The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

That's French for "the ancient system," as in the ancient system of feudal privileges and the exercise of autocratic power over the peasants. The ancien regime never goes away, like vampires and dinosaur bones they are always hidden in the earth, exercising a mysterious influence. It is not paranoia to believe that the elites scheme against the common man. Inform yourself about their schemes here.

Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

Postby admin » Tue Apr 27, 2021 11:30 pm

LVII.

1. Now[1] (the following persons) must be avoided:

[16. Sâma-veda II, 1,87.

17. Sâma-veda, I, 91.

18. Sâma-veda I, 122.

19. The same text as in the preceding Sûtra.

20. Sâma-veda I, 350. Nand. infers from a passage of Vâsishtha (XXVIII, 12) that ka refers to Sâma-veda II, 812, and I, 153.

21. Kâthaka XVII, 11--16, &c.

22. 'The text beginning with the words, brahmâ devânâm prathamah sambabhûva, "Brahman rose first among the gods."' (Nand.) The Atharvasira Upanishad has the words, very near the beginning, aham ekah prathamam âsît. See the Calcutta edition.

23. Taitt. Ârany. X, 48-50.

24. Sâma-veda I, 91.

25. Taitt. Ârany. X passim.

26. Rig-veda X, 90, 1. Nand. infers from a passage of Vâsishtha (XXVIII, 13) that ka refers to Rig-veda X, 71, and I, 90, 6-8.

27. 1 Sâma-veda I, 67.--2 Sâma-veda I, 233.--3 Sâma-veda I, 27.--4 Sâma-veda I, 169.--5 Sâma-veda I, 234.

LVII. 1, 2. M. II, 39; Y. I, 38.--3. M. XI, 182-185; Y. III, 295; Âpast. I, 10, 28, 6-8; Gaut. XX, 1.--4. Âpast. I, 1, 2, 5.--6, 7. M. IV, 186.--8. M. IV, 190.--9. M. IV, 186; Y. I, 213.--10. M. IV, 247, 250; Y. I, 214; Âpast. I, 6, 18, 1; I, 6, 19, 11; Gaut. XVII, 3.--11, 12. M. IV, 248, 249; Âpast. I, 6, 19, {footnote p. 187} 14.--13. M. IV, 251; Y. I, 216; Gaut. XVII, 4.--14. M. IV, 213; Y. I, 215.--15, 16. M. IV, 252, 253.--16. Y. I, 166; Gaut. XVII, 6.]

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2. Vrâtyas (i. e. those for whom the ceremony of initiation has not been performed)

3. Outcasts;

4. Descendants within the third degree' of an outcast mother or father, if they (or their outcast ancestors) have not been purified (by a penance).

5. (As a rule) the food of all such persons must not be eaten, nor gifts be accepted from them,[1].

6. He must avoid accepting repeated gifts from those whose presents must not be accepted[1].

7. By accepting such gifts, Brâhmanas lose their divine lustre.

8. And he who, not knowing the law regarding acceptance of gifts, accepts (illicit) gifts, sinks, to hell together with the giver.

9. He who, being worthy to receive gifts, does not accept them, obtains that world which is destined for the liberal-minded (after death).

10. Firewood, water, roots, fruits, protection, meat, honey, a bed, a seat, a house, flowers, sour

[1. 1 'There are two classes of sinners, the repentant and the unrepenting. The penances to be performed by the former having been enumerated, he goes on in the present chapter to state that the latter must be avoided.' (Nand.)

3. See XXXV, 1-5.

4. 1 Nand. refers the term 'in the third degree' to the three ascendants of the parents. The same infers from a passage of Gautama (XX, 1) that the particle ka is used in order to include a murderer of a king also.

5. 1 Nand. infers from another text of Gautama (XX, 8) that it is also forbidden to converse with them.

6. 1 'It is no sin then, in one who is in distress, to accept a present once from them.' (Nand.) See 14.]

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milk, and vegetables he must not disdain to accept when they are offered to him.

11. Even if an offender (but not a mortal sinner) has beckoned and offered alms to him, which had been brought previously for the purpose, the lord of creatures has declared that they may be accepted from him.

12. Neither will the manes eat (his funeral oblations offered to them) for fifteen years, nor will the fire convey his burnt-offerings (to the gods) if he rejects such alms.

13. If he wishes to provide for his (parents or other) Gurus or for (his wife or other) such persons as he is bound to maintain, or if he wants to worship the manes or the gods, he may accept gifts from any one; but he must not satisfy himself with them.

14. But even in those cases, and though he be worthy to receive presents, let him not accept them from a dissolute woman, from a eunuch, from an outcast, or from an enemy.

15. And if his parents are dead, or if he is living apart from them in a house of his own, he must never, while seeking to obtain food for himself, accept alms from any other persons but those who are of respectable descent (and belong to a twice-born caste).

16. One who ploughs the ground for half the crop (and gives the other half to the king or a private person, who is the owner), a friend of the family, a (house-)slave, a herdsman, a barber, and

[11. 1 The use of the particle ka implies that Kusa grass &c. is likewise intended, as Yâgñavalkya (I, 214) says.' (Nand.)

16, The reason of this rule, according to Nand., lies in this, that {footnote p. 189} all the castes mentioned in this Sûtra are not properly Sûdras, but the offspring of unions between parents of a different caste, herdsmen being, according to Parâsara, the offspring of a Kshatriya with a Sûdra damsel, &c. The same considers the use of the particle ka to imply that potters are also intended. See Gaut. XVII, 6.]

