The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

That's French for "the ancient system," as in the ancient system of feudal privileges and the exercise of autocratic power over the peasants. The ancien regime never goes away, like vampires and dinosaur bones they are always hidden in the earth, exercising a mysterious influence. It is not paranoia to believe that the elites scheme against the common man. Inform yourself about their schemes here.

Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

Postby admin » Tue Apr 27, 2021 11:22 pm

XXVII.

1. The Nishekakarman (ceremony of impregnation)

[XXVII. 1-14. Âsv. I, 4-18; Gobh. II, 1-9; Pâr. I, 4-11, 1; Sânkh. I, 12-28; M. II, 29-35, 66, 67; Y. I, 11-13; Gaut. VIII, 14.--15-24, 26, 27. Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 21; M. II, 38-47; Y. I, {footnote p. 113} 14, 37, 38; Âpast. I, 1, 1, 18-21; I, 1, 25 33-3, 6; Gaut. I, 5, 11-26.--25. Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 22; M. II, 49; Y. I, 30; Âpast. I, 1, 3, 28-30; Gaut. II, 36.--28, 29. M. II, 174, 64.]

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must be performed when the season fit for procreating children[1] distinctly appears (for the first time).

2. The Pumsavana (ceremony to cause the birth of a male) must be performed before the embryo begins to move.

3. The Sîmantonnayana (ceremony of parting the hair) should take place in the sixth or eighth month (of pregnancy).

4. The Gâtakarman (birth-ceremony) should take place on the birth of the child.

5. The Nâmadheya (naming-rite) must be performed as soon as the term of impurity (caused by the birth of the child) is over.

6. (The name to be chosen should be) auspicious in the case of a Brâhmana;

7. Indicating power in the case of a Kshatriya;

8. Indicating wealth in the case of a Vaisya;

9. Indicating contempt in the case of a Sûdra.

[1. 1 'Garbha' here means 'ritu,' i.e. the time favourable for procreation, following immediately upon the menstrual evacuation, and the above ceremony should be performed once only, in order to consecrate the mother once for all. (Nand.)

2, 3. The embryo begins to move in the fourth month of pregnancy, and the Pumsavana must be performed in the second or third month of every pregnancy. Thus Nand., who combats expressly the opinion that this ceremony has the consecration of the mother, and not the consecration of the fœtus, for its object. Regarding the Sîmantonnayana he seems to consider both views as admissible. According to the former view it would have to be performed only once, like the Nishekakarman.

6-9. Nand. quotes as instances of such names: 1. Lakshmîdhara; 2. Yudhishthira; 3. Arthapati; 4. Lokadâsa or (observing, {footnote p. 116} at the same time, another rule regarding the second part of a compound name), 1. Vishnusarman; 2. Bhîmavarman; 3. Devagupta; 4. Dharmadâsa.]

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10. The Âdityadarsana, (ceremony of taking the child out to see the sun) should take place in the fourth month (after birth).

11. The Annaprâsana (ceremony of first feeding) should take place in the sixth month.

12. The Kûdâkarana '(tonsure rite) should take place in the third year [1].

13. For female children the same ceremonies, (beginning with the birth ceremony, should be performed, but) without Mantras.

14. The marriage ceremony only has to be performed with Mantras for them.

15. The initiation of Brâhmanas (should take plate) in the eighth year after conception[1];

16. Of Kshatriyas, in the eleventh year after conception[1];

17. Of Vaisyas,, in the twelfth year after conception[1];

18. Their girdles should be made of Muñga grass, a bow-string, and Balbaga (coarse grass) respectively.

19. Their sacrificial strings and their garments should be made of cotton, hemp, and wool respectively.

[10. According to Nand., who quotes a passage of Yama in support of his opinion, this Sûtra has to be divided into two, which would, however, require several words to complete their sense, the import of the first being, that the child should be taken out to see the sun in the third month, and to see the moon in the fourth month. See the Introduction.

12. 1 'The third year,' i. e. either after conception, or after birth. (Nand.)

15-17. 1 'Nand., 'or after birth.' See Pâr. and Âsv. loc. cit.]

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20. The skins (which they wear) should be those of a black antelope, of a tiger, and of a he-goat respectively.

2 1. Their staves should be made of Palâsa, Khadira, and Udumbara wood respectively.

