The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

That's French for "the ancient system," as in the ancient system of feudal privileges and the exercise of autocratic power over the peasants. The ancien regime never goes away, like vampires and dinosaur bones they are always hidden in the earth, exercising a mysterious influence. It is not paranoia to believe that the elites scheme against the common man. Inform yourself about their schemes here.

Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

Postby admin » Tue Apr 27, 2021 11:33 pm


1. After having swept the place around the (kitchen) fire, sprinkled it with water all around,

[9. The particle ka indicates that fragrant oleander and the like is also permitted. (Nand.)

13. See LI, 38.

14. This prohibition refers to those species of five-toed animals, fish, and boars, whose flesh is not in general forbidden. (Nand.) See LI, 3, 6, 21.

LXVII. 1-32. Âsv. I, 2; Gobh. I, 4; Pâr. I, 12; II, 9; Sânkh. II, {footnote p. 212} 14; M. III, 84-94; Y. II, 103-108; Âpast. II, 2, 3; II, 2, 4, 1.--13; Gaut. V, 10-18.--33-46. Âsv. I, 24; Gobh. IV, 10; Pâr. II, 9, 12-16; I, 3; Sânkh. II, 15-17; M. III, 99, 100, 102, 101 111-118; Y. I, 107-113; Âpast. II, 2, 4, 11-20; II, 3; II, 4; Gaut. V, 21-45. Regarding the parallel passages of the Kâthaka and Mânava Grihya-sûtras, see the Introduction. This chapter treats of the Vaisvadeva sacrifice. (Nand.)]

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strewed (Kusa grass) all around, and sprinkled (the latter) with water all around, he must take out of all dishes the uppermost part and offer it:

2. To Vâsudeva, to Sankarshana, to Pradyumna, to Aniruddha, to Purusha, to Satya, to Akyuta, to Vâsudeva.

3. Afterwards (he must offer twelve burnt-oblations) to Agni, to Soma, to Mitra, to Varuna, to Indra, to Indra and Agni united, to the Visvedevâs, to Pragâpati, to Anumati, to Dhanvantari, to Vâstoshpati, and to Agni Svishtakrit (the god of the fire who causes the proper performance of the sacrifice).

4. Then let him make a Bali-offering with that which has been left of the dishes.

5. To (the serpent demons) Taksha and Upataksha,

6. (Strewing the two Balis) on both sides of the fire, to the east of it (on the north-eastern side first, and on the south-eastern side afterwards).

[1. Nand. infers from a text of Saunaka, that the particle atha points to the recitation of the Purushasûkta as an initiatory ceremony.

2. Regarding this Sûtra, see the Introduction. The oblations to be offered are eight in number, one for each invocation.

3. Devapâla, in his Commentary on the corresponding section of the Kâthaka Grihya-sûtra, states that the deities to whom burnt oblations are offered (Sûtra 3) shall be invoked with the word svâhâ, 'hail!' and those for whom Bali-offerings are strewed upon the ground, with the word namah, 'adoration.'

6-8. These three Sûtras have been translated in accordance {footnote p. 213} with Devapâla's readings and his remarks on them. Nand. wrongly refers the four names mentioned in 7 to the four quarters of the globe. The Mantra quoted in 7 is found complete in the Kâthaka, XL, 4, and, in a modified form, in the Taitt. Samh. IV, 4, 5, 1.]

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7. (Then let him offer other seven Balis) to all (the seven Ishtakâs or goddesses of the bricks of the altar, also to the east of the fire, while pronouncing the Mantras), 'Thy name is Ambâ; thy name is Dulâ; thy name is Nitatnî (Nitatnir); thy name is Kupunîkâ (and so on).'

8. (He must offer four Balis with the Mantras), 'O Nandinî; O Subhagâ; O Sumangalî; O Bhadrankarî,' (placing the Balis) in the corners (beginning with the south-eastern corner and proceeding) towards the south.

9. (He must place two Balis), addressed to Sri Hiranyakesî and to the trees, near the firm pillar[1].

10. (He must place two Balis), addressed to Dharma and Adharma and to Mrityu, near the door.

11. (He must place one Bali), addressed to Varuna, in the water-jar.

12. (With the words, 'Adoration be) to Vishnu,' (he must place one Bali) in the mortar.

13. (With the words, 'Adoration be) to the Maruts,' (he must place one Bali) on the mill-stone.

14. (In the apartment) on the roof (let him place two Balis) addressed to Vaisrâvana (Kubera) the king, and to all created beings.

15. (With the words, 'Adoration be) to Indra and to Indra's ministers,' (he must place two Balis). in the eastern part (of the house).

[9. 1 'I. e. the pillar which supports the house.' (Nand.) It appears from an analogous passage of the Mânava Grihya-sûtra, that a pillar in the middle of the house is meant.]

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16. (With the words, 'Adoration be) to Yama and to Yama's ministers,' (he must place two Balis) in the southern part..

17. (With the words, 'Adoration be) to Varuna and to Varuna's ministers,' (he must place two Balis) in the western part.

18. (With the words, 'Adoration be) to Soma and to Soma's ministers,' (let him place two Balis) in the northern part.

19. (With the words, 'Adoration be) to Brahman and to Brahman's ministers,' (let him place two Balis) in the centre (of the house).

20. (Let him throw) in the air (a Bali) addressed to Âkâsa (the air).

21. (With the words, 'Adoration be) to the goblins roaming by day,' (let him place a Bali) on the sacrificial ground.

22. (With the words, 'Adoration be to the goblins) roaming by night,' (let him offer a Bali in the same place at the Vaisvadeva which takes place) at night.

23. Afterwards he must offer upon blades of Kusa grass, having the points turned towards the south, balls of rice to his father, to his grandfather, and to his great-grandfather, to his mother, to his grandmother, and to his great-grandmother, proclaiming at the same time their name and race (and adding the word Svadhâ, 'reverence').