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one who announces himself (with the words 'I am your slave'): the food of all such may be eaten, although they are Sûdras.
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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

Postby admin » Tue Apr 27, 2021 11:31 pm

LVIII.

1. The property of householders is of three kinds:

2. White, mottled, and black.

3. By those obsequies which a man performs with white property, he causes (his departed ancestor) to be born again as a god.

4. By performing them with mottled property, he causes him to be born as a man.

5. By performing them with black property, he causes him to be born as an animal.

6. What has been acquired by the mode of livelihood of their own caste, by members of any caste, is called 'white.'

7. What has been acquired by the mode of livelihood of the caste next below in order to their own, is called 'mottled.'

8. What has been acquired by the mode of livelihood of a caste by two or more degrees lower than their own, is called 'black.'

9. What has been inherited, friendly gifts, and

[LVIII. 1, 2. Nârada 3, 46.--9-12. Nârada 3, 53, 47-49, 51.

1. As the obligations of a householder, which will be discussed further on (in LIX), cannot be fulfilled without a certain amount of wealth, he discusses in the present chapter the origin of wealth. (Nand.)]

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the dowry of a wife, that is called white property, for members of any caste indiscriminately.

10. What has been acquired as a bribe, as a fee (for crossing a river and the like, or for a bride, &c.), or by the sale of forbidden articles (such as lac, or salt), or as a return for a benefit conferred, is denoted 'mottled wealth.'

11. What has been acquired by servile attendance[1], by gambling, by thieving, by begging, by deceit (as if a man says that he wants a present for another and takes it himself, or by forging gold or other metals), by robbery, or by fraud (as if a man shows one thing to a purchaser and delivers another to him instead), is called 'black property.'

12. Whatever a man may do (in this world) with anything (he has, whether white, mottled, or black property) he will get his reward accordingly; both in the next world and in this.
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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

Postby admin » Tue Apr 27, 2021 11:31 pm

LIX.

1. A householder must perform the Pâkayagñas[1]

[11. 1 Nand. interprets the term pârsvika by 'moving a chowrie to and fro before one's master, while standing by his side.'

LIX. 1. M. IV, 67, Gaut. V, 7-9.--1, 2. M. IV, 25; Y. I, 97.--3, 4. Âsv. I, 9; I, 10; Gobh. I, 3, 5-9; Pâr. I, 9; I, 12; Sânkh. I, 3.--2, 4-9. Gaut. VIII, 19, 20.--4-9. M. IV, 25, 26; XI, 7, 8; Y. I, 124, 125.--5-7. Âsv. I, 11; Gobh. III, 8; Pâr. III, 1; III, 8; Sânkh. III, 8.--10. M. XI, 27; Y. I, 126.--11. M. XI, 24; Y. I, 127---12. M. XI, 25; Y. I, 127.--13. M. III, 84, 90, &c. (see below, LXVII).--14, 15, 16. See the references given below (ad LXVII),--19, 20. M. III, 68, 69.--21-25. M. III, 70. Y. I, 102; Âpast. I, 4, 12, 16; I, 4, 13, 1; Gaut. V, 3, 9; Âsv. III, 1, 1-3; Pâr. II, 9, 1.--26. M. III, 72.--27-30. M. III, 77, 78, 80, 81.

1. 1 The term Pâkayagña is used in a more restricted sense here than above (LV, 20). Nand. interprets it by 'Vaisvadeva, {footnote p. 191} Sthâlîpâka, Sravnâkarmen, and similar sacrifices,' i. e. all the sacrifices which have to be performed in the one household fire, as opposed to those for which a Tretâ or triad of sacred fires is required (see Stenzler, note on Âsv. I, 1, 2). Gautama (VIII, 18) enumerates seven Pâkayagñas, among which, however, the Vaisvadeva is not included. The Vaisvadeva is described in LXVII. Regarding the other Pâkayagñas, see the Grihya-sûtras.--2 'Or in the fire kindled at the division of the family estate, or in the fire kindled on his becoming master of the house.' (Nand.) See Sânkh. I, 1, 3-5.]

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(small or domestic offerings) in the fire kindled at the time of marriage[2].

2. He must offer the Agnihotra (or daily oblations of clarified butter) every morning and evening (in the Tretâ fires).

3. He must offer burnt-oblations to the gods (in case the Agnihotra cannot be performed).

4. Let him offer the two Darsapurnamâsas on the days of conjunction and opposition of the sun

and moon.

5. Once in each half of the year, (at the two solstices, let him offer) the Pasubandha (animal sacrifice).

6. In autumn and summer let him offer the Âgrayana (oblation of first-fruits);

[2. The three Tretâ fires have been enumerated above (XXXI, 8). Regarding the Agnihotra and the sacrifices mentioned in 4-8, see Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 328-337, 343-349, 352-396.

4. 'One who has performed the ceremony of Agnyâdhâna (kindling the sacred fires) must perform these two offerings in the Tretâ fires, one who has not done so, in the household or nuptial fire.' (Nand.) This remark applies equally to the sacrifices mentioned in 5-7.

