to be dried up; it is imperishable, perpetual, unchanging, immovable, without beginning.

[47. This proverb is also found in the Mahâbhârata XII, 6760, Pañkatantra II, 134, and other works. See Böhtlingk, Ind. Sprüche, 5114.

48. This proverb is also found in the Bhagavadgitâ. II, 28. See Böhtlingk, Ind. Sprüche, 704.

50. Regarding transmigration, see below, XLIV, XLV.]

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53. It is (further) said to be immaterial, passing all thought, and immutable. Knowing the self of man to be such, you must not grieve (for the destruction of his body).
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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

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XXI.

1. Now then [1], (on the day) after the impurity is over, let him bathe duly (during the recitation of Mantras), wash his hands and feet duly, and sip water duly, (and having invited some Brâhmanas), as many as possible, who must cleanse themselves in the same way and turn their faces towards the north, let him bestow presents of perfumes, garlands, clothes and other things (a lamp, frankincense, and the like) upon them, and hospitably entertain them.

2. At the Ekoddishta (or Srâddha for one recently deceased) let him alter the Mantras[1] so as to refer to (the) one person (deceased)[2].

[XXI. 1-11. Âsv. IV, 7; Par. III, 10, 48-53; Sânkh. IV, 2; M. III, 247; Y. III, 250, 251, 255.--12-23. Sânkh. IV, 3; V, 9; Y. I, 252-254. Regarding the parallel passages of the Kâthaka Grihya-sûtra, see the Introduction.

1. 1 'Having said, in the previous Chapter (XX, 30), that "the obsequies should be performed," he now goes on to describe that part of the obsequies which has not yet been expounded, viz. the "first Srâddha."' (Nand.)

2. 1 The Mantras here referred to are those contained in the description of the Pârvana and other ordinary Srâddhas in Chapter LXXIII. Thus, the Mantra, 'This is your (share), ye manes' (LXXIII, 12, 13), has to be altered into, 'This is thy (share), father;' and so on. Devapâla, in his Commentary on the Kâthaka Grihya-sûtra, gives an accurate statement of all the modifications which the ordinary Mantras have to undergo at the Ekoddishta.-- 2 Nand. states that not only the Mantras, but the whole ritual should be modified. The nature of the latter modifications is stated by Yâgñavalkya loc. cit. and by Sânkhâyana loc. cit.]

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3. Close to the food left (by the Brâhmanas) let him offer a ball of rice, at the same time calling out his name and (that of) his race.

4. The Brâhmanas having taken food and having been honoured with a gift, let him offer, as imperishable food, water to the Brâhmanas, after having called out the name and Gotra of the deceased; and let him dig three trenches, each four Angulas in breadth, their distance from one another and their depth also measuring (four Angulas), and their length amounting to one Vitasti (or twelve Angulas).

5. Close by the trenches let him light three fires, and having added fuel to them, let him make three oblations (of boiled rice) in each (fire, saying),

6. 'Svadhâ and reverence to Soma, accompanied by the manes.

7. 'Svadhâ and reverence to Agni, who conveys the oblations addressed to the manes.

8. 'Svadhâ and reverence to Yama Angiras.'

9. Then let him offer balls of rice as (ordained) before (in Sûtra 3) on the three mounds of earth (adjacent to the three trenches).

10. After having filled the three trenches with

[3. This must be done with the Mantra, 'This is for you.' (Nand.) Regarding this Mantra, see note on Sûtra 10.

4. The 'imperishable water,' akshayyodakam, derives its name from the Mantra, with which it is delivered, expressing the wish that the meal 'may give imperishable satisfaction' (akshayyam astu). This is the explanation which Nand. gives of the term akshayyodakam in his gloss on LXXIII, 27. In his comment on the present Sûtra he says that the 'imperishable water' must be presented with the (further?) Mantras, 'Let arrive' and 'Be satisfied.' See Y. I, 251 Sânkh. IV, 2, 6.

10. The whole Mantra runs as follows, 'This is for you, father,

{footnote p. 85 and for those after you.' But in the present case (at a 'first Srâddha') the name of the deceased has to be substituted for the word 'father.' (Nand.) Although Nand. quotes this Mantra from Âsvalâyana's Srauta-sûtra, it seems probable that the author of the Vishnu-sûtra took it from the Kâthaka (IX, 6 of the Berlin MS.)] {p. 85}

rice, sour milk, clarified butter, honey, and meat, let him mutter (the Mantra), 'This is for you.'

11. This ceremony he must repeat monthly, on the day of his death.

12. At the close of the year let him give food to the Brâhmanas, after having fed the gods first, in honour of the deceased and of his father, grandfather, and great-grandfather.

13. At (the Ekoddishta belonging to) this ceremony let him perform the burnt-offering, the invitation, and (the offering of) water for washing the feet.

14. Then he must pour the water for washing the feet and the Arghya (water libation) destined for the deceased person into the three vessels containing the water for washing the feet, and the three other vessels containing the Arghya of his three ancestors. At the same time he must mutter

[11. The Sûtras following next refer to the Sapindîkarana or 'ceremony of investing a dead person with the rights of a Sapinda.'

12. 'He must invite six Brâhmanas altogether, four as representatives of the deceased person and of his three ancestors, two for the offering to be addressed to the Visvedevâs. The Brâhmana, who represents the deceased person, must be fed according to the rule of the Ekoddishta, and the three Brâhmanas, who represent the three ancestors, must be fed according to the rule of the Pârvana Srâddha, as laid down in Chapter LXXXIII.' (Nand.)

13. The import of this Sûtra is, that those three ceremonies must not be omitted in the present case, as is otherwise the case at an Ekoddishta. (Nand.)

14. 1 The following is a translation of the whole of this Mantra, {footnote p. 85} which is quoted at full in the Kâthaka Grihya-sûtra, 'May Prithivî (the earth), Vâyu (air), Agni (fire), and Pragâpati (the lord of creatures) unite thee with thy ancestors, and way you ancestors unite with him.' Regarding the particular ancestors implied here, see below, LXXV.--2 Rig-veda X, 191, 4.]