22. Their staves should be of such a length as to reach the hair, the forehead, and the nose respectively.

23. Or all (kinds of staves may be used for all castes indiscriminately).

24. And they should not be crooked, nor should the bark be stripped off.

25. In begging alms, they should put in the word 'Lady' at the beginning, in the middle, and at the end of their request (according to their caste).

26. The ceremony of initiation must not be delayed beyond the sixteenth year in the case of a Brâhmana; beyond the twenty-second, in the case of a Kshatriya; and beyond the twenty-fourth, in the case of a Vaisya.

27. After that, the youths belonging to any of those three castes, who have not been initiated at the proper time, are excluded from initiation, and contemned by the twice-born, and are called Vrâtyas.

28. That skin, that cord, that girdle, that staff, and that garment which has been given to any one (on his initiation), that he must for ever wear when performing any religious observance.

29. His girdle, his skin, his staff, his string, and his ewer he must throw into the water when broken (or spoiled by use), and receive others consecrated with Mantras.

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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

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XXVIII.

1. Now[1] students shall dwell at their Guru's (spiritual teacher's) house.

2. They shall recite their morning and evening prayers.

3. (A student) shall mutter the morning prayer standing, and the evening prayer sitting.

4. He shall perform twice a day (in the mornings and evenings) the religious acts of sprinkling the ground (round the altar) and of putting fuel on the fire.

5. He must plunge into the waters like a stick.

[XXVIII. passim. Âsv. Grihya-s. I, 22; III, 7-9; Gobh. Grihya-s. II, 10, 42-III, 4; Pâr. Grihya-s. II, 4-6; Sânkh. Grihya-s. II, 6, 9-12; III, 1.--1. Âpast. I, 1, 2, 11.--3. M. II, 101; Y. I, 24, 25; Gaut. II, 11.--4. M. II, 108; Y. I, 25; Âpast. I, 1, 4, 16.--5. Âpast. I, 1, 2, 30.--6, 7. M. II, 73, 182; Y. I, 27; Âpast. I, 2, 5, 27; I, 1, 4, 23; Gaut. I, 54; II, 29, 30.--8. M. II, 41-47; Y. I, 29; Âpast. I, 1, 2, 33-I, 1, 3, 10; Gaut. I, 15, 16, 22.--9, 10. M. II, 183, 184, 51; Y. I, 29, 31; Âpast. I, 1, 3, 25, 32; Gaut II, 35, 37-39.--11, 12. M. II, 177-179, &c.; Y. I, 33. &c.; Âpast. I, 1, 2, 23-28, &c.; Gaut II, 13, &c.--13-23. M. II, 194, 71, 72. 122-124, 195-198; Âpast. I, 2, 4, 28; I, 2, 5, 12, 23; I, 2, 6, 5-9, 14; Gaut. II, 21, 25-28; I, 52; II, 14.--17. Y. I, 26.--24-26. M. II, 199, 200.--27, 28. M. II, 204; Âpast. I, 2, 8, II, 13.--29, 30. M. II, 205; Âpast. I, 2, 8, 19-21.--31-33. M. II, 208, 209; Âpast. I, 2, 7, 28, 30; Gaut. II, 31, 32.--34-36. M. III, 2; II, 168.--37-40. M. II, 169-172; Y II, 39; Âpast. I, 1, 1, 15-17; Gaut. I, 8.--41. M. II, 219; Âpast. I, 1, 2, 31, 32; Gaut. I, 27.---42. M. II, 245; Y. I, 51; Âpast. I, 11, 30, 1; Gaut. IX, I.--43-46. M. II, 243, 247, 248; Y. I, 49; Âpast. I, 2, 4, 29; Gaut. II, 5-8.--47. M. II, 249; Gaut. III. 9.--48-53. M XI, 121, 123, 124; II, 181, 187, 220.--51, 52. Y. III, 218, 281; Gaut. XXIII, 20.

1. 1 'I.e. after the performance of the initiation ceremony.' (Nand.)

5. The sense of this injunction, according to Nand., is, that he must not pronounce any bathing Mantras. But more probably it {footnote p. 117} is meant, that he shall swim motionless like a stick (see Âpast. I, 1, 2, 30, with Dr. Bühler's note). According to a third explanation, which is mentioned both by Haradatta and by Devapâla in his Commentary on the Kâthaka Grihya-sûtra, the sense would be, that he is not allowed, while bathing, to rub his skin, in order to clean himself with bathing powder and the like.]