24. Along with the balls of rice let him give ointments, flowers, incense, eatables, and the like.

25. After having fetched a jar with water, let him

[24. 'And the like' means betel and the sacrificial fee for the Brâhmanas.' (Nand.)

25. This has to be done with the words, svastitvam brûhi, 'say {footnote p. 215} the benediction.' (Nand.) The benediction, according to Devapâla, consists of the Purushasûkta, the Kanikrada (Vâgas. Samh. XIII, 48), and other Mantras.]

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cause a Brâhmana to say the benediction (and give him the jar).

26. (The share) of dogs, crows, and Svapakas let him strew upon the earth.

27. And let him give (a mouthful of food as) alms.

28. By honouring guests he obtains the highest reward.

29. Let him assiduously honour a guest who arrives in the evening (after the Vaisvadeva is over).

30. Let him not suffer a guest to stay at his house unfed.

31. As the Brâhmanas are lords over all other castes, and as a husband is lord over his wives, a guest is the lord of a householder.

32. By honouring a guest he obtains heaven.

33. (One who has arrived as) a guest and is obliged to turn home disappointed in his expectations, takes away from the man, to whose house he has come, his religious merit, and throws his own guilt upon him.

34. A Brâhmana who stays for one night only as a guest, is called atithi (a guest); because he does not stay for a long time, therefore is he termed atithi.

[27. According to Nand., who argues from a passage of Baudhâyana. the particle ka implies that he should feed Brâhmanas also.

33. This proverb is also found in the Mahâbhârata XII, 6995, in the Hitopadesa I, 56 (64 ed. Johnson), and in the Mârkandeya-purâna XXIX, 31. See Böhtlingk, Ind. Sprüche, 134.

34. Atithi in this derivation is supposed to mean one who does not stay for a whole tithi or lunar day.']

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35. Let him not consider a Brâhmana fellow-villager or an acquaintance as his guest, though he has come to the house where his wife and his fires are.

16. But if a Kshatriya has come to his house in the way of a guest, let him hospitably entertain him also, to his heart's desire[1], after the Brâhmana guests have eaten.

37. Should a Vaisya or a Sûdra come to his house as guests, he must even give food to them (at the same time and) with his servants, and treat them with kindness (but not like guests in the proper sense of the term).

38. To (members of) other castes (such as Mûrdhâvasiktas) and to friends (or relatives or) other such persons, who have come to his house out of attachment, let him offer such food as happens to be there, to the best of his power, at the time when his wife takes her meal.

39. One recently married (but not yet delivered to her husband), an unmarried damsel, a sick woman, and a pregnant woman: to these let him give food unhesitatingly, even before his guests.

40. The foolish man who eats first himself, without having offered food to those (persons that have been mentioned), is not aware that he will himself be food (after death) for dogs and vultures.

41. After the Brâhmanas, (the Kshatriyas who have come as guests), the friends and relatives, (the parents and others) whom he is bound to maintain,

[36. 1 This is Kullûka's rendering of the term kâmam (on M III, 111). According to Nand., it means that he is at liberty to feed such guests or no.

38. The wife takes her meal when the husband has eaten. (Nand.)]

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(and the servants) have made their repast, let man and wife eat the leavings themselves.

42. Having shown honour to the gods, to the manes, to men, to those whom he is bound to maintain, and to the household deities (as well as to dogs, crows, and the rest), let a householder enjoy that which has been left.

43. He who cooks food for himself only, cats nothing but sin: for that alone is considered as fit food for the virtuous, which is left, after the (customary) oblations have been offered.

44. By the daily recitation of the Veda, by the Agnihotra, by sacrificing, and by austerity, a householder does not obtain such excellent places of abode (after death) as by honouring a guest.

45. Whether he arrives in the evening or in the morning, he must offer a seat and water to his guest, and food, to the best of his ability, after having shown him marks of honour as the law directs[1].

46. By giving (to a guest) shelter, a bed, ointments for his feet, and a lamp: for each of these gifts singly he reaps the same reward as for the gift of a cow.
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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

Postby admin » Tue Apr 27, 2021 11:33 pm


1. He must not eat during an eclipse of the moon or of the sun.

[45. 'For the rules regarding the reception of a guest, see Âsv. I, 2 4, and the other Grihya-sûtras; M. III, 119 seq., and the other Dharmasâstras.

LXVIII. 12. M. IV, 55.--14. M. IV, 45; Y. I, 131; Âpast. II, 8, 19, 18.--19. M. IV, 74.--20. M. IV, 65.--21. M. IV, 63; Gaut. IX, 56.--23. M. IV, 74.--26. M. III, 106; Âpast. II, 4, 8, 4.--27. M. IV, 62; Âpast. II, 8, 18, 1; II, 8, 20, 10; Gaut. IX, 58.--29, M. IV, 75.--34. M. IV, 76.--37. M. IV, 37; Y. {footnote p. 218} I, 135.--38. M. IV, 82.--40. Âpast. I, 11, 31, 1.--42, 43. M. II, 54; Y. I, 31; Gaut. IX, 59.--46. Sânkh. IV, 11, 10; M. IV, 43; Y. I, 131; Gaut. IX, 32.--47. M. IV, 63; Y. I. 138; Âpast. II, 1, 1, 3; Gaut. IX, 9.--48. M. IV, 62.--49. M. IV, 65; Gaut. XVII, 13. 'The injunctions regarding meals having been given in the previous chapter, he now proceeds to propound some prohibitions concerning the same subject.' (Nand.)]

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2. He shall eat, after having previously bathed, when the eclipse is over.

3. If (the sun or moon) have set before the eclipse was over, he must bathe, and on the next day he may eat again, after having seen (the sun or moon rise),

4. A cow or a Brâhmana having met with a calamity, he must not eat on that day.

5. If the king has met with an accident, (he must not eat on that day).

6. An Agnihotrin, who is absent on a journey, must eat at that time of the day when the Agnihotra is supposed to be over.