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(the two Mantras), 'May earth unite thee [1],' and 'United your minds[2].'

15. Near the leavings he must make (and put) four balls of rice.

16. Let him show out the Brâhmanas, after they have sipped water duly and have been presented by him with their sacrificial fee.

17. Then let him knead together the ball of the deceased person with the three balls (of the three ancestors), as (he has mixed up) his water for washing the feet and his Arghya (with theirs).

18. Let him do the same (with the balls placed) near the three trenches.

19. Or (see Sûtra 12) the Sapindîkarana must be performed on the thirteenth, after the monthly Srâddha has been performed on the twelfth[1] day.

20. For Sûdras it should be performed on the twelfth day, without Mantras.

21. If there be an intercalary month in that year, he must add one day to the (regular days of the) monthly Srâddha.

22. The ceremony of investing women with the relationship of Sapinda has to be performed in the same manner. Later, he must perform a Srâddha every year, while he lives, (on the anniversary of the deceased relative's death)[1].

[19. 1 I.e. on that day on which the period of impurity expires. (Nand.)

22. 1 The meaning is, that he must give him food and water, as prescribed in 23. (Nand.)]

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23. He, for whom the ceremony of investing him with the, relationship of Sâpinda is performed after the lapse of a year, shall be honoured by the gift, (on each day) of that year, of food and a jar with water to a Brâhmana.
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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

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XXII.

1. The impurity of a Brâhmana caused by the birth or death of Sapindas lasts ten days.

2. In the case of a Kshatriya (it lasts) twelve days.

3. In the case of a Vaisya (it lasts) fifteen days.

4. In the case of a Sûdra (it lasts) a month.

5. The relationship of Sapinda ceases with the seventh man (in descent or ascent).

6. During the period of impurity oblations (to the Visvedevâs), gifts and receiving of alms, and study have to be interrupted.

[XXII. 1-4. M. V, 83; Y. III, 18, 22; Âpast. I, 5, 16, 18; Gaut. XIV, 1-4.--5. M. V, 60; Âpast. II, 6, 15, 2; Gaut. XIV, 13.--25. M. V, 66; Y. III, 20; Gaut. XIV, 17.--27. Y. III, 23; Gaut. XIV, 44.--28. M. V, 69; Y. III, I.--29, 30. M. V, 67; Y. III, 23.--35. M. V, 79; Y. III, 20; Gaut. XIV, 6.--36, 37. Gaut. XIV, 7, 8.--38. M. V, 79; Y. III, 20.--39-41. M. V, 75, 76; Y. III, 21; Gaut. XIV, 19.--42. M. V, 80; Y. III, 24.--43. Y. III, 25.--44. M. V, 80, 81; Y. III, 24; Gaut. XIV, 20.--45. M. V, 82; Y. III, 25.--46. M. V, 81; Gaut. XIV, 20.--47. M. V, 89; Y. III, 21, 27; Gaut. XIV, 10-12.--48-55. M. V, 93-95; Y. III, 27-29.--48, 49. Gaut. XIV, 45, 46.--56. M. V, 89; Y. III, 21; Gaut. XIV, 12.--63-65. M. V, 103; Y. III, 26; Gaut. XIV, 31--67. M. V, 144--69. M. V, 85; Y. III, 30; Âpast. II, 1, 2, 8, 9; Gaut. XIV, 30.--70. M. V, 87.--75. M. V, 145; Y. I, 196; Âpast. I, 5, 16, 14; Gaut. I, 37.--81. M. V, 135.--82. M. XI, 95.--84. M. XI, 96.--85. M. V, 65.--86. M. V, 91.--87. M. V, 88.--88-93. M. V, 105-110; Y. III, 31-34.]

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7. No one must eat the food of one impure (unless he be a Sapinda of his).

8. He who eats but once the food of Brâhmanas or others, while they are impure, will remain impure as long as they.

9. When the (period of) impurity is over, he must perform a penance (as follows):

10. If a twice-born man has eaten (the food) of a member of his own caste, while the latter was impure, he must approach a river and plunge into it, mutter the (hymn of) Aghamarshana[1] three times, and, after having emerged from the water, must mutter the Gâyatrî[2] one thousand and eight times.

11. If a Brâhmana has eaten the food of a Kshatriya, while the latter was impure, he is purified by performing the same penance and by fasting (on the previous day).

12. (The same penance is ordained for) a Kshatriya who has eaten the food of a Vaisya, while the latter was impure.

13. (The same penance is ordained for) a Brâhmana (who has eaten the food) of an impure Vaisya; but he must fast besides during the three (previous) days.

14. If a Kshatriya or a Vaisya (have eaten the food) of a Brâhmana or a Kshatriya respectively, who were impure, they must approach a river and mutter the Gâyatrî five hundred times.

15. A Vaisya, who has eaten the food of a Brâhmana, while the latter was impure, must (go to a river and) mutter the Gâyatrî one hundred and eight times.

[10. 1 Rig-veda X, 190.-- 2 Rig-veda III, 62, 10.]

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16. A twice-born man (who has eaten the food), of a Sûdra, while the latter was impure must (go to a river and) perform the Prâgâpatya (penance).

17. A Sûdra (who has eaten the food) of an impure man of a twice-born caste must bathe (in a river).

18. A Sûdra (who has eaten the food) of another Sûdra, while the latter was impure, must bathe (in a river) and drink Pañkagavya.

19. Wives and slaves in the direct order of the castes (i. e. who do not belong to a higher caste than their lord) remain impure as long as their lord.

20. If their lord is dead (or if they live apart from him, they remain impure) as long as (members of) their own caste.

21. If Sapindas of a higher caste (are born or have died) the period of impurity has for their lower caste relations the same duration as for members of the higher caste.

22. A Brâhmana (to whom) Sapindas of the Kshatriya, Vaisya, or Sûdra castes (have been born or have died) becomes pure within six nights, or three nights, or one night, respectively.

23. A Kshatriya (to whom Sapindas of the) Vaisya or Sûdra castes (have been born or have died) is purified within six and three nights, respectively.