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6. Let him study when called (by his teacher).

7. He shall act so as to please his Guru (spiritual teacher) and to be serviceable to him.

8. He shall wear his girdle, his staff, his skin, and his sacrificial string.

9. He shall go begging at the houses of virtuous persons, excepting those of his Guru's (and of his own) relatives.

10. He may eat (every morning and evening) some of the food collected by begging, after having received permission to do so from his Guru.

11. He must avoid Srâddhas, factitious salt, food turned sour[1], stale food, dancing, singing, women, honey, meat, ointments, remnants of the food (of other persons than his teacher), the killing of living beings, and rude speeches.

12.. He must occupy a low couch.

13. He must rise before his Guru and go to rest after him.

14. He must salute his Guru, after having performed his morning devotion.

15. Let him embrace his feet with crossed hands.

[11. 1 Nand. interprets sukta, 'food turned sour,' by 'rude speeches,' because if taken in its other meaning, it would be included in the next term, paryushita, 'stale food.' However, if Nand.'s interpretation were followed, it would coincide with the last term of this enumeration, aslîla, 'rude speeches;' and its position between two articles of food renders the above interpretation more plausible.]

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16. The right foot with his right hand, and the left foot with his left.

17. After the salutation (abhivâdaye, 'I salute') he must mention his own name and add the word 'bhos' (Venerable Sir) at the end of his address.

18. He must not speak to his Guru while he is himself standing, or sitting, or lying, or eating, or averting his face.

19. And let him speak, if his teacher sits, standing up; if he walks, advancing towards him; if he is coming near, meeting him; if he runs, running after him;

20. If his face is averted, turning round so as to face him;

21. If he is at some distance, approaching him;

22. If he is in a reclining position, bending to him;

23. Let him not sit in a careless attitude (such as e. g. having a cloth tied round his legs and knees, while sitting on his hams) before the eyes of his teacher,

24. Neither must he pronounce his mere name (without adding to it the word Srî or a similar term at the beginning).

25. He must not mimic his gait, his manner, his speech, and so on.

26. Where his Guru is censured or foully belied, there let him not stay.

27. Nor must he sit on the same seat with him,

28. Unless it be on a rock[1], on a wooden bench, in a boat, or in a carriage.

[28. 1 Thus according to Kullûka, (on M. II, 204). Nand. takes the term sîlaphalaka as a compound denoting a stone seat.']

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29. If his teacher's teacher is near, let him behave towards him as if he were his own teacher.

30. He must nor salute his own Gurus without his teacher's leave.

31. Let him behave towards the son of his teacher, who teaches him the Veda, as towards his teacher, even though he be younger or of an equal age with himself;

32. But he must not wash his feet,

33. Nor eat the leaving of his food.

34. Thus let him acquire by heart one Veda, or two Vedas, or (all) the Vedas.

35. Thereupon, the Vedângas (that treating of phonetics and the rest)[1].

36. He who, not having studied the Veda, applies himself to another study, will degrade himself, and his progeny with him, to the state of a Sûdra.

37. From the mother is the first birth; the second, from the girding with the sacrificial string.

38. In the latter, the Sâvitrî hymn is his mother, and the teacher his father.

39. It is this which entitles members of the three higher castes to the designation of 'the twice-born.'

40. Previous to his being girded with the sacrificial string, a member of these castes is similar to a Sûdra (and not allowed to study the Veda).

[30. Nand. here interprets Guru by 'a paternal uncle and the rest.'

31. This rule refers to a son of his spiritual teacher, who teaches him one or two chapters of the Veda, while the teacher himself is gone out for bathing or some such reason. Vâ, 'or,' is added in order to include a son of the teacher, who is himself a pupil, as Manu (II, 208) says. (Nand.)

35. 1 See Max Müller, Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 108 seq.

38. 1 Rig-Veda, III, 62, 10.]

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41. A student shall shave all his hair, or wear it tied in one lock.

42. After having mastered the Veda, let him take leave of his teacher and bathe, after having presented, him with a gift.