6. 'If the Âgrayana is offered in the household fire, it must consist of a Sthâlîpâka (cooked offering of grain).' (Nand.) See the Grihya-sûtras above cited. Nand. further explains that in autumn the first-fruits of rice, and in summer the firstlings of {footnote p. 192} barley, or, according to Âpastamba, of Venuyava, have to be offered, and he infers from another text of the same author that the particle ka here refers to an oblation of Syâmâka grain, which has to be offered in the rainy season. The two passages in question are not found in Âpastamba's Dharma-sûtra, but Weber, loc. cit., quotes them from Kâtyâyana.]

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7. Or when rice and barley are ripening (in winter and spring).

8. He who has a sufficient supply of food for more than three years (shall perform the Soma-sacrifice)[1].

9. (He shall perform) the Soma-sacrifice once a year (in spring).

10. If he has not wealth (sufficient to defray the expenses of the Pasubandha, Soma, Kâturmâsya, and other Srauta sacrifices), he shall perform the Ishti Vaisvânarî.

11. Let him not make an offering of food obtained as alms from a Sûdra.

12. If he has begged articles for a sacrifice (and obtained them), let him employ them all for that purpose (and never for himself).

13. Every evening and morning let him offer up the Vaisvadeva;

14. And[1] let him give alms to an Ascetic (afterwards).

15. For giving alms and showing due honour to the recipient (by pouring water on his hands both before and afterwards) he obtains the same reward as for giving a cow.

[8. 1 According to Nand., the Soma-sacrifices here referred to are of the kâmya species (offered in order to obtain the gratification of a special desire).

14. 1 Nand. infers from the use of the particle ka, and from a text of Parâsara, that an injunction to give alms to a student is also intended here.]

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16. If there is no ascetic (or other person worthy to receive alms), he must give a mouthful to cows;

17. Or he must cast it into fire.

18. If there is food in the house, he must not reject a mendicant, (who arrives) after he has taken his meal himself.

19. A householder has five places where animals are liable to be destroyed: his wooden mortar, his slab to grind wheat or condiments upon, his fireplace, his water-pot, and his broom.

20. For the sake of expiating offences committed (by ignorantly destroying life) in those places, he must perform the (five) sacrifices addressed to the Veda, to the gods, to all created beings (or 'to the goblins'), to the manes, and to men.

21. Privately reciting (and teaching) the Veda is the sacrifice addressed to the Veda.

22. The regular burnt-oblation (Vaisvadeva) is the sacrifice addressed to the gods.

23. The Pitritarpana (refreshing the manes with food and water) is the sacrifice addressed to the manes.

24. The Bali-offering is the sacrifice addressed to all creatures (or 'to the goblins').

25. The sacrifice addressed to men consists in honouring a guest.

26. He who does not give their share to these five, the gods, his guests, (his wife and children and others,) whom he is bound to maintain, his manes, and himself, is not alive, though he breathes.

[18. 'The expression, "if there is food in the house," indicates that he is not bound to cook a fresh meal for his guest.' (Nand.)]

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27. These (three), the student, the hermit, and the ascetic, derive their existence from the order of householders; therefore must a householder not treat them with disdain, when they have arrived (at his house at the proper time for begging alms).

28. The householder offers sacrifices, the householder practises austerities, the householder distributes gifts; therefore is the order of householders, the first of all.

29. The Rishis[1], the manes, the gods, all creatures (dogs, &c.), and guests beg householders for support; therefore is the order of householders the best of all.

30. If a householder is intent upon pursuing the three objects of life (virtue, love, and wealth), upon constantly distributing presents of food, upon worshipping the gods, upon honouring the Brâhmanas, upon discharging his duty of privately reciting (and teaching) the Veda, and upon refreshing the manes (with oblations of balls of rice, water, and the like), he will attain the world of Indra.
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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

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LX.

1. In (the last watch of the night, which is called)

[27. Nand. refers the term bhikshu, which has been rendered by 'ascetic,' i. e. a member of the fourth order, to the six sorts of beggars enumerated by Parâsara. But as the first three orders are mentioned in this Sloka, it is certainly more natural to translate the term as has been done above.

29. 1 Nand. thinks that hermits or members of the third order are meant by this term. But it seems preferable to refer it to the Rishi authors of the Veda, to whom the first of the five sacrifices, the study of the Veda, is more immediately addressed. See Âpast. I, 4, 13, 1; Gaut. V, 3.

LX. I. M. IV, 92; Y. I, 115.--1, 2. M. IV, 50; Y. I, A; Âpast. {footnote p. 195} I, 11, 31, 1; Gaut. IX, 41-43.--3. M. IV, 49; Âpast. I, 11, 30, 15; Gaut. IX, 38.--4. M. IV, 46; Âpast. I, 11, 30, 18.-- 5. Âpast. loc. cit. 16; Gaut. IX, 40.--8-10. M. IV, 46, 47.--11, 12. M. IV, 45; Âpast. loc. cit. 18; Gaut. IX, 40.--11, 19. Y. I, 134.--15, 21. M. IV, 46, 56; Y. I, 134, 137; Âpast. loc. cit. 18.--16, 18. M. IV, 45; Gaut. IX, 40.--22. M. IV, 48; Y. I, 134; Âpast. 20.--23-26. M. IV, 49; V, 136, 137.--23, Âpast. 15; Gaut. IX, 37.--24. Y. I, 17. Chapters LX-LXIV treat of the daily duties of a householder. (Nand.)]

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the hour sacred to Brahman, let him rise and void his excrements.

2. By night (let him void them) facing the south, by day and during either twilight (let him void them) facing the north.