7. He may also eat at that time of the day when the Vaisvadeva is supposed to be over.

8. On the days of new and full moon (he may eat at that time) when he supposes the sacrifice customary on those days to have been performed.

[2, 3. Nand. states that in both of these Sûtras it has to be understood, that the bath occasioned by the eclipse must be followed by the ordinary bath, which precedes every meal.

6. An Agnihotrin is one who daily performs the Agnihotra. Regarding the Agnihotra and the times for its performance, see LIX, 2.

7. The term Vaisvadeva includes not only the oblation to the Visvedevâs (LXVII, 3), but also the Bali-offerings and the entertainment of a guest, &c., as prescribed in LXVII, 4 seq. (Nand.)

8. According to Nand., the use of the particle ka implies, that this rule applies equally to the first days of the moon's increase and wane.]

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9. He must not eat during an indigestion;

10. Nor at midnight; 11. Nor at noon;

12. Nor in the twilight;

13. Nor dressed in wet clothes;

14. Nor without his upper garment;

15. Nor naked;

16. Nor in water (nor in a boat)

17. Nor lying stretched out on the back;

18. Nor sitting on a broken stool;

19. Nor reclining on a couch;

20. Nor from a broken dish;

21. Nor having placed the food on his lap;

22. Nor (having placed the food) upon the ground;

23. Nor from the palm of his hand.

24. That food which has been seasoned with salt (after having been cooked) he must not eat.

25. He must not abuse children (eating in the same row with him).

26. (He must) not (eat) dainties alone.

27. (He must) not (eat) substances from which the fat has been extracted.

28, Nor (must he eat) roasted grain in the daytime.

29. At night (he must not eat) anything mixed with sesamum-seeds.

[9. According to Nand., the use of the particle ka implies a prohibition to eat again, after having partaken of a Srâddha meal.

15. See note on LXIV, 5.

24. Nand., quoting a passage of Vasishtha (XIV, 28), states the use of the particle ka to imply, that food twice cooked and food cooked in a frying-pan should also be avoided.

27. This rule refers to skimmed milk and to a dough made of ground sesamum, from which the oil has been extracted. (Nand.)]

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30. Nor (must he eat at night) sour milk or ground barley.

31. Nor (must he eat) the leaves of the mountain ebony, or of the banyan, or of the holy fig-tree, or of the hemp plant.

32. (He must) not (eat) without having first given to eat (to the gods and to the Brâhmanas); Nor without having made a burnt-offering first

34. Nor without having sprinkled his feet;

35. Nor without having sprinkled his hands and his face;

36. While having the remains of food en his mouth or hands, he must not take clarified butter.

37. Nor must he look at the moon, or at the sun, or at the stars (while unclean).

38. Nor must he touch his head (while unclean).

39. Nor must he recite the Veda (while unclean).

40. He must eat facing the east;

41. Or facing the south;

42. And after having honoured his food[1];

43. And cheerfully, adorned with a garland of flowers, and anointed with unguents.

[42. 'Nand. describes the ceremony of 'honouring one's food' as follows: 'He must first sprinkle the food, while reciting the Gâyatrî and the Vyâhritis (see LV, 10). Then he must sprinkle water all around it, with the Mantra, "Forsooth, I sprinkle righteousness around thee" After that he must sip water with the Mantra, "Thou art an imperishable basis" (Taitt. Ârany. X, 32, rendered according to Sâyana's Commentary), and offer up five oblations to Prâna, &c. (see Dr. Bühler's note on Âpast. II, 1, 1, 2). Finally he must eat in silence, without blaming the food, and taking care to leave some remnant of it in the dish, and sip water again, with the Mantra, "Thou art an imperishable covering"' (Taitt. Ârany. X, 35, according to Sâyana).]

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44. He must not eat up his food completely;

45. Unless it consist of sour milk, or honey, or (clarified) butter, or milk, or ground barley, or meat, or sweetmeats.

46. He must not eat together with his wife, nor in the open air, nor standing, nor in the presence of many (hungry spectators), nor must many eat in the presence of one (hungry spectator).

47. Let him never eat in an empty house, in a house where the sacred fires are preserved, or in a temple dedicated to the gods. Neither must he drink water out of his joined hands, or satiate himself to repletion.

48, Let him not take a third meal (over and above the two regular meals in the mornings and evenings), nor let him ever take unwholesome food. He must eat neither too early, nor too late, and he must take no food in the evening, after having fully satiated himself in the morning.

49. He must not eat bad food (whether injurious to health or otherwise reprehensible), nor from a bad dish (which is similar to the dishes used by barbarians, or which has been defiled by a wicked man eating from it), nor lying on the ground, nor with his feet raised upon a bench, nor sitting on his hams with a cloth tied round his legs and knees.

[46. Nand. thinks that this rule refers to those wives only who belong to a lower caste than their husbands.

48. 'Too early' means before sunrise; 'too late' means immediately before sunset. (Nand.)]

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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

Postby admin » Tue Apr 27, 2021 11:34 pm


1. He must not have connection with his wife on the eighth, or fourteenth, or fifteenth day of the half-month.

2. And (he must avoid connubial intercourse) after having partaken of a Srâddha;

3. And after having given (a Srâddha);

4. And after having been invited to a Srâddha;

5. And while performing a vow of abstinence (such as that to be kept on the day before a Srâddha, or the fast to be observed on the eleventh day of the half-month);

6. And one who has performed the initiatory ceremony of a Soma-sacrifice;

7. And in a temple, in a burial-ground, and in an empty house;

8. And at the root of a tree (or shrub);

9. And in the day-time; 10. And in the twilight;

11. And with one unclean (or in her courses);

12. And while he is unclean himself; 13. And with one anointed with unguents; 14. And being anointed himself; 15. And with one sick; 16. And while he is sick himself,

17. He must not have connection, if he wishes to enjoy a long life, with a woman who has a limb too little, nor with one who has a limb too much, nor with one older than himself, nor with a pregnant woman.