24. A Vaisya (to whom Sapindas of the) Sûdra caste (have been born or have died) becomes pure within six nights.

[16. Regarding the Prâgâpatya penance, see below, XLVI, 10.

18. The Pañkagavya, or fire productions of a cow, consists of milk, sour milk, butter, urine, and cow-dung.]

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25. In a number of nights equal to the number of months after conception, a woman is purified from an abortion.

26. The relatives of children that have died immediately after birth (before the cutting of the navel-string), and of still-born children, are purified at once.

27. (The relatives) of a child that has died before having teethed (are also purified) at once.

28. For him no ceremony with fire is performed, nor offering of water.

29 . For a child that has teethed but has not yet been shorn, purity is obtained in one day and night;

30. For a child that has been shorn but not initiated, in three nights;

31. From that time forward (i. e. for initiated persons) in the time that has been mentioned above (in Sûtra 1 seq.)

32. In regard to women, the marriage ceremony is (considered as their) initiation.

33. For married women there is no impurity for the relatives on the father's side.

34. If they happen to stay at their father's house during childbirth or if they die there, (their distant relatives are purified) in one night, and their parents (in three nights).

35. If, while the impurity, caused by a birth lasts,

[26. 'The meaning is, that the relatives of such children do not become impure.' (Nand.)

28. 'The meaning is, that he must not be burnt.', (Nand.)

32. The import of this Sûtra is this, that the full period of impurity is ordained on the death of women also, in case they were married, as the marriage ceremony takes with them the place of the initiation of males.]

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another impurity caused by childbirth intervenes, it ends when the former impurity terminates.

36. If it intervenes when one night (only of the period of impurity remains, the fresh impurity terminates) two days later.

37. If it intervenes when one watch (only of the last night remains, the impurity ends) three days later.

38. The same rule is observed if a relative dies during a period of impurity caused by the death (of another relative).

39. If a man, while staying in another country, hears of the birth or death (of a relative), he becomes purified after the lapse of the period still wanting (to the ten days).

40. if the period of impurity, but not a whole year, has elapsed, (he is purified in one night.)

41. After that time (he is purified) by a bath.

42. If his teacher or maternal grandfather has died, (he is purified) in three nights.

43. Likewise, if sons other than a son of the body have been born or have died, and if wives who had another husband before have been delivered of a child or have died.

[40. 'Although the general term impurity is used in this Sûdra, it refers to impurity caused by a death only.' (Nand.)

42. 'The use of the particle ka implies, that this rule extends to the death of a maternal grandmother, as ordained in the Shadasîtismriti.' (Nand.)

43. The twelve kinds of sons have been enumerated above, XV, 2-27. Of these, the three species of adopted sons, the son bought, and the son cast off cannot cause impurity, because their sonship dates from a period subsequent to their birth; but their offspring may cause impurity. (Nand.) Parapûrvâs, or 'wives who had another husband before,' are either of the punarbhû or of the svairinî kind. (Nand.) See XV, 8, 9, and Nârada XII, 46-54.]

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44. (He becomes pure) in one day, if the wife or son of his teacher, or his Upâdhyâya (sub-teacher[1]), or his maternal uncle, or his father-in-law, or a brother-in-law, or a fellow-student, or a pupil has died.

45. The impurity has the same duration (as in the cases last mentioned), if the king of that country in which he lives has died.

46. Likewise, if a man not his Sapinda has died at his house.

47. The relatives of those who have been killed by (falling from) a precipice, or by fire, or (have killed themselves by) fasting, or (have been killed by) water, in battle, by lightning, or by the king (on account of a crime committed by them), do not become impure;

48. Nor do kings (become impure) while engaged in the discharge of their ditties (such as the protection of their subjects, the trial of lawsuits, &c.)

49. Devotees fulfilling a vow (also do not become impure);

50. Nor do sacrificers engaged in a sacrificial ceremony;

51. Nor workmen (such as carpenters or others) while engaged in their work;

52. Nor those who perform the king's orders, if the king wishes them to be pure.

53. Nor (can impurity arise) during the installation of the monument of a deity, nor during

[44. 'See XXIX, 2.

49. The term vratin, 'a devotee fulfilling a vow,' may be referred to students as well, who, however, become impure by the death of their parents. (Nand.)

53. A marriage ceremony is said to have actually begun when the Nândîmukha, or Srâddha preliminary to marriage, has taken place. (Nand.)]

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a marriage ceremony, if those ceremonies have actually begun;

54. Nor when the whole country is afflicted with a calamity;

55. Nor in times if great public distress (such as an epidemic or a famine).

56. Suicides and outcasts do not cause impurity or receive offerings of water.

57. On the death-day of an outcast a female slave of his must upset a pot with water with her feet, (saying, 'Drink thou this.')

58. He who cuts the rope by which (a suicide) has hung himself, becomes pure by performing the Taptakrikkhra ('hot penance').

59. So does he who has been (in any way) concerned with the funeral of a suicide;

60. And he who sheds tears for such.

61. He who sheds tears for any deceased person together with the relations of the latter (becomes pure) by a bath.

62. If he has done so, before the bones (of the deceased) had been collected, (he becomes pure) by bathing with his apparel.

63. If a member of a twice-born caste has followed the corpse of a dead Sûdra, he must go to a river, and having plunged into it, mutter the Aghamarshana three times, and then, after having emerged from it, mutter the Gâyatrî one thousand and eight times.

64. (If he has followed) the corpse of a dead member of a twice-born caste, (the same expiation

[56. Giving or taking alms does not effect impurity in such cases. (Nand.)]

{p.94}

is ordained, but he must mutter the Gâyatrî) one hundred and eight times only.

65. If a Sûdra has followed the corpse of a member of a twice-born caste, he must bathe.

66. Members of any caste, who have come near to the smoke of a funeral pile, must bathe.

67. (Bathing is also ordained) after sexual intercourse, bad dreams (of having been mounted upon an ass, or the like), when blood has issued from the throat, and after having vomited or been purged;

68. Also, after tonsure of the head;

69. And after having touched one who has touched a corpse (a carrier of a corpse), or a woman in her courses, or a Kândâla (or other low-caste persons, such as Svapakas), or a sacrificial post;

70. And (after having touched) the corpse of a five-toed animal, except of those kinds that may be eaten[1], or their bones still moist with fat.