3. (He must) not (void them) on earth which has not been previously covered (with grass and the like);

4. Nor on a ploughed field;

5. Nor in the shade of a tree (fit to be used for sacrifices);

6. Nor on barren soil; 7. Nor on a spot abounding in fresh grass; 8. Nor where there are worms or insects; 9. Nor in a ditch (or hole, or upon the roots of a tree); 10. Nor on an ant-hill; 11. Nor on a path; 12. Nor on a public road; 13. Nor in a place previously defiled by another person; 14. Nor in a garden; 15. Nor in the vicinity of a garden or of (a reservoir of) water; 16. Nor on ashes; 17. Nor on coal; 18. Nor on

[6. Nand. infers from the use of the particle ka, that the following places (mentioned by Manu IV, 46, according to Nand.'s reading, which differs from the traditional one) are also included in this prohibition: a river, a mountain, the ruins of a temple, and the top of a mountain.

17. Nand. infers from the use of the particle ka, and from a text of Yama, that chaff and potsherds are also intended here.]

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cow-dung; 19. Nor in a fold for cattle; 20. Nor in the air; 21. Nor in water;

22. Nor facing the wind, or fire, or the moon, or the sun, or a woman, or a (father or other) Guru, or a Brâhmana;

23. Nor without having enveloped his head;

24. Having cleaned his hindparts with a clod of earth, or with a brick, (or with wood or grass,) and seizing his organ (with his left, after having removed his garment), he must rise and clean himself with water and earth (previously) fetched for the purpose, so as to remove the smell and the filth.

25. The organ must once be cleaned with earth, the hindparts three times, the one hand (the left) ten times, both hands together seven times, and both feet together three times.

26. Such is the purification ordained for householders; it is double for students treble for hermits; and quadruple for ascetics.
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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

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LXI.

1. A householder must not use[1] Palâsa-wood for cleaning his teeth.

2. Nor (must he use the twigs of) the Sleshmântaka

[20, 'I. e. in an apartment on the roof or in any other such place.' (Nand.)

LXI. Âpast. I, 11, 32, 9; Gaut. IX, 44.

[1. 1 Literally 'eat,' adyât. In 16 and 17 the synonymous verbs bhaksh and as are used. Nevertheless it can hardly be doubted that both of the two modes of cleaning the teeth, which appear to have been customary, are indicated in this chapter: the one consisting in brushing them with little sticks or twigs provided with a brush (see 16), the other in chewing twigs. Unfortunately the reading of Nand.'s gloss on the term sakûrka in 16 is uncertain.

2. Regarding the Vibhîtaka tree, see Dr. Bühler's Kashmir Report p. 8.]

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(or Selu) plant, nor of the soap plant, nor of the Vibhîtaka (or Kalidruma) tree, nor of the Dhava plant, nor of the Dhâmani tree (for that purpose).

3. Nor (the twigs of) the Bandhûka (or Bandhugîvaka) plant, nor of the Nirgundî shrub, nor of the

Sigru, Tilva, and Tinduka trees.

4. Nor (the twigs of) the Kovidâra (Yugapattraka) Samî, Pîlu (Gudaphala), Pippala (holy fig-tree), Inguda, or Guggula trees;

5. Nor (the twigs of) the Pâribhâdraka (Sakrapâdapa), or tamarind, or Mokaka, or Semul trees, nor those of the hemp plant;

6. Nor sweet plants (such as liquorice sticks):

7. Nor sour plants (such as Âmlikâs);

9. Nor twigs that have withered on the stem;

9. Nor perforated (or otherwise faulty) wood;

10. Nor stinking wood;

11. Nor smooth wood;

12. He must not (use the sticks) facing the south or west.

13. He must use them facing the north or east;

14. He may use (the twigs of) the banyan or Asana trees, or of the Arka plant, or of the Khadira, or Karañga, or Badara (jujube), or Sal, or Nimb trees, or of the Arimeda, shrub, or of the Apâmârga or Malatî plants, or of the Kakubha or Bèl trees;

15. Or of the Kashâya tree, or of the Tikta or Katuka plants.

16. Before sunrise let him silently clean his teeth with a stick, which must be as thick as the top of the little finger, provided with one end that may be chewed (or 'with a brush'), and twelve Angulas long.

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17. Having washed[1] and used the stick for cleaning the teeth, he must take care to leave it in a clean place; he must never make use of it on the day of new moon (or on the day of full moon).
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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

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LXII.

1. The part at the root of the little finger of a twice-born man is called the Tîrtha sacred to Pragâpati.

2. The part at the root of the thumb is called the Tîrtha sacred to Brahman.

3. The part at the tops of the fingers is called the Tîrtha sacred to the gods.

4. The part at the root of the forefinger is called the Tîrtha sacred to the manes.

5. Let him sip water, which has not been put to the fire and is free from foam (and bubbles), which has not been poured out by a Sûdra (or other uninitiated person), or by a man who has one hand only, and which has no saline flavour[1]; and (let him sip it) in a clean place, duly seated, placing (his right hand) between his knees, facing the east or the north (or, the north-east), attentively regarding the water, and in a cheerful mood.

6. Let him sip water thrice with the Tîrtha sacred

[17. 1 It must be washed both before and after using it. (Nand.) LXII. 1-4. M. II, 59; Y. I, 19.--5-8. M. II, 60, 61; Y. I, 20; Âpast. I, 5, 16, 1-7; Gaut. I, 36.--9. M. II, 62; Y. I, 21.