43. Or let him spend the remainder of his life at his teacher's house.

44. If, while he is living there, his teacher should die, let him behave to his teacher's son as towards his teacher himself;

45. Or[1] towards one of his wives, who is equal to him in caste.

46. On failure of such, let him pay homage to the fire, and live as a perpetual student.

47. A Brâhmana who passes thus without tiring (of the discharge of his duties) the time of his studentship will attain to the most exalted heavenly abode (that of Brahman) after his death, and will not be born again in this world.

48. A voluntary effusion of the semen by a twice-born youth (in sexual intercourse with a woman), during the period of his studentship, has been pronounced a transgression of the rule prescribed for students by expounders of the Vedas well acquainted with the system of duties.

49. Having loaded himself with that crime, be must go begging to seven houses, clothed only with the skin of an ass, and proclaiming his deed.

[42. After the solemn bath (see Âsv. III, 8, 9; Gobh. III, 4; Pâr. II, 6; Sânkh. III, 1), which terminates the period of studentship, the student, who is henceforth called Snâtaka, 'one who has bathed,' is allowed to return home.

45. 'According to Nand., the particle vâ, 'or,' is used in order to include another alternative, that of living with an old fellow-student, as directed by Gautama, III, 8.]

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50. Eating once a day only a meal consisting of the alms obtained at those (houses), and bathing at the three Savanas (dawn, noon, and evening), he will be absolved from guilt at the end of the year.

51. After an involuntary effusion of the semen during sleep, a twice-born student must bathe (on the next morning), worship the sun (by offerings of perfumes and the like), and mutter three times the Mantra, 'Again shall my strength return to me[1].'

52. He who for seven days omits to collect alms and to kindle the sacred fire, must perform the penance of an Avakîrnin (breaker of his vow), provided that he has not been prevented from the discharge of his duties by an illness.

53. If the sun should rise or set while a student is purposely indulging in sleep, ignoring (the precepts of law), he must fast for a day, muttering (the Gâyatrî one thousand and eight times).
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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

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XXIX.

1. He who having initiated a youth and instructed him in the Vratas[1], teaches him (one branch of) the Veda (together with its Angas, such as that relating to phonetics, and the rest) is called Âkârya (teacher).

[51. [1] Taitt. Ârany. I, 30.

XXIX. 1. Âpast. I, 1, 1, 13; Gaut., I, 9.--13. M. II. 140-143; Y. I, 34, 35.--7-10. M. II, 111, 112, 114, 115.--9, 10. See Bühler, Introd. to Digest, p. xxix.

1. The Vratas of a student are certain observances to be kept by him before he is admitted to the regular course of study of the Veda, and again before he is allowed to proceed to the study of the Mahânâmnî verses and to the other higher stages of Vedic learning. See, particularly, Sânkh. II, 11, 12, with Dr. Oldenberg's note (Ind. Stud. XV, 139).]

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2. He who teaches him (after he has been initiated by another) either (an entire branch of the Veda) in consideration of a fee, or part of a Veda (without taking a fee), is called Upâdhyâya (sub-teacher).

3. He who performs sacrifices (whether based upon Sruti or upon Smriti) is called Ritvig (officiating priest).

4. He must not engage a priest for the performance of sacrifices without having ascertained (his descent, character, and conduct).

5. Neither must he admit to his teaching (one whom he does not know).

6. And he must not initiate such a one.

7. If one answers improperly, or the other asks improperly[1], that one (or both) will perish or incur hatred.

8. If by instructing a pupil neither religious merit nor wealth are acquired, and if no sufficient attention is to be obtained from him (for his teacher's words), in such soil divine knowledge must not be sown: it would perish like fine seed in barren soil.

9. The deity of sacred knowledge approached a Brâhmana (and said to him), 'Preserve me, I am thy treasure, reveal me not to a scorner, nor to a wicked man, nor to one of uncontrolled passions: thus I shall be strong

10. 'Reveal me to him, as to a keeper of thy gem, O Brâhmana, whom thou shalt know to be pure, attentive, possessed of a good memory, and chaste, who will not grieve thee, nor revile thee.'

[7. 1 A proper question is, e. g. if the pupil modestly says, 'I don't know about this, therefore I want to be instructed.' An improper question is, e.g. if he says, 'Why do you pronounce this thus wrongly?' An improper answer is an answer to an improper question. (Nand.)]

p. 123
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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

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XXX.