71. In all such ablutions he must not wear his (defiled) apparel without having washed it before.

72. A woman in her courses becomes pure after four days by bathing.

73. A woman in her courses having touched another woman in her courses, who belongs to a lower caste than she does, must not eat again till she is purified.

74. If she has (unawares) touched a woman of her own caste, or of a higher caste than her own, she becomes pure at once, after having taken a bath.

75. Having sneezed, having slept, having eaten,

[70. 1 See LI, 6.

75. Nand. argues from a passage of Yâgñavalkya (I, 196) and from texts of Âpastamba (not found in his Dharma-sûtra) and of Praketas, that the particle ka refers to repeated sipping of water.]

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going to eat or to study, having drunk (water), having bathed, having spat, having put on his garment, having walked on the high road, having discharged urine or voided excrements, and having touched the bones no longer moist with fat of a five-toed animal, he must sip water;

76. Likewise, if he has talked to a Kândâla or to a Mlekkha (barbarian).

77. If the lower part of his body, below the navel, or one of his fore-arms, has been defiled by one of the impure excretions of the body, or by one of the spirituous liquors or of the intoxicating drinks (hereafter mentioned), he is purified by cleansing the limb in question with earth and water.

78. If another part of his body (above the navel) has been defiled, (he becomes pure by cleansing it) with earth and water, and by bathing.

79. If his mouth has been defiled (he becomes pure) by fasting, bathing, and drinking Pañkagavya;

80. Likewise, if his lip has been defiled.

81. Adeps, semen, blood, dandruff, urine, fæces, earwax, nail-parings, phlegm, tears, rheum, and sweat, are the twelve impure excretions of the body.

82. Distilled from sugar, or from the blossoms of the Madhûka. (Mâdhvi wine[1]), or from flour: these three kinds of spirituous liquor have to be discerned; as one, so are all: none of them must be tasted by the twice-born.

83. Again, distilled from the blossoms of the

[76. Regarding the meaning of Mlekkha, see LXXXIV, 4.

82, 83. 1 How the Mâhvî, Mâdhûka, and Mâdhvîka wines differ from one another, does not become clear. Nand. explains the term Mâdhûka as denoting an extract from Madhûka blossoms (bassia latifolia), and Mâdhvî and Mâdhvîka as two different preparations from Madhu. Now Madhu might be rendered by 'honey;' {footnote p. 96} but Kullûka, in his comment on the term Mâdhvî (M. XI, 95), states expressly that it means 'Madhûka blossom,' and Hârîta (as quoted by Nand.) says that Mâdhûka, Mâdhvî and Mâdhvîka are a preparations from Madhu, i.e. Madhûka blossoms. Maireya, according to the lexicographer Vâkaspati, as quoted by Nand., is an intoxicating drink prepared from the flowers of the grislea tormentosa, mixed with sugar, grain, and water, or, according to the reading of the Sabdakalpadruma (see the Petersburg Dictionary) with sorrel.]

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Madhûka tree (Madhûka wine), from molasses, from the fruits of the Tanka (or Kapittha tree), of the jujube tree, of the Khargûra tree, or of the breadfruit tree, from wine-grapes, from Madhûka blossoms (Mâdhvîka wine), Maireya, and the sap of the cocoanut tree:

84. These ten intoxicating drinks are unclean for a Brâhmana; but a Kshatriya and a Vaisya commit no wrong in touching (or drinking) them.

85. A pupil having performed (on failure of other mourners) the funeral of his dead Guru, becomes pure after ten nights, like those (kinsmen) who carry out the dead.

86. A student does not infringe the rules of his order by carrying out, when dead, his teacher, or his sub-teacher, or his father, or his mother, or his Guru.

87. A student must not offer a libation of water to a deceased relative (excepting his parents) till the term of his studentship has expired; but if, after its expiration, he offers a libation of water, he becomes pure after three nights.

88. Sacred knowledge (see 92), religious austerities (see go), fire (see XXIII, 33), holy food (Pañkagavya), earth (see 91), the mind, water (see 91), smearing (with cow-dung and the like, see XXIII, 56), air (see XXIII, 40, (the morning and evening prayers and other) religious acts, the sun

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(see XXIII, 40), and time (by the lapse of the ten days of impurity and the like) are purifiers of animate objects.

89. Of all pure things, pure food is pronounced the most excellent; for he who eats pure food only, is truly pure, not he who is only purified with earth and water.

90. By forgiveness of injuries the learned are purified; by liberality, those who have done forbidden acts; by muttering of prayers, those who have sinned in secret; by religious austerities, those who best know the Veda.

91. By water and earth is purified what should be purified (because it has been defiled); a river is purified by its current (carrying away all slime and mud); a woman, whose thoughts have been impure, by her menses,; and the chief among the twice-born (the Brâhmanas), by renouncing the world.

92. Bodies (when defiled) are purified by water; the mind is purified (from evil thoughts) by truth; the soul (is purified or freed from worldly vanity) by sacred learning and austerities; the understanding (when unable to resolve some doubt), by knowledge.

93. Thus the directions for purifying animate bodies have been declared to thee; hear now the rules for cleaning all sorts of inanimate objects.
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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

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XXIII.

1. What has been defiled by the impure excretions of the body, by spirits, or by intoxicating drinks, is impure in the highest degree.