1. Nand. observes that this chapter and the preceding one follow in order upon Chapter LX, because the purificatory rite described at the end of the latter is immediately followed by the Âkamana (sipping of water), and then by the Dantadhâvana (cleaning the teeth), both of which acts, however, have to be performed on other occasions also, as after a meal, &c.

5. 'The term kshâra, 'saline flavour,' includes bad or spoiled water of any kind, according to Nand.]

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to Brahman (or with the Tîrthas sacred to the gods and to Pragipati respectively).

7. Let him wipe his lips twice (with the root of his thumb).

8. Let him touch the cavities (above his navel)[1], his head, and his breast with water.

9. By water which reaches either their heart, or their throat, or their palate respectively, members of the three twice-born castes are purified each in his turn; a woman and a Sûdra are purified by water which has once touched their palate.
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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

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LXIII.

1. In order to obtain wealth and for the sake of security he shall apply to a lord.

2. He must not travel alone; 3. Nor with wicked companions; 4. Nor with Sûdras; 5. Nor with enemies; 6. Nor too early in the morning; 7. Nor too late in the evening; 8. Nor in the twilight; [9. Nor at noon; 10. Nor near water;] 11. Nor in too great a hurry; 12. Nor at night

[8. 1 See XXIII, 51.

LXIII. I. M. IV, 33; Gaut. IX, 63.--2-9. M. IV, 140, 55, 60.--13-17, 19, 21. M. IV, 67, 131, 57.--24, 25. M. IV, 78; Y. I, 139; Âpast. II, 8, 20, 11; Gaut. IX, 15.--26-28. Sânkh. IV, 12, 15; M. IV, 39; Y. I. 133; Gaut. IX, 66.--40. M, IV, 130.--41. M. IV, 132.--42. M. IV, 38; Gaut. IX, 52.--43. M. IV, 38; Gobh. III, 5, 11.--46. Âsv. III, 9, 6; M. IV, 77; Y. I, 139; Âpast. I, 11, 32, 26; Gaut. IX: 32.--47. Âpast. I, 11, 32, 27; Gaut. IX, 33.--49. Gobh. III, 5, 13; Pâr. II, 7, 6; Sânkh. IV, 12, 28.--51. M. IV, 138, 139; Y. I, 117; Âpast. II, 5, 11, 5-7; Gaut. VI, 24, 25.

1. 'A lord' (îsvara) means a king or another rich man, in his own country, or in another country. (Nand.) See also Dr. Bühler's note on Gaut. IX, 63, where the same Sûtra occurs.

9, 10. Sûtras 9 and 10 are wanting in Dr. Bühler's MS.]

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13. Nor (let him travel) without cessation with (horses or other) beasts of draught that are quite young, diseased, or (otherwise) afflicted;

14. Nor with such as are deficient in limb; 15. Nor with weak ones; 16. Nor with young bulls; 17. Nor with untrained animals.

18. He must not appease his hunger and allay his thirst without having first given grass and water to the animals.

19. He must not stop at a place where four ways meet; 20. Nor at night at the root of a tree: 21. Nor in an empty house; 22. Nor upon a meadow; 23. Nor in a stable;

24. Nor (must he stand) on hair, on the husks of grain, on potsherds, on bones, on ashes, or coal;

25. Nor on seeds of the cotton plant.

26. When he passes by a place where four ways meet, let him turn his right side towards it.

27. And let him do the same in passing by the image of a deity;

28. And in passing by well-known large trees.

29. After having seen a fire, or a Brâhmana (with his turban on), or a public prostitute, or a jar filled (with water), or a looking-glass, or an umbrella, or a flag, or a banner[1], or a Bèl tree, or a lid (or platter), or a palace built in the shape of a certain diagram (or in the form of a quadrangle without a western gate)[2];

[29. 1 'More precisely the term patâkâ signifies "a staff, by which a piece of cloth torn in the middle is fastened."' (Nand.)--2 'The particle ka is added at the end of this enumeration in order 'to include in it perfumes, lamps, and other objects mentioned in a Smriti.' (Nand.)]

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30. Or a fan, or a chowrie, or a horse, or an elephant, or a goat, or a cow (having a calf), or sour milk, or milk, or honey, or white mustard;

31. Or a lute, or sandal-wood, or a weapon, or fresh cow-dung, or fruit, or a flower, or a fresh pot-herb, or Gorokanâ, or blades of Dûrvâ grass;

32. Or a turban, or ornaments, or jewels, or gold, or silver, or clothes, or a seat, or a vehicle, or (raw) meat;

33. Or a golden vase, or cultivated land which is being carried away (by a stream), or a single (bull or other) piece of cattle tied with a rope, or an unmarried damsel (clad in white), or a (boiled) fish, (let him turn his right side towards them and) go on.

34. Having seen one intoxicated, or insane, deformed, he must or turn back;

35. (Also, if he has seen) one who has vomited, or one who has been purged, or one who has had his head shorn, or one who wears all his hair tied in one knot, or a dwarf;

[30. 'The particle ka, which is added at the end of this Sûtra, refers to a king, his ministers, his domestic priest, &C., as indicated in a Smriti passage.' (Nand.)

31. Nand. infers from another Smriti passage that ka here refers to a crow and to a Sûdra or workman with his tools.

32. Nand. here refers ka to shells and other objects mentioned in a Smriti.

33. Nand. here refers ka to a dead body and other objects enumerated in a Smriti.

34. The enumeration of auspicious objects in Sûtras 29-33 is followed by an enumeration of inauspicious objects in Sûtras 34-38. (Nand.)