[LXIX. 1. M. IV. 128; Y. I, 79.--9. Âpast. II, 1, 1, 16.--15. Gaut. IX, 28. The subject of daily duties being absolved, he now goes on to state (in Chapters LM, LXX) the rules that must be observed during the night. (Nand.)

4. The invitations to a Srâddha are issued on the day before it is to take place. (Nand.)]

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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

Postby admin » Tue Apr 27, 2021 11:34 pm


1. He must not sleep with his feet wet;

2. Nor facing the north or the west;

3. Nor naked; 4. Nor on wet (fresh) bamboo;

5. Nor in the open air;

6. Nor on a bedstead made of Palâsa-wood;

7. Nor on one made of the wood of five trees;

8. Nor on one made of the wood of a tree which has been split by an elephant;

9. Nor on a bedstead made of the wood of a tree that has been kindled by lightning;

10. Nor on a broken bedstead;

11. Nor on one made of scorched wood;

12. Nor on one made of the wood of a tree that used to be watered with a jar;

13. Nor in a burial-ground, nor in an empty house, nor in a temple;

14. Nor with people who are restless of limb;

15. Nor with women;

16. Nor on grain, nor (in a stable of) cows, nor (on the couch of any of his) Gurus, nor on the fireplace, nor (in a building dedicated to the) gods.

17. He must not sleep while the remnants of

[LXX. 1. M. IV, 76.--2. Y. I, 136.--3. Âsv. III, 9, 6; M. IV, 75; Gaut. IX, 60.--13. M. IV, 57.--17. Sânkh. IV, 11, 17; Âpast. I, 1, 2, 24; Gaut. II, 13.

7. Nand. mentions three explanations of this term: 1. a bedstead made of five pieces of wood (or of the wood of five trees); 2. a bedstead made of any of the five kinds of wood enumerated in the Vishnu-purâna; 3. a bedstead made of any of the five kinds of wood enumerated in Sûtras 8-12. The second explanation is inadmissible, because part of the species of wood mentioned in the passage of the Vishnu-purâna referred to as identical with those enumerated in Sûtras 8-12.]

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food are on his hands or face, nor in the day-time, nor in the twilight, nor upon ashes, nor in a place soiled (by excrements and the like), nor in a wet place, nor on the top of a mountain.
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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

Postby admin » Wed Apr 28, 2021 12:20 am


1. Now[1] he must not contemn any one (whether of equal rank, or of higher or lower rank than himself).

[LXXI. 1. M. IV, 135; Y. I, 153.--2. M. IV, 141.--3. Gaut. II, 17.--4. Gobh. III, 5, 29.--4-6. M. IV, 17, 18; Y. I, 129, 123.--8. M. IV, 19.--9. M. IV, 34; Âpast. I, 11, 30, 13; Gaut. IX, 3.--11. Gobh. III, 5, 15.--13-16. M. IV, 36; Y. I, 133.--x 4. Sânkh. IV, 11, 21.--17-21. M. IV, 37.--17, 18. Pâr. II, 7, 6; Sânkh. IV, 11, 2; Âpast. I, 11, 31, 20.--23. Pâr. II, 7, 8; M. IV, 38.--25. M. IV, 4 3.--26. Âsv. III, 9, 6; Sânkh. IV, 11, 1; M. IV, 53; Y. I, 135; Gaut. IX, 48.--32-35. M. IV, 56, 53; Y I, 137.--36, 37. M. IV, 54, 53; Y. I, 137.--39. M. IV, 65.--40. Âpast. II, 8, 20, 11; Gaut. IX, 32.--42, 43. M. IV, 70; Âpast. I, 11, 32, 28; Gaut. IX, 51.--44. M. IV, 69.--45. M. IV, 74; Y. I, 138; Gaut. II, 17.--46. M. IV, 69.--47. M. IV, 66; Gaut. IX, 4, 5.--48-52. M. IV, 80.--53. Sânkh.. IV, 12, 18; M. IV, 82.--54. M. IV, 250; Y. I, 214.--55. M. IV, 55.--56. M. IV, 57; Y. I, 138.--58. M. IV, 57; Sânkh. IV, 11, 6.--59. Sânkh. IV, 11, 6; Gaut. IX, 16.--60. M. IV, 58.--61, 62. Âpast. I, 11, 31, 9, 10.--62. Pâr. II, 7, 14; M. IV, 59; Y. I, 140; Gaut, IX, 23.--63-68. M. IV, 60, 61.--69-71. M. IV, 63, 64.--70. Pâr. II, 7, 3.--72-74. M. IV, 138; Y. I, 132.--75. Y. I, 153.--76. M. IV, 137; Y. I, 153.--77. M. IV, 94.--79. M. IV, 144.--80, 81. M. IV, 164.--82. M. VIII, 299.--83- M. IV, 135; Y. I, 153.--84, 85. M. IV, 176; Y. I, 156.--86. M. IV, 150.--87. M. IV, 2, 246; Gaut. IX, 73.--90. M. IV, 155; Y. I, 154.--91, 92. M. IV, 156, 158.

1. 'This chapter treats of the duties of a Snâtaka (see XXVIII, 42, note). The particle atha, 'now,' however, signifies that some of these duties are common to the Snâtaka and to the householder, whose special duties have been treated in the previous chapters. (Nand.)]

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2. He must not mock those who have a limb too little or a limb too much, who are ignorant, or who are poor.

3. He must not serve low people.

4. Let him not engage in work that may keep him from repeating (or teaching) the Veda.

5. Let him wear such a dress as becomes his age,

6. And his sacred knowledge, his descent, his means, and his country.

7. He must not be overbearing.

8. He must constantly consult the holy laws and other (salutary, precepts relating to the acquisition of wealth, wisdom, and freedom from disease).