[XXIII. 2. Âpast. I. 5, 17, 10; Gaut. I, 29.--4. Y. I. 185; Gaut. I. 29, 31.--5. M. V, 123; Gaut. I, 34-7-11. M. V, 111, 112, 116, 117; Y. I, 182, 183.--7, 8. Gaut. I, 29, 30.--13-{footnote p. 98} 15. M. V, 118, 119; Y. I, 184, 182.--16. M. V, 122.--17. M. V, 126; Y. I, 191.--18. M. V, 118.--19-22. M. V, 120; Y. I, 186, 187.--25, 26. M. V, 114; Y. I, 190.--27. M. V, 115; Y. I, 185; Âpast. I, 5, 17, 12; Gaut. I, 29.--28. Y. I, 185--30. M. V, 115; Y. I, 190.--33. M. V, 122; Y. I, 187.--38, 39. M. V, 125, 126.--38. Y. I, 189.--40. Y. I, 194.--41. Y. I, 197.--47-52. M. V, 127-133.--53-55. M. V, 141-143.--53. Y. I, 195; Âpast. I, 5, 16, 12; Gaut. I, 38, 41.--55. Gaut. I, 28.--56, 57. M. V, 122, 124; Y. I, 188.]

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2. All vessels made of iron (or of other metals or of composition metals such as bell-metal and the like), which are impure in the highest degree, become pure by exposure to the fire.

3. Things made of gems or stones or water-shells, (such as conch-shells or mother-of-pearl, become pure) by digging them into the earth for seven days.

4. Things made of horns (of rhinoceroses or other animals), or of teeth (of elephants or other animals), or of bone (of tortoises or other animals, become pure) by planing them.

5. Vessels made of wood or earthenware must be thrown away.

6. Of a garment, which has been defiled in the highest degree, let him cut off that part which, having been washed, is changed in colour.

7. Objects made of gold, silver, water-shells, or gems, when (they are only defiled by leavings of food, and the like, and) not smeared (with greasy substances), are cleansed with water.

8. So are stone cups and vessels used at Soma-sacrifices (when not smeared).

[7. The defilement in the highest degree having been treated of in the six preceding Sûtras, he now goes on to discuss the various cases of lesser defilement. (Nand.)

8-11. Regarding the shape of the sacrificial implements mentioned {footnote p. 99} in these Sûtras, see the plates in Professor Max Müller's paper, 'Die Todtenbestattung bei den Brahmanen,' in the journal of the German Oriental Society, IX, LXXVIII-LXXX.]

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9. Sacrificial pots, ordinary wooden ladles, and wooden ladles with two collateral excavations (used for pouring clarified butter on a sacrificial fire) are cleansed with hot water (when not smeared).

10. Vessels used for oblations (of butter, fruits, and the like are cleansed) by rubbing them with the hand (with blades of Kusa grass) at the time of the sacrifice.

11. Sword-shaped pieces of wood for stirring the boiled rice, winnowing baskets, implements used for preparing grain, pestles and mortars (are cleansed) by sprinkling water over them.

12. So are beds, vehicles, and seats (when defiled even by the touch of a Sûdra)[1].

13. Likewise, a large quantity (of anything).

14. Grain, skins (of antelopes, &c.), ropes, woven cloth, (fans and the like) made of bamboo, thread, cotton, and clothes (which have only just come from the manufactory, or which are dyed with saffron and will not admit of washing for that reason, are cleansed in the same way, when there is a large quantity of them);

15. Also, pot-herbs, roots, fruits, and flowers;

16. Likewise, grass, firewood, dry cow-dung (used as fuel), and leaves (of the Madhûka, Palâsa, or other trees).

[12. 1 This Sûtra and the following ones relate to defilement caused by touch. (Nand.)

13. 'I. e. more than one man can carry, as Baudhâyana says.' (Nand.)

14. The use of the particle ka implies that resin and other objects mentioned by Devala must be included in this enumeration. (Nand.)]

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17. The same (when smeared with excrements and the like, are cleansed) by washing

18. And so (have the objects mentioned in Sûtra 14, if defiled without being smeared, to be cleansed by washing), when there is only a small quantity of them;

19. Silk and wool, with saline earths;

20. (Blankets or plaids) made of the hair of the mountain-goat, with the fruits of the soap plant;

21. Clothes made of the bark of trees[1], with Bèl fruit;

22. Linen cloth, with white sesamum;

23. Likewise, things made of horns, bone, or teeth;

24. (Rugs or covers) made of deer's hair, with lotus-seeds;

25. Vessels of copper, bell-metal, tin, and lead, with acidulated water;

26. Vessels of white copper and iron, with ashes;

27. Wooden articles, by planing;

28. Vessels made of fruits (such as cocoa-nuts, bottle-gourds, and Be] fruits), by (rubbing them with) cows' hair.

29. Many things in a heap, by sprinkling water over them;

30. Liquids (such as clarified butter, milk, &c.), by straining them;

[17. 'All the objects mentioned in Sûtras 12-16 must be washed, but so as to avoid injuring them, in case they have been defiled by excrements or other such impure substances.' (Nand.)

21. The term amsupatta has been rendered in accordance with Nand.'s interpretation, which agrees with Vigñânesvara's (on Y. I, 186). Kullûka (on M. V, 120; see the Petersburg Dictionary) appears to refer it to two different sorts of clothes.

30-37. These Sûtras relate to defilement caused by insects, &c. (Nand.)]

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31. Lumps of sugar and other preparations from the sugar-cane[1], stored up in large quantities (exceeding a Drona) and kept in one's own house[2], by water and fire[3];

32. All sorts of salt, in the same manner;

33. Earthern vessels (if smeared with excrements and the like), by a second burning;

34. Images of gods (if smeared), by cleansing them in the same way as the material (of which they are made is generally cleansed), and then installing them anew (in their former place).

35. Of undressed grain let him remove so much only as has been defiled, and the remainder let him pound in a mortar and wash.

36. A quantity of prepared grain not exceeding a Drona is not spoiled by being defiled (by dogs, crows, and other unclean animals).

37. He must throw away thus much of it only as has been defiled, and must sprinkle over the remainder water, into which a piece of gold has been dropped, and over which the Gâyatrî has been pronounced, and must hold it tip before a goat (or before a horse) and before the fire.

[31. 1 Such as raw sugar, candied sugar, &c.--2 If there is no large quantity of them, they require to be sprinkled with water only; and if they are kept elsewhere than in the house, as if they are exposed for sale in a fair, they require no purification at all.--3 They must be encircled with fire, and sprinkled with water afterwards. (Nand.)