1. After having performed the Upâkarman ceremony on the full moon of the month Srâvana, or of the month Bhâdra, the student must (pass over the two next days without studying, and then) study for four months and a half.

2. After that, the teacher must perform out of town the ceremony of Utsarga for those students (that have acted up to this injunction); but not for those who have failed to perform the ceremony of Upâkarman.

3. During the period (subsequent upon the ceremony of Upâkarman and) intermediate between it and the ceremony of Utsarga, the student must read the Vedângas.

4. He must interrupt his study for a day and a night on the fourteenth and eighth days of a month[1].

5. (He must interrupt his study for the next day

[XXX. 1-33. Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 130-134; Nakshatras II, 322, 338-339; M. IV, 95-123; II, 71, 74; Y. 12 142-151; Âpast. I, 3, 9-11; Gaut. XVI; I, 51, 53.--33-38. Âsv. III, 3, 3; M. II, 107; Y. I, 41-46.--41, 42. M. II, 116.--43-46. M. II, 117, 146-148, 144.

1-3. The annual course of Vedic studies opens with a ceremony called Upâkarman, and closes with a ceremony called Utsarga. The latter, according to the rule laid down in Sûtra 1, would fall upon the first day of the moon's increase, either in Pausha or in Mâgha. Nand. states that those students who have not performed the Upâkarman ceremony in due time must perform a penance before they can be admitted to the Utsarga; nor must those be admitted to it who have failed to go on to the study of another branch of the Veda at the ordinary time, after having absolved one.

4. 1 Nand., with reference to a passage of Hârîta, considers the use of the plural and of the particle ka to imply that the study must also be interrupted on the first and fifteenth days.

5. 1 This refers to the second days of the months Phâlguna, Âshâdha, and Kârttika. (Nand.)]

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and night) after a season of the year has begun[1], (and for three nights) after an eclipse of the moon.

6. (He must not study for a day and a night) when Indra's flag is hoisted or taken down.

7. (He must not study) when a strong wind is going,

8. (He must not study for three days) when rain, lightning, and thunder happen out of season[1].

9. (He must not study till the same hour next day) in the case of an earthquake, of the fall of a meteor, and when the horizon is preternaturally red, as if on fire.

10. (He must not study) in a village in which a corpse lies;

11. Nor during a battle;

12. Nor while dogs are barking, jackals yelling. or asses braying;

13. Nor while the sound of a musical instrument is being, heard;

14. Nor while Sûdras or outcasts are near;

15. Nor in the vicinity of a temple, of a burial-ground, of a place where four ways meet, or of a high road;

16. Nor while immersed in water;

17. Nor with his foot placed upon a bench;

18. Nor while riding upon an elephant, a horse, or a camel, (or in a carriage drawn by any of those animals), or being borne in a boat, or in a carriage drawn by oxen;

19. Nor after having vomited;

[8. 1 'I.e. not during the rains.' (Nand.)

12. Nand. considers the term sva, 'dog,' to include all the other animals mentioned by Âpastamba, I, 3. 10, 17.

19-21. After having vomited or been purged he shall interrupt {footnote p. 125} his study for a day and a night; when suffering, from indigestion, till he has digested his food. (Nand.)]

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20. Nor after having been purged;

21. Nor during an indigestion.

22. When a five-toed animal has passed between the teacher and the pupil (the latter must interrupt his study for a day and a night).

23. When a king or a learned Brâhmana (who has mastered one Veda), or a cow, or a Brâhmana (in general) has met with an accident (he must not study).

24. After the Upâkarman (he must not study for three days).

25. And after the Utsarga, (he must interrupt his study for as many days).

26. And (he must avoid to study) the hymns of the Rig-veda, or those of the Yagur-veda, while the Sâman melodies are being chanted.

27. Let him not lie down to sleep again when he has begun to study in the second half of the night.

28. Let him avoid studying at times when there ought to be an intermission of study, even though a question has been put to him (by his teacher);

[22. According to Nand., the interruption of study is to last for two days, when a crow, or an owl, or a wild cock, or a mouse, or a frog, and the like animals have passed; and for three days, when a dog, or an ichneumon, or a snake, or a frog (sic), or a cat has passed. He quotes Gaut. I, 59 in support of his interpretation. I have translated according to M. W, 126; Y. I, 147.