35. The particle ka refers to enemies, outcasts, and others mentioned in a Smriti. (Nand.)]

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36. Or (if he has seen) one wearing a dress (of a reddish-yellow colour) dyed with Kashâya[1], or an ascetic, or one smeared[2] (with ashes)[3];

37. Or (if he has seen) oil, or sugar, or dry cow-dung, or fire-wood, or grass (other than Kusa or Dûrvâ grass), or Palâsa (and other leaves, other than betel leaves), ashes, or coal[1];

38. Or (if he has seen) salt, or a eunuch, or (the spirituous liquor called) Âsava, or an impotent man, or cotton cloth, or a rope, or an iron chain for the feet, or a person with dishevelled hair.

39. (If he sees), while about to begin a journey, a lute, or sandal-wood, or fresh pot-herbs, or a turban, or an Ornament, or an unmarried damsel, he must praise them.

[36. 1 Nand. refers kâshâyin, 'wearing a dress dyed with Kashâya,' to 'persons who wear the marks of an order to which they do not belong.' But this interpretation is evidently wrong. Among the sects that wear a dress dyed with Kashâya, Buddhists are the most prominent, but it must not be overlooked that there are other important sects also, as e. g. the Svâminârâyanîs of the present day, who wear such dresses.--2 The term malina, 'smeared,' no doubt refers to a Saiva sect. Nand. interprets it by 'Kâpâlikas and the like;' but more probably the Pâsupatas are meant.--3 The particle ka further refers to the humpbacked, deaf, and blind, to barren women, and to naked and hungry persons, as stated in a Smriti. (Nand,)

37. 1 Nand. refers the particle ka in this Sûtra to hares, naked mendicants, snakes, iguanas, lizards, skins, and other inauspicious objects and persons enumerated in a Smriti.

38. Nand. argues from a passage of Nârada (not found in his Institutes), that the particle ka here refers to persons mounted upon an ass, camel, or buffalo, and others.

39. 1 Nand. mentions two explanations of this Sûtra: 1. he must eulogise the above objects or persons if he sees them; 2. he must gladden persons, who have those objects or persons with them, with presents and the like.]

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40. He must not (knowingly) step on (or step over, or stand on) the shade of the image of a deity, of a (learned) Brâhmana, of a spiritual teacher, of a brown (bull or other animal), or of one by whom the initiatory ceremony at a Soma-sacrifice has been performed.

41. Nor (must he step) on anything spat out or vomited, nor on blood, nor on fæces or urine, nor on water used for ablutions.

42. He must not step over a rope to which a calf (or a cow) is tied.

43. He must not walk quickly in the rain.

44. He must not cross a river without need;

45. Nor without having previously offered an oblation of water to the gods and to the manes;

46. Nor (swimming) with his arms;

47. Nor in a leaky vessel.

48. He must not stand on the bank (of a river).

49. He must not gaze into a pool.

50. He must not cross it (by swimming through it, or in any other way).

51. Way must be made for an aged man, for one carrying a burden, for a king, for a Snâtaka (of any of the three kinds[1]), for a woman, for a sick person, for a bridegroom, and for one riding in a carriage. Among those, should they all meet, a king must be

[41. According to Nand., the particle vâ, 'or,' is added at the end of this Sûtra, in order to include an officiating priest and others mentioned by Yâgñavalkya I, 152.

51. 1 The Snâtaka (see XXV III, 42, note) is of three kinds: 1. the Vidyâsnâtaka, who has studied the Vedas; 2. the Vratasnâtaka, who has performed the Vratas or vowed observances of a student; 3. the Ubhayasnâtaka, who has completed both the Vedas and the Vratas. (Nand.) See the Grihya-sûtras.]

p. 204

honoured by the rest (excepting the Snâtaka); but the king himself must show honour to a Snâtaka.
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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

Postby admin » Tue Apr 27, 2021 11:32 pm

LXIV.

1. He must not bathe in another man's pool;

2. In cases of distress (if there is no other water at hand) he may bathe (in another man's pool), after having offered up five (or seven, or four) lumps of clay and (three jars with) water.

3. (He must not bathe) during an indigestion;

4. Nor while he is afflicted (with a fever or other illness);

5. Nor without his clothes; 6. Nor at night; 7. Unless it be during an eclipse; 8. Nor in the twilight.

9, He must bathe early in the morning, when he beholds the east reddening with the rays of the (rising) sun.

10. After having bathed, he must not shake his head (in order to remove the water from his hair);

11. And he must not dry his limbs (with his hand or with a cloth);

12. Nor must he touch any oily substance.

[LXIV. I. M. IV, 201.--1, 2. Y. I, 159-3, 4. M. IV, 129.--5. M. IV, 45; Gaut. IX, 61; Âsv. III, 9, 6; Pâr. II, 7, 6; Sânkh. IV, 12, 31.--6. M. IV, 129.--12. M. IV, 83.--13, Sânkh. IV, 12, 32.--15. Gaut. IX, 16.--16. M. IV, 263; Y. I, 159.--24. M. IV, 152; Y. I, 100.--27. Y. I, 196.

5. The term nagna, literally 'naked,' has to be taken in its widest sense here. According to Bhrigu and Gobhila it includes, besides one wholly undressed, 'one without his upper garment, one who has dirty clothes on, one clad in lower garments of silk only, one who wears double clothing or even a greater number of clothes, one who wears a small piece of cloth over the pudenda only,' &c. (Nand.) See also M. IV, 129.]