32. Nand. mentions as the main species of salt, rock-salt, sea-salt, sochal-salt, and Sâmbhala-salt. The last term refers perhaps to salt coming from the famous salt-lake of Sâkambharî or Shambar in Râgputana.

37. 'A quantity less than a Drona having been defiled must be thrown away, as stated by Parâsara.' (Nand.) One Drona = 4 Âdhakas = 1024 Mushtis or handfuls. The meaning of Âdhaka, {footnote p. 102} however, according to Nand.'s observation, varies in different countries. See Colebrooke's Essays, 1, 533 seq.]

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38. That (food) which has been nibbled by a bird (except a crow or other such birds that must not be eaten or touched), smelt at by a cow, sneezed on, or defiled by (human) hair, or by insects or worms, is purified by earth scattered over it.

39. As long as the scent or moisture, caused by any unclean substance, remains on the defiled object, so long must earth and water be constantly applied in all purifications of inanimate objects.

40. A goat and a horse are pure, as regards their mouths, but not a cow, nor the impure excretions of a man's body; roads are purified by the rays of the moon and of the sun, and by the winds.

41. Mire and water upon the high road, that has been touched by low-caste people, by dogs, or by crows, as well as buildings constructed with burnt bricks, are purified by the wind.

42. For everybody let him (the Âkârya or spiritual guide) carefully direct the performance of purificatory ceremonies, with earth and water, when he has been defiled in the highest degree.

43. Stagnant water, even if a single cow only has quenched her thirst with it, is pure, unless it is quite filled with (hair or other) unclean objects; it is the same with water upon a rock (or upon the top of a mountain).

44. From a well, in which a five-toed animal (whether man or beast, but not one of the five-toed

[38. in explanation of the term amedhya, 'unclean substance,' Nand. quotes the following passage of Devala, 'Human bones, a corpse, excrements, semen, urine, the menstrual discharge, adeps, sweat, the rheum of the eyes, phlegm, and spirituous liquors are called unclean substances.']

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animals whose flesh may be eaten), has died, or which has been defiled in the highest degree, he must take out all the waters and dry up the remainder with a cloth.

45. If it is a well constructed with burnt bricks (or stones,) he must light a fire and afterwards throw Pañkagavya into it, when fresh water is coming forth.

46. For small reservoirs of water and for ponds the same mode of purification has been prescribed as for wells, O Earth; but large tanks (excepting Tîrthas) are not defiled (by dead animals, &c.)

47. The gods have declared, as peculiar to Brâhmanas, three causes effecting purity: if an (existing) impurity has not been perceived by them; if they, sprinkle the object (supposed to be impure) with water; and if they commend it, in doubtful cases, with their speech, (saying, 'This or that shall be pure.')

48. The hand of a (cook or other) artizan, things exposed for sale in a shop (though they may, have passed through the hands of many customers), food given to a Brâhmana (by other Brâhmanas, or by, Kshatriyas, &c., but not by Sûdras), and all manufactories or mines (of sugar, salt, and the like, but not distilleries of spirituous liquor), are always pure.

49. The mouth of a woman is always pure (for the purpose of a kiss); a bird is pure on the fall of fruit (which he has pecked); a sucking calf (or child), on the flowing of the milk; a dog, on his catching the deer.

50. Flesh of an animal which has been killed by dogs is pronounced pure; and so is that of an

[44. 1 See LI, 6.]

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animal slain by other carnivorous creatures (such as tigers) or by huntsmen such as Kandâlas (Svapakas, Kshattris, or other low-caste men).

51. The cavities above the navel must be considered as pure; those below it are impure; and so are all excretions that fall from the body.

52. Flies, saliva dropping from the mouth, a shadow, a cow, an elephant, a horse, sun-beams, dust, the earth, air, fire, and a cat are always pure.

53. Such drops as fall from the mouth of a man upon any part of his body do not render it impure, nor do hairs of the beard that enter his mouth, nor remnants of his food adhering to his teeth.

54. Drops which trickle on the feet of a man holding water for others to sip it, are considered as equal to waters springing from the earth: by them he is not soiled.

55. He who is anyhow touched by anything impure, while holding things in his hands, is purified by sipping water, without laying the things on the ground.

[51. There are, according to Indian views, nine cavities or apertures of the body: the mouth, the two ears, the two nostrils, the two eyes, and the organs of excretion and generation. The two last are impure, the rest are pure.

55. Nand. and Kullûka (on M. V, 143) explain that hasta, 'hand,' here means 'arm,' as it would be impossible to sip water without using the hand. The former adds that, if the things are being carried with the hand, they must be placed in the cavity formed by the fore-arm. He refutes the opinion of the 'Eastern Commentators,' who, arguing from another Smriti, contend that the things have to be placed on the ground and to be sprinkled with water; and he further tries to account for the seemingly contradictory rules propounded by Vâsishtha (Benares ed., III, 43) and Gautama (I, 28) by explaining that a large quantity of things should be laid on the ground, and a small quantity placed upon {footnote p. 105} some other limb, and further, that food should always be placed on the ground, but that a garment, a stick, and the like should be kept in the hand. Compare Dr. Bühler's note on Gaut. loc. cit. It may be remarked, incidentally, that Nand. quotes the reading ukkhishto 'nidhâya in the passage of Gautama referred to.]

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56. A house is purified by scouring it with a broom and plastering the ground with cow-dung, and a manuscript or book by sprinkling water over it. Land is cleansed by scouring, by plastering it with cow-dung,

57. By sprinkling[1], by scraping, by burning, or by letting cows (or goats) pass (a day and a night) on it. Cows are auspicious purifiers, upon cows depend the worlds,

58. Cows alone make sacrificial oblations possible (by producing sacrificial butter), cows take away every sin. The urine of cows, their dung, clarified butter, milk, sour milk, and Gorokanâ:

59. Those six excellent (productions) of a cow are always propitious. Drops of water falling from the horns of a cow are productive of religious merit, and have the power to expiate all sins (of those who bathe in, or rub themselves with, them).