9. He must not wear a worn-out or filthy dress, if he has means (enough to procure a new one).

10. (Even though he lacks firewood or the like necessaries) he must not say to another man,

have got none.'

11. He must not wear a garland of flowers which has no smell at all, or an offensive smell, or which is red.

12. Let him wear a garland of water-flowers even though they be red.

13. And (he must wear) a staff made of bamboo;

14. And a jar with water;

15. And a sacrificial string made of cotton thread;

16. And two golden ear-rings.

[2. The particle ka refers to ugly persons and the rest, enumerated by Manu IV, 141. (Nand.)

8. The use of the particle ka implies, according to Nand., that his frame of mind and his speech should also be in conformity with his age, &c., as ordained by Manu IV, 18.

13-16. Nand., arguing from texts of Baudhâyana and of Manu (IV, 36), takes the use of the particle ka in Sûtras 13 and 14 to {footnote p. 226} imply that a Snâtaka must wear three garments, an under garment, an upper garment, and a mantle, and in Sûtra 16, that he must carry about him a bushel of Kusa grass.]

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17, He must not look at the rising sun;

18. Nor at the setting (sun);

19. Nor (must he look at the sun) shining through an awning of cloth (under which he is lying).

20. Nor at the sun reflected in a looking-glass or in water;

21. Nor at the midday sun;

22, Nor at the face of any of his Gurus while hie is angry;

23. Nor at his own image reflected in oil or in water;

224. Nor reflected in a dirty looking-glass;

25. Nor at his wife eating;

26. Nor at a naked woman;

27. Nor at a man in the act of discharging urine (or voiding excrements);

28. Nor at an elephant (or other dangerous animal) broken loose from the rope that ties him;

29. Nor at a fight between bulls (or elephants or buffalos) or the like animals, while he is him self standing in a (crowd or any other) place, from which it would be difficult for him to effect his escape;

30. Nor at one insane;

[19. This rule appears to refer, likewise, to the custom of suspending, by a tree or a post, an upper garment or a piece of cloth, in order to ward off the rays of the sun.

20. The particle ka here is used, according to Nand., in order to include 'the sun, while it is eclipsed,' as mentioned by Manu IV, 37.

29. 'As, shown by ka, a place where arrows, spears, or other missiles are falling down, is also intended here.' (Nand.)]

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31. Nor at one intoxicated;

32. He must not throw any impure substances into the fire;

33. Nor blood; 34. Nor poison;

35. Neither (must he throw any of those substances) into water.

36. He must not step over a fire.

37. He must not warm his feet (by the fire).

38. He must not wipe (the dirt from his feet) with blades of Kusa grass.

39. He must not wash (his feet) in a vessel of white copper.

40. He must not (wash) one foot with the other,

41. He must not scratch the ground (with a piece of wood or the like).

42. He must not crush clods of earth.

43. He must not cut grass.

44. He must not tear his nails or the hairs (of his beard or others) with his teeth.

45. He must avoid gambling;

46. And the heat of the sun just risen.

47. He must not wear a garment, or shoes, or a garland, or a sacrificial string which had before been worn by another.

48. He must not give advice to a Sûdra;

49. Nor (must he give him) the leavings of his food, nor the residue of an oblation (unless he is his own servant);

[46. Besides the above interpretation of the term bâlâtapa, which is proposed by Kullûka also (on M. IV, 69), Nand. mentions two others: i. the heat of that time of the day when the cows are collected for milking; 2. the heat of the autumn season. The particle ka, according to Nand., is used in order to include the smoke of a burning corpse and the other forbidden objects mentioned by Manu IV, 69.]

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50. Nor (must he give him) sesamum;

51. Nor (must he point out) the sacred law to him;

52. Nor (must he prescribe) a penance (for him for atonement of a sin).

53. He must not scratch his head or his belly, with both hands joined.

54. He must not reject sour milk or the Sumanas flower (when offered to him).

55. He must not take off his garland (from his head) himself (but he may cause another to do so).

56. Let him not rouse (a superior) from sleep.

57. He must not (by harsh speeches and the like) render disaffected one who is well affected towards him.

58. He must not speak to a woman in her courses;

59. Nor to barbarians or low-caste persons.

60. When a sacred fire, or an idol, or a Brâhmana is near, he must stretch forth his right hand (from his upper garment).

61. If he sees a cow trespassing upon another man's field, he must not announce it (to the owner of that field).

62. And if he sees a calf sucking (at the udder of a cow, he must not announce it to the owner of the latter).

63. He must not endeavour to please overbearing men (by flattering their pretensions).

64. He must not dwell in a kingdom governed by a Sûdra king;

[54. Nand. states that this rule does not contain a vain repetition of the rule laid down above (LVII, 10), as the latter refers to householders and the former to Snâtakas.]

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65. Nor in one abounding with wicked people;

66. And he must not live (in a kingdom) in which there are no physicians;

67. Nor in one afflicted (with a disease or other calamity).

68. And (he must not stay) long on a mountain.

69. He must not (walk or otherwise) exert himself without a purpose.

70. He must not dance or sing.

71. He must not make a noise by slapping (his left arm, after having placed it upon his right shoulder, with his right hand).

72. He must not make vulgar speeches.

73. He must not tell an untruth.

74. He must not say disagreeable things.

75. He must not strike any one upon a vital part.

76. He must not despise himself if he wishes to enjoy long life.

77. He must often repeat his prayers at each twilight (if he wishes to live long).

78. He must not play with (venomous) serpents or with weapons.

79. He must not touch the cavities of his body without a cause.

80. He must not raise a stick against another man.

81. One who deserves punishment he must strike in order to punish him.

82. (He must strike) him upon his back with a shoot of bamboo or with a rope.