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13. He must not put on again the garment which he wore before, without its having been washed.

14. After having bathed, he must cover with his head a turban[1] and put on two garments[2] washed (by himself).

15. He must not converse, (after having bathed,) with barbarians, low-caste persons, or outcasts.

16. He must bathe in cascades, ponds dug by the gods, and lakes.

17. Stagnant water is more pure (and purifies more effectually) than water taken out (of a well or the like); the water of a spring is more pure than that of a tank; the water of a river is more pure than the former; water collected by (Vasishtha or some other) devout sage[1] is even more pure; but the water of the Ganges is the purest of all.

19. After having removed the dirt by means of earth and water[1], and after having dived under water and returned (to the bank of the river), he must address the bathing-place with the three Mantras (beginning with the words), 'Ye waters are[2],'with the four Mantras (beginning with the words),

[14. 1 Ushnîsha, 'a turban,' here denotes a bandage used for drying the head, which is wrapped around the head and closely tied together.--2 I. e. an upper and an under garment. (Nand.)

16. The term devakhâta, 'ponds dug by the gods,' refers to Pushkara and other holy bathing-places. (Nand.) See below LXXXV.

17. 1 Nand. cites Vasishthaprâkî and Visvâmitraprâkî as instances of holy bathing-places of this description.

18. 1 Nand. refers this and the following Sûtras to a midday bath, because a verse, which he quotes, forbids the use of earth (in order to clean one's self with it) in the morning bath. But it seems to follow from 35 and 42, that an the rules given in this chapter refer to that bath, which must be taken at sunrise every day.--2 Rig {footnote p. 206} veda X, 9, 1-3, &c.--3 Taitt. Samh. V, 6, 1, 1-2, &c.--4 Rig-veda I, 23, 22, &c.]

p. 206

'The golden-coloured (waters)[3],' and with (the one Mantra beginning with the words), 'Carry away (all), that, O ye waters[4].'

19. Then he must dive underwater and mutter the Aghamarshana three times;

20. Or (he must mutter three times the Mantra which begins with the words), 'That most exalted step of Vishnu;'

21. Or the Drupadâ Sâvitrî (which begins with the words, 'Like one released from a post);

22. Or the Anuvâka (which begins with the words), 'They get their minds ready;'

23. Or the Purushasûkta.

24. After having bathed, he must feed the gods and the manes, while standing in the water with his wet clothes on.

25. If (being unable to remain in water after having bathed) he has changed his dress, (he must feed the gods and the manes,) after having crossed the bathing-place (and reached the bank).

26. (But) he must not wring his bathing-dress till he has satisfied the gods and the manes.

2 7. After having bathed[1] and sipped water, he must sip water (once more) according to the rule.

28. He must offer (sixteen) flowers to Purusha,

[20. Rig-veda I, 22, 20, &c.

21. Taitt. Brâhm. II, 4, 4, 9; 6, 6, 3; cf. Vâgasan. Samh. XX, 20; Atharva-veda VI, 115, 3.

22. Rig-veda V, 81, &c.

24. 'The use of the particle ka indicates that he must anoint himself after having bathed.' (Nand.)

27. 'This expression refers back to the whole proceeding described above, up to the wringing of the bathing-dress. (Nand.)]

p. 207

while muttering the Purushasûkta, one with each verse.

29. Afterwards (he must offer) a libation of water.

30. He must first offer one to the gods with the Tîrtha sacred to the gods.

31. Then he must offer an other to the manes with the Tîrtha sacred to the manes.

32. In offering the latter he must first of all feed (the manes of) his next of kin (such as his father, mother, maternal grandfather, uncles, brothers, &c.)

33. After that (he must feed) his relatives (such as a sister's son, a father-in-law, a brother-in-law, &c.) and distant kinsmen (such as the sons of his father's sisters and of his mother's sisters).

34. Then (he must feed) his (deceased) friends.

35. According, to the above rule he must bathe every day.

36. After having bathed, he must mutter as many purifying Mantras as possible.

37. And he must mutter the Gâyatrî even more often (than other Mantras);

38. And the Purushasûkta.

39. There is nothing more sublime than those two (prayers).

40. One who has bathed is thereby entitled to perform the offerings to the Visvedevâs and to the manes, to mutter sacred texts, and to exercise the duty of hospitality, as prescribed by law.

[30, 31. See LXII, 3, 4.

37, 38. 'Or the meaning of these two Sûtras is, that the Gâyatrî and the Purushasûkta always have to be muttered besides the other Mantras.' (Nand.)

40. Nand. refers the term vidhinodite to a separate duty, that {footnote p. 208} of worshipping the gods; the particle ka to the propitiation of the planets by sacrifices and other such duties; and the particle tathâ to optional acts, such as the gift of a cow to a Brâhmana, and the like. But this is certainly a too extensive interpretation of the text.]

p. 208

41. Distress and misfortune, bad dreams and evil thoughts are taken from him even who only sprinkles himself with water (no matter from where it comes): that is the law.

42. He who regularly takes the prescribed bath (every morning), does not experience the tortures of Yama's hell. By the regular bath criminals even obtain their absolution.
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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

Postby admin » Tue Apr 27, 2021 11:32 pm

LXV.