60. Scratching the back of a cow destroys all guilt, and giving her to eat procures exaltation in heaven.

[56, 'The term pustaka refers to MSS. or books, whether made of palm leaves, or of prepared hemp, or of prepared reeds (sara).' (Nand.) It may be that Nand. means by the last term a sort of paper, though paper is usually called by its Arabian name (kâgad) in Indian works. See regarding the materials used for writing in ancient India, Burnell's Palæography, p. 84 seq. (2nd ed.)

57. 1 The term seka, 'sprinkling,' either refers to the earth being sprinkled by rain, or to Pañkagavya being poured over it. (Nand.)

58. Gorokanâ is a bright yellow pigment which is said to be prepared from the urine or bile of a cow.]

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61. In the urine of cows dwells the Ganges, prosperity (dwells) in the dust (rising from their couch), good fortune in cow-dung, and virtue in saluting them. Therefore should they be constantly saluted.
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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

Postby admin » Tue Apr 27, 2021 11:21 pm

XXIV.

1. Now a Brâhmana may take four wives in the direct order of the (four) castes;

2. A Kshatriya, three;

3. A Vaisya, two;

4. A Sûdra, one only.

5. Among these (wives), if a man marries one of his own caste, their hands shall be joined.

6. In marriages with women of a different class, a Kshatriya bride must hold an arrow in her hand;

7. A Vaisya bride,. a whip;

8. A Sûdra bride, the skirt of a mantle.

9. No one should marry a woman belonging to the same Gotra, or descended from the same Rishi ancestors, or from the same Pravaras.

[XXIV. 1-4. Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 21, 74; M. III, 12-14; Y. I, 56, 57.--5. M. III, 43; Y. I, 62.--6-8. M. III, 44; Y. I, 62.--9, 10. Weber loc. cit. 75; M. III, 5; Y. I, 53; Âpast. II, 5, 11, 15, 16; Gaut. IV, 2-5.--12-16. M. III, 8.--12. Y. I, 53--17-26. M. III, 20, 21, 27-34; Y. I, 58-61; Âpast. II, 5, 11, 17--II, 5; 22, 2; Gaut. IV, 6-13.--27, 28. M. III, 23-26, 39; Âpast. II, 5, 12, 3; Gaut. IV, 14, 15.--29-32. M. III, 37, 38; Y. I, 58-60; Gaut. IV, 30-33.--38. M. V, 151; Y. I, 63.--39- Y. I, 63.--40. M. IX, 90; Y. I, 64.--41. M. IX, 93.

1. This chapter opens the section on Samskâras or sacraments, i. e. the ceremonies on conception and so forth. (Nand.) This section forms the second part of the division treating of Akira. See above, XIX.

9. According to Nand., the term Gotra refers to descent from one of the seven Rishis, or from Agastya as the eighth; the term Ârsha (Rishi ancestors), to descent from the Ârshtishenas or Mudgalas, {footnote p. 107} or from some other subdivision of the Bhrigus or Ângirasas, excepting the Gâmadagnas, Gautamas, and Bhâradvâgas; and the term Pravara, to the Mantrakrits of one's own race, i. e. the ancestors invoked by a Brâhmana at the commencement of a sacrifice. Nand.'s interpretation of the last term is no doubt correct; but it seems preferable to take Gotra in the sense of 'family name' (laukika gotra), and to refer the term samânârsha to descent from the same Rishi (vaidika gotra). See Dr. Bühler's notes on Âpast. II, 5, 11, 15, and Gaut. XVIII, 6; Max Müller, History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, pp. 379-388; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 69-41. If ârsha were connected with pravara, the whole compound samânârshapravarâ would denote 'a woman descended from the same Rishi '= samanârshâ, Y. I, 53, and samânapravarâ, Gaut. XVIII, 6.]

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10. Nor (should he marry) one descended from his maternal ancestors within the fifth, or from his paternal ancestors within the seventh degree;

11. Nor one of a low family (such as an agriculturer's, or an attendant of the king's family);

12. Nor one diseased;

13. Nor one with a limb too much (as e. g. having six fingers);

14. Nor one with a limb too little;

15. Nor one whose hair is decidedly red;

16. Nor one talking idly.

17. There are eight forms of marriage

18. The Brâhma, Daiva, Ârsha, Prâgâpatya, Gândharva, Âsura, Râkshasa, and Paisâka forms.

19. The gift of a damsel to a fit bridegroom, who has been invited, is called a Brâhma marriage.

20. If she is given to a Ritvig (priest), while he is officiating at a sacrifice, it is called a Daiva marriage.

21. If (the giver of the bride) receives a pair of kine in return, a is called an Ârsha marriage.

22. (If she is given to a suitor) by his demand, it is called a Prâgâpatya marriage.

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23. A union between two lovers, without the consent of mother and father, is called a Gândharva marriage.

24. If the damsel is sold (to the bridegroom), it is called an Âsura marriage.

25. If he seizes her forcibly, it is called a Râkshasa marriage.

26. If he embraces her in her sleep, or while she is unconscious, it is called a Paisâka marriage.

27. Among those (eight forms of marriage), the four first forms are legitimate (for a Brâhmana);

28. And so is the Gândharva form for a Kshatriya.

29. A son procreated in a Brâhma marriage redeems (or sends into the heavenly abodes hereafter mentioned) twenty-one men (viz. ten ancestors, ten descendants, and him who gave the damsel in marriage).

30. A son procreated in a Daiva marriage, fourteen;

31. A son procreated in an Ârsha marriage, seven;

32. A son procreated in a Prâgâpatya marriage, four.

33. He who gives a damsel in marriage according to the Brâhma rite, brings her into the world of Brahman (after her death, and enters that world himself).

34. (He who gives her in marriage) according to the Daiva rite, (brings her) into Svarga (or heaven, and enters Svarga himself).

35. (He who gives her in marriage) according to the Ârsha rite, (brings her) into the world of Vishnu (and enters that world himself).

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36. (He who gives her in marriage) according to the Prâgâpatya rite, (brings her) into the world of the gods (and enters that world himself).