[75. 'Others' take this Sutra to mean, that he must not make public another man's misconduct. (Nand.) This interpretation is proposed by Vigñânesvara, on Yâgñavalkya I, 153.

7 9. See XXIII, 51.]

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83. He must take care not to revile a god, a Brâhmana, the Sâstras, or the high-minded (Rishis).

84. And (he must avoid) gain and pleasure repugnant to duty.

85. (He must avoid) even lawful acts which may give offence to mankind.

86. On the days of new and full moon let him make a propitiatory offering.

87. He must not cut even grass (on those two days).

88. He must adorn himself (with garlands, sandal, and the like).

89. Thus he must observe established customs.

90. Those customs, which have been explicitly ordained in revealed and in traditional texts, and which are practised by the virtuous, must always be observed by a righteous man with subdued passions.

91. By adhering to established usage he attains to old age; this is the way to obtain that state in the next life which he desires, and imperishable riches, this is the way to destroy the effect of (bodily) marks foreboding future misfortunes.

92. He who observes the usages established among the virtuous, who is a believer in revelation, and free from ill-will, lives a hundred years, even

[84. '"Or repugnant to the final liberation," as the use of the particle ka implies.' (Nand.) See Manu VI, 37.

85. The use of the particle ka, Nand. argues from Manu IV, 176, implies that acts which may cause future pain should also be avoided.

88. The use of the particle ka, according to Nand., implies that he must also observe auspicious rites and established customs, as ordained by Manu IV, 145. The latter injunction is, however, expressly given in the next Sûtra.]

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though he does not possess any external marks of prosperity.
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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

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1. He must persist in keeping his mind and his organs of sense under restraint.

2. Restraint of the mind implies restraint of the senses.

3. One who has acquired complete command over himself, gains this world and the next.

4. One who has no command over himself, reaps no fruit from any of his acts (whether worldly or tending to the acquisition of spiritual merit).

5. Self-restraint is the best instrument of purification; self-restraint is the best of auspicious objects; by self-restraint he obtains anything he may desire in his heart.

6. The man who rides (as it were) in a chariot drawn by his five senses and directed by his mind (as the charioteer), who keeps it on the path of the virtuous, can never be overcome by his enemies (lust, wrath, and greed), unless the horses (unrestrained by the charioteer) run away with the chariot.

7. As the waters (of all streams) are stored up (and reabsorbed) in the ocean, which, though being filled with them, remains unmoved and tranquil, even so that man, in whose mind the passions are stored up (and dissolved), obtains perfect calmness but not he who strives after the gratification of his desires.

[LXXII. 7 = Bhagavad-gîtâ, 70. This chapter treats of duties which are common to all the four orders. (Nand.)]

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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

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1. One desirous of celebrating a Srâddha must invite the Brâhmanas on the day before (it is to take place).

2. On the next day, in the forenoon, if it falls in the bright half of the month, and in the afternoon, if it falls in the dark half of the month, the Brâhmanas, who must have duly bathed and duly sipped water, must be placed by him, in the order of their seniority' (or) of their sacred knowledge, upon seats covered with Kusa grass.

3. (He must entertain) two (Brâhmanas) facing the east at the Srâddha of the gods (Visvedevâs), and three facing the north at the Srâddha of the manes;

4. Or one only at each Srâddha.

5. After having (worshipped the Visvedevâs and) offered a burnt-oblation: during the recitation of the first Pañkaka (pentad) at a Srâddha repast consisting

[LXXIII. 1-32. Âsv. II, 5, 11-14; IV, 7; Gobh. IV, 2-4; Pâr. III, 10, 48-55; Sânkh. IV, 1; M. III, 125, 204-259; Y. I, 225-248; Âpast. II, 7, 17, 11-19; Gaut. XV, Regarding the corresponding section of the Kâthaka Grihya-sûtra, see Introduction. This chapter opens the section on Srâddhas (funeral oblations), which consists of thirteen chapters (LXXIII-LXXXV. Nand.)

1. The Ekoddishta and Sapindîkarana Srâddhas have been described above, XXI. The rules given in the present chapter refer to all the remaining kinds of Srâddhas, See 5-9, LXXIV, LXXVI-LXXVIII.

2. 1 At the Srâddha of the manes the oldest Brâhmana represents the great-grandfather; the one next to him in age, the grandfather; the youngest of the three, the father of the sacrificer. (Nand.)

5-9. The three Pañkakas referred to in Sûtras 5-9 are respectively vv. 1-5, 6-10, and 11-15 of Kâthaka XXXIX, 10. (Nand.) The great majority of the Mantras quoted in Sûtras 11-26 have {footnote p. 233} not been traced in the Berlin US. of the Kâthaka, nor indeed in any other Samhitâ of the Veda, but there can be no doubt that they, belong, to the school of the Kathas, as nearly all are quoted by their Pratîkas in the Kâthaka Grihya-sûtra, and given at full in Devapâla's Commentary on the latter. The above renderings of the Pratîkas rest upon Devapâla's interpretations. That the rules in 5 seq. teach the performance of a Srâddha according to the rites of the Katha school, is confirmed by Nand. in his remarks on 5 seq. and 9 seq.]

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of undressed grain or performed for the gratification of a special desire[1];

6. At a Srâddha repast consisting of meat, during the recitation of the second Pañkaka;

7. At a new moon (Srâddha), during the recitation of the last Pañkaka;

8. On the Ashtakâs (or eighth days) of the (three) dark halves subsequent to the full moon day of the month Âgrahâyana (or Mârgasîrsha)[1], during the recitation of the first, second, and last Pañkakas respectively;

9. Likewise on the Anvashtakâs (or ninth days of the dark halves of those months);

10. He must invite the manes, after having received permission to do so from the Brâhmanas[1].

11. Having driven away the Yâtudhânas by strewing grains of sesamum and by reciting the two

[5. 1 See LXXVIll.