1. Now then, after having duly bathed, and duly washed his hands and feet, and duly sipped water, he must worship Bhagavat Vâsudeva (Vishnu), who is without beginning and end, before an idol or on the sacrificial ground.

2. Having called up in his mind (Vishnu to life, with the Mantra), 'The two Asvins possess life, may they (give you life),'and having invited (Vishnu) with the Anuvâka (beginning with the words), 'They get their minds ready[2],' he must worship him with his knees, his hands, and his head[3].

[LXV, LXVI. These two chapters treat of the worship of Vishnu. (Nand.)

LXV. 1. The fittest. place for worshipping Vishnu is upon a Sâlagrâma (ammonite) stone. (Nand.)

2. 1 Kâthaka XI, 7. The rendering of this Mantra is conjectural, as the reading is uncertain. Nand. states expressly that it is quoted from the Kâthaka.--2 See LXIV, 22.--3 'The particle ka indicates that he must also worship Vishnu in his mind, and with his speech, by saying, 'Om, adoration to Bhagavat Vâsudeva.' (Nand.)]

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3. With the three Mantras (beginning with the words), 'Ye waters are,' he must (fetch and) announce the Arghya (or water for washing the hands).

4. With the four Mantras (beginning with the words), 'The golden-coloured,' (he must fetch and announce) the water for washing the feet;

5. With (the one Mantra, beginning with the words), 'May the waters of the plain propitiate us,' the water which is to be sipped;

6. With (the one Mantra, beginning with the words), 'Carry away (all) that, O ye waters,' the water destined for the bath;

7. With (the four Mantras, beginning with the words, 'Proud) of the chariot, of the poles, the hero,' unguents and ornaments;

8. With (the one Mantra, beginning with the words), 'A youth, splendidly arrayed,' a garment;

9. With (the one Mantra, beginning with the word), 'Blooming,' a flower;

10. With (the one Mantra, beginning with the

[3, 4. See LXIV, 18.

5. This Mantra is found Atharva-veda I, 6, 4; XIX, 2, 2; Taitt. Ârany. VI, 4, 1. Nand. states that it is kathasâkhîya, from the Sâkhâ of the Kathas; but I have not found it in the Berlin MS. of the Kâthaka, the only complete MS. in existence of that work.

6. See LXIV, 18.

7.. This Mantra also belongs to the Katha school, according to Nand. It is not found in the MS. of the Kâthaka, but it occurs in the Taitt. Brâhm. II, 7, 7, 2. The above translation is in part according to Sâyana's Commentary on the Taitt. Brâhm.

8. Rig-veda III, 8, 4, &c.

9. Taitt. Samh. IV, 2, 6, 1; Kâth. XVI, 13; Atharva-veda VIII, 7, 27. Nand. says that it is a Taittirîya Mantra.

10. Kâth. II, 7; Vâgas. Samh. I, 8 (cf. Mahîdhara's Commentary). Nand. says that it is a Taittirîya Yagus.]

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words), 'Thou art murderous (dhûr), slay (dhûrva) (the slayer),' incense (dhûpa);

11. With (the one Mantra, beginning with the words), 'Thou art splendour and light,' a lamp;

12. With (the one Mantra, beginning with the words, 'I have praised) Dadhikrâvan,' a Madhuparka (honey-mixture);

13. With the eight Mantras (beginning with the word), 'Hiranyagarbha,' an offering of (other) eatables.

14. A chowrie, a fan, a looking-glass[1], an umbrella, a (palanquin or other) vehicle, and a (throne or other) seat, all these objects he must announce (and place before) the god (Vishnu), muttering the Gâyatrî (at the same time).

15. After having thus worshipped him, he must mutter the Purushasûkta. After that, he who wishes to obtain eternal bliss must make oblations of clarified butter, while reciting the same hymn.
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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

Postby admin » Tue Apr 27, 2021 11:33 pm

LXVI.

1. He must not make an oblation to the gods or to the manes with water collected at night.

2. He must not give any other fragrant substance than sandal, or musk, or (fragrant) wood (of the odoriferous Devadâru tree), or camphor, or saffron, or the wood of the Gâtîphala tree;

3. Nor a garment dyed with indigo;

[11. Vâgas. Samh. XXII, 1. Nand. states that this Mantra belongs to the Sâkhâ of the Kathas; but I have not met with it in the Kâthaka.

12. Rig-veda IV, 39, 6, &c.

13. Rig-veda X, 121, 1-8; Kâth. XL, 1, &c.

14. 1 Thus the term mâtrâ is interpreted by Nand.]

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4. Nor an ornament made of factitious jewels or gold;

5. Nor (a flower) having a nasty odour;

6. Nor one that has no odour at all;

7. Nor one grown upon a thorny plant.

8. But he may give even a flower grown upon a thorny plant, if it is white and sweet-smelling.

9. He may give even a red flower, if it is saffron, or a water-flower (such as the red lotus).

10. (He must) not (give) any animal substance (such as claws or horns) for the incense.

11. (He must) not (give) anything but clarified butter or oil for the lamp.

12. (He must) not (give) forbidden food at the offering of eatables;

13. Nor the milk of goats or female buffalos, though it is lawful food (otherwise);

14. Nor the flesh of five-toed animals, of fishes, and of boars.

15. Fully prepared for the sacrifice and pure, he must announce (and offer up to Vishnu) all the oblations, with his mind fixed upon the deity, with a cheerful heart, and free from precipitation or anger.
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