37. (He who gives her in marriage) according to the Gândharva rite, will go to the world of Gandharvas.

38. A father, a paternal grandfather, a brother, a kinsman, a maternal grandfather, and the mother (are the persons) by whom a girl may be given in marriage.

39. On failure of the preceding one (it devolves upon) the next in order (to give her in marriage), in case he is able.

40. When she has allowed three monthly periods to pass (without being married), let her choose a husband for herself; three monthly periods having passed, she has in every case full power to dispose of herself (as she thinks best).

41. A damsel whose menses begin to appear (while she is living) at her father's house, before she has been betrothed to a man, has to be considered as a degraded woman: by taking her (without the consent of her kinsmen) a man commits no wrong.

[39. Regarding the causes effecting legal disability, such as love, anger, &c., see Nârada 3, 43.

40. Nand., arguing from a passage of Baudhâyana (see also M. IX, 90), takes ritu, 'monthly period,' as synonymous with varsha, 'year.' But ritu, which occurs in two other analogous passages also (Gaut. XVIII, 20, and Nârada XII, 24), never has that meaning.

41. Nand. observes, that the rules laid down in this and the preceding Sloka refer to young women of the lower castes only. Nowadays the custom of outcasting young women, who have not been married in the proper time, appears to be in vogue in Brahmanical families particularly. Smriti passages regarding the illegality of marriages concluded with such women have been collected by me, Über die rechtl. Stellung der Frauen, p. 9, note 17. The {footnote p. 110} custom of Svayamvara or 'self-choice,' judging from the epics, was confined to females of the kingly caste, and in reality was no doubt of very rare occurrence.]

p. 110
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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

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XXV.

1. Now the duties of a woman (are as follows):

2. To live in harmony with her husband;

3. To show reverence (by embracing their feet and such-like attentions) to her mother-in-law, father-in-law, to Gurus (such as elders), to divinities, and to guests;

4. To keep household articles (such as the winnowing basket and the rest) in good array;

5. To maintain saving habits;

6. To be careful with her (pestle and mortar and other) domestic utensils;

7. Not to practise incantations with roots (or other kinds of witchcraft);

8. To observe auspicious customs;

9. Not to decorate herself with ornaments (or to partake of amusements) while her husband is absent from home;

10. Not to resort to the houses of strangers (during the absence of her husband);

[XXV. 1-13. Colebrooke, Dig. IV, 2, XCII.--2. M. V, 154; Y. I, 77.--3. Y. I, 83.--4-6. M. V, 150; Y. I, 83.--9, 10. M. IX, 75; Y. I, 84.--12, 13. M. V, 148; IX, 3; Y. I, 85; Gaut. XVIII, 1.--14. M. V, 158; Colebrooke, Dig. IV, 3, CXXXIII.-15. M.V, 155.--17. M.V, 160. 15 is also found in the Mârkandeya-purâna XVI, 61, and, in a modified form, in other works. See Böhtlingk, Ind. Sprüche, 3686, 3679. 16 is also found, in a modified form, in Vriddhakânakhya's Proverbs XVII, 9; and 17 in Sârngadhara's Paddhati, Sadâkâra, 10. See Böhtlingk, Ind. Sprüche, 3900, 4948.

10. 'Strangers' means any other persons than her parents-in-law, her brother, maternal uncle, and other near relatives. (Nand.)]

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11. Not to stand near the doorway or by the windows (of her house);

12. Not to act by herself in any matter;

13. To remain subject, in her infancy, to her father; in her youth, to her husband; and in her old age, to her sons.

14. After the death of her husband, to preserve her chastity, or to ascend the pile after him.

15. No sacrifice, no penance, and no fasting is allowed to women apart from their husbands; to pay obedience to her lord is the only means for a woman to obtain bliss in heaven.

16. A woman who keeps a fast or performs a penance in the lifetime of her lord, deprives her husband of his life, and will go to hell.

17. A good wife, who perseveres in a chaste life after the death of her lord, will go to heaven like (perpetual) students, even though she has no son.
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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

Postby admin » Tue Apr 27, 2021 11:22 pm

XXVI.

1. If a man has several wives of his own caste,

[14. Nand. states that the self-immolation of widows (Sattee) is a specially meritorious act, and not obligatory. Besides, he quotes several passages from other Smritis and from the Brihannâradîyapurâna, to the effect that in case the husband should have died abroad, a widow of his, who belongs to the Brâhmana caste, may not commit herself to the flames, unless she can reach the place, where his corpse lies, in a day; and that one who is in her courses, or pregnant, or whose pregnancy is suspected, or who has an infant child, is also forbidden to burn herself with her dead husband. English renderings of all the texts quoted by Nand. may he found in Colebrooke's Essay on the Duties of a Faithful Hindu Widow. See also above, XX, 39. Nand., arguing from a passage of Baudhâyana, takes the particle vâ, 'or,' to imply that the widow is at liberty to become a female ascetic instead of burning herself.

XXVI. 2. M. IX, 86.--4. M. IX; 87.--1-4. Colebrooke, Dig. {footnote p. 112} IV, 1, XLIX.--5-7. M. III, 12, 14, 15, 18; Y. I, 56; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 74.--7. Colebrooke, Dig. IV, 1, LII.]

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he shall perform his religious duties together with the eldest (or first-married) wife.

2. (If he has several) wives of divers castes (he shall perform them) even with the youngest wife if she is of the same caste as himself.

3. On failure of a wife of his own caste (he shall perform them) with one belonging to the caste next below his own; so also in cases of distress (i.e. when the wife who is equal in caste to him happens to be absent, or when she has met with a calamity);

4. But no twice-born man ever with a Sûdra wife.

5. A union of a twice-born man with a Sûdra wife can never produce religious merit; it is from carnal desire only that he marries her, being blinded by lust.

6. Men of the three first castes, who through folly marry a woman of the lowest caste, quickly degrade their families and progeny to the state of Sûdras.

7, If his oblations to the gods and manes and (his hospitable attentions) to guests are offered principally through her hands, the gods and manes (and the guests) will not eat such offerings, and he will not go to heaven.
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