8. The days referred to are the eighth days of the dark halves of the months Mârgasîrsha, Pausha, and Mâgha.

9. 'And on the Srâddhas taking place on the seventh day of the dark half, as ka indicates.' (Nand.) This statement does not, however, deserve much credit, as such Srâddhas are neither mentioned in our work nor in the Kâthaka Grihya-sûtra.

10. 1 'The permission of the Brâhmanas has to be asked with the Mantra, "I shall invite (the manes);" and their answer must be, "Invite the,!"' (Nand.)

11. The Yâtudhânas are a class of demons supposed to disturb {footnote p. 234} the effect of a Srâddha. The second Mantra, according to Devapâla, is from the Rig-veda, X, 15, 1.]

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Mantras (the first of which begins with the words), 'May the Asuras go away;'

12. He must invite the manes (with the four Mantras), 'Come near, O ye manes,' '(Conduct) them all (here), O Agni,' 'May my (ancestors) come near,' 'This is your (share), O ye manes.' Then let him prepare the water for washing the feet with scented water, which has been mixed up with Kusa grass and sesamum, while reciting (the three Mantras), 'Those standing[1],' 'Speech is imperishable,' and 'What my mother (has sinned)[1],' and offer it (to the Brâhmanas); let him prepare the Arghya (or water mixed with Dûrvâ grass, flowers, &c.) and offer it to them; let him offer to the Brâhmanas, to the best of his power, Kusa grass, sesamum, clothes, flowers, ornaments, incense, and lamps; let him take food sprinkled with clarified butter; let him look them in the face with the Mantra, 'O ye Âdityas, Rudras, and Vasus;' let him say, 'I will offer an oblation in the fire,' and if the Brâhmanas say, 'Offer an oblation,' let him offer three burnt-oblations[2].'

13. After having consecrated the offerings with the Mantras, 'They, who are my ancestors,' 'This is your (share), O ye manes,' and 'This offering,' he must pour (what is left of) the food into such vessels as happen to be there, or (into golden ones at the offering addressed to the Visvedevâs and) into silver

[12. 1 These two Mantras are also quoted, with slight variations, by Sânkhâyana III, 13, 5.--2 The three burnt-oblations have to be accompanied by the recitation of the three Mantras, 'To Soma accompanied by the manes svadhâ namah; to Yama Angiras svadhâ namah; to Agni who takes the offerings addressed to the manes svadhâ namah.' (Nand.)]

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ones (at the offering addressed to the manes), and offer it first to the two Brâhmanas facing the east (who have been invited to the Srâddha of the gods).

14. Afterwards he must offer it to the (three) Brâhmanas facing north (who represent his three ancestors, addressing himself) to his father, grandfather and great-grandfather, (and calling out) their name and race.

15. While the Brâhmanas are eating the food, let him mutter (the three Mantras), 'Whatever (trickles down) through my fault,' 'With days and nights[1],' and 'Whatever (limb) of yours, Agni.'

16. And (let him mutter) the Itihâsa (Epics), Purâna (Legends), and the Dharmasâstra (Institutes of the Sacred Law).

17. Near the leavings let him deposit upon blades of Kusa grass with the ends turned towards the south one ball of rice for his father, while saying, 'Earth is (like) a spoon, imperishable (satisfaction).'

18. With the Mantra, 'Air is (like) a spoon, imperishable (satisfaction,' let him deposit) a second ball for his grandfather.

19. With the Mantra, 'Heaven is (like) a spoon, imperishable (satisfaction,' let him deposit) a third ball for his great-grandfather.

20. With the Mantra, 'Those ancestors who

[14. The formula of this invocation, according to Nand., is this, 'To NN., my ancestor, of the Gotra NN., who is like a Vasu, (I offer) this food, svadhâ namah.' The use of the particle ka, according to the same, implies that the maternal grandfather and the other maternal ancestors must also be addressed as ordained below (LXXV, 7).

15. 1 A similar Mantra is quoted, Sânkh, III, 13, 5.]

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have died,' let him place a garment (upon the balls).

21. With the Mantra, 'Give us sons, O ye manes,' (let him place) food upon them.

22. With the Mantra, 'Enjoy it, O ye manes, partake of it, (each according to his share[1],' let him wipe off the grease from his hands with the ends of the blades.

23, With the Mantra, '(Ye waters) imparting vigour[1],' let him sprinkle the balls to the right with the wet (remainder of the food), and offer the Argha[2], flowers, incense, unguents, and rice, and other victuals and dainties to the Brâhmanas.

24. And (he must offer them, ) a jar with water, which has been mixed up with honey, clarified butter, sesamum, and (ointments, oil, and the like).

25. The Brâhmanas having eaten and being satisfied, let him sprinkle the food (as much as has been left by them) and the grass with the Mantra, 'Mayest thou not fail me,' and strew the food near the leavings; and having asked them, 'Are you satisfied? Is (the Srâddha) finished,' he must first give water for sipping to the Brâhmanas facing the north, and then to those facing the east; and he must sprinkle the place where the Srâddha has been offered (with water, with the Mantra), 'Well sprinkled.' All these rites he must perform while holding blades of sacred grass in his hand.

26. Afterwards he must, while turning his face towards the Brâhmanas facing the east, circumambulate

[22. 1 Vâgasan. Samh. II, 31; Kâth. IX, 6.

23. 1 Vâgasan. Samh. II, 34.--2 The Argha is a respectful offering, tile ingredients of which vary.]

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them from left to right, with the Mantra, 'What a crow (may have eaten of my offering),' and turn back again; he must honour them with sacrificial fees, to the best of his power, saying, 'May you be satisfied,' and on their answering, 'We are satisfied,' he must address them with the Mantra, 'The gods and the manes.'

27. After having given (to all) water (with the Mantra, 'May the food and water and whatever else I gave you be) imperishable,' (and calling out their name and race, and having added the Mantra, 'May the Visvedevâs be satisfied,' he must ask, with folded hands, and with an attentive and cheerful mind, the following (benediction) from the Brâhmanas facing the east:

28. 'May the liberal-minded in our race increase in number, and may the (study of the) Vedas and our progeny (also increase). May faith not depart from us, and may we have plenty to bestow on the poor.

29. They shall answer, 'Thus let it be.'

30. (The second half of the benediction shall be, as follows), "May we have plenty of food, and may we receive guests. May others come to beg of us, and may not we be obliged to beg of any one.'

31. After having received this double benediction (through the Brâhmanas saying, 'Thus let it be'),

32. He must dismiss the Brâhmanas, with the Mantra, 'With all food[1],' after having honoured them according to custom, accompanied them (as far as the limits of his estate), and taken his leave of them.

[32. 1 Rig-veda VII, 38, 8.]

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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

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1. After having worshipped, on each Ashtakâ, the gods and performed, with vegetables, meat, and cakes respectively, a Srâddha (according to the rules given in the last chapter), he must, on each Anvashtakâ[1], worship the gods and offer a burnt-oblation in the same way as on the Ashtakâ (i.e. reciting the same three Pañkakas successively), and entertain Brâhmanas in the same way as (directed) before (in the preceding chapter), in honour of his mother, his paternal grandmother, and his paternal great-grandmother, honour them with presents, accompany them (as far as the limits of his estate), and dismiss them

2. Then he must dig (six) trenches.

3. On the border of these trenches, to the northeast of them, he must light fires and place balls of rice.

4. On the border of three of the trenches (he must place balls) for the men, and on the border of the other three (he must place balls) for the women.

[LXXIV. 1-8, Âsv. II, 5; Gobh. IV, 2; Pâr. III, 3, 10-12; Sânkh. III, 13, 6; M. IV, 150. Regarding the corresponding section of the Kâthaka Grihya-sûtra, see the Introduction.

1. 1 See LXXIII, 8, 9; LXXVI, 1.--2 Nand. considers the use of the particle ka to imply that the father together with the other paternal ancestors, and the maternal grandfather along with the other maternal ancestors, should also be invoked, which would make in all nine ancestors to be invoked. The first part of this observation appears to be correct, but the maternal grandfather and the rest are neither referred to in the following Sûtras, nor in the Kâthaka Grihya-sûtra.

2. Nand. gives it as his opinion, that nine trenches should be made, three of which are to be for the maternal grandfather, &c. But Sûtra 4 refers to three trenches for the men only, and the Kâthaka Grihya-sûtra expressly mentions the number of six trenches.]

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5. He must fill the three trenches for the men with water mixed with food.

6. (He must fill) the three trenches for the women with milk mixed with food.

7. (And he must fill up) each triad of trenches singly with sour milk, meat, and milk.

8. After having filled (the trenches), he must mutter the Mantra, 'May this (food) be imperishable for ye men and for ye women.'
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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

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1. He who makes a Srâddha-offering while his father is alive, must offer it to those persons to whom his father offers (his Srâddhas).

2. (If he offers a Srâddha) while both his father and grandfather are alive, (he must offer it to those persons) to whom his grandfather (offers his Srâddhas).

3. While his father, grandfather, and great-grandfather are alive, he must offer no Srâddha at all.

4. He whose father is dead (but whose grandfather is alive), must first of all offer a ball of rice to his father, after that, two balls to the two ancestors coming before his grandfather (or to his great-grandfather and to his fourth ascendant).

5. He whose father and grandfather are dead (but whose great-grandfather is alive), must first offer two balls to those two, and then offer one ball to the grandfather of his grandfather.

[7. Nand. renders this Sûtra differently, in accordance with his own theory regarding the number of the trenches.

[LXXV. 1. M. III, 220.--4. M. III, 221.--7. Y. I, 228.]

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6. He whose grandfather is dead (but whose father and great-grandfather are alive), must give one ball to his grandfather and two balls to the father and grandfather of his great-grandfather.

7. An intelligent man must offer Srâddhas to his maternal grandfather, and to the father and grandfather of him, in the same way (as to his paternal ancestors), duly modifying the Mantras. But the Srâddhas addressed to other relatives, (uncles, brothers, and the like, must be performed) without Mantras.
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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

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1. The (twelve) days of new moon, the three Ashtakâs, the three Anvashtakâs, a Mâgha day (i.e. 'day on which the moon enters the lunar asterism Maghâ'), which falls on the thirteenth of the dark half of the month Praushthapada, and the two seasons when rice and barley grow ripe (or autumn and spring):

[7. The Mantras are those quoted above, in Chapters LXXIII and LXXIV. They have to be modified, i. e. the names of the maternal ancestors must be put in, and the verb &c. of the sentence be altered accordingly. (Nand.)

LXXVI. I. M. III, 122, 273, 281; IV, 150; Y. I, 217, 260; Gaut. XV, 2; Âpast. II, 7, 16, 4-6.

1. Nand. infers from a passage of Âsvalâyana (Grihya-sûtra II, 4, 3) that Srâddhas to be offered on the day before each Ashtakâ are also intended here. See, however, note on LXXIII, 9. The same proposes two explanations of the term Mâghî: 1. It has to be separated from the following words, and refers directly to the day of full moon in the month Mâgha, and indirectly to the days of full moon in Âshâdha, Kârttika, and Vaisâkha as well, as indicated in a passage of the Brâhma-purâna. 2. It has to be connected with the clause following it. This latter interpretation, on which the rendering given above is based, is supported by Mann (III, 273,274), {footnote p. 241} Yâgñavalkya, (I, 260), according to the interpretations of Kullûka and Vigñânesvara, and by the Vishnu-sûtra itself (LXXVIII, 52).]

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2. Thus have the regular times for a Srâddha been declared by the lord of creatures. He who fails to perform a Srâddha on those days, goes to hell.
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