23. in these cases the study shall not be taken up again till the accident has been appeased by propitiatory rites. If any of the persons in question has died, the interruption is to last for a day and a night, in case they were persons of little merit; but in case they should have been very virtuous, it is to last for three days. (Nand.)

28. Every lesson consists of questions put by the teacher and the pupil's answers to them.]

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29. Since to study on forbidden days neither benefits him in this nor in the other world.

30. To study on such days destroys the life of both teacher and pupil.

31. Therefore should a teacher, who wishes to obtain the world of Brahman, avoid improper days, and sow (on proper days) the seed of sacred knowledge on soil consisting of virtuous pupils.

32. At the beginning and at the end of the lecture let the pupil embrace his teacher's feet;

33. And let him pronounce the sacred syllable Om.

34. Now he who studies the hymns of the Rig-veda (regularly), feeds the manes with clarified butter.

35. He who studies the Yagus texts, (feeds them) with honey.

36. He who studies the Sâman melodies, (feeds them) with milk.

37. He who studies the Atharva-veda, (feeds them) with meat.

38. He who studies the Purânas, Itihâsas, Vedângas, and the Institutes of Sacred Law, feeds them with rice.

39. He who having collected sacred knowledge, gains his substance by it in this world, will derive no benefit from it in the world to come.

[33. Nand., quoting a passage of Yama, states the particle ka to imply that the pupil must touch the ground, after having pronounced the syllable Om.

38. Nand. considers the use of a Dvandva compound to imply that logic (Nyâya) and the Mîmâmsâ system of philosophy are also intended in this Sûtra. Regarding the meaning of the terms Purâna and Itihâsa, see Max Müller, Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 40 seq.

39. This rule cannot refer to teaching for a reward, because {footnote p. 127} that is a minor offence (upapâtaka; see below, XXXVII, 20); nor can it refer to teaching in general, because it is lawful to gain one's substance by it; but it refers to those who recite the Veda in behalf of another, and live by doing so. (Nand.)]

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40. Neither will he (derive such benefit from it), who uses his knowledge in order to destroy the reputation of others (by defeating them in argument).

41. Let no one acquire sacred knowledge, without his teacher's permission, from another who is studying divine science.

42 . Acquiring it in that way constitutes theft of the Veda, and will bring him into hell.

43. Let (a student) never grieve that man from whom he has obtained worldly knowledge (relating to poetry, rhetoric, and the like subjects), sacred knowledge (relating to the Vedas and Vedângas), or knowledge of the Supreme Spirit.

44. Of the natural progenitor and the teacher who imparts the Veda to him, the giver of the Veda is the more venerable father; for it is the new existence acquired by his initiation in the Veda, which will last him both in this life and the next.

45. Let him consider as a merely human existence that which he owes to his father and mother uniting from carnal desire and to his being born from his mother's womb.

46. That existence which his teacher, who knows all the Vedas, effects for him through the prescribed rites of initiation with (his divine mother) the Gâyatrî, is a true existence; that existence is exempt from age and death.

47. He who fills his ears with holy truths, who

[41. See XXVIII, 6, and the preceding note.]

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frees him from all pain (in this world and the next). and confers immortality (or final liberation) upon him, that man let the student consider as his (true) father and mother: gratefully acknowledging the debt he owes him, he must never grieve him.
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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

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XXXI.

1. A man has three Atigurus (or specially venerable superiors):

2. His father, his mother, and his spiritual teacher.

3. To them he must always pay obedience.

4. What they say, that he must do.

5. And he must do what is agreeable and serviceable to them.

6. Let him never do anything without their leave.

7. Those three are equal to the three Vedas (Rig-veda, Sâma-veda, and Yagur-veda), they are equal to the three gods (Brahman, Vishnu, and Siva), they are equal to the three worlds (of men, of gods, and of Brahman), they are equal to the three fires.

8. The father is the Gârhapatya (or household) fire, the mother is the Dakshina (or ceremonial) fire, and the spiritual teacher is the Âhavanîya (or sacrificial) fire.

9. He pays regard to all his duties, who pays regard to those three; he who shows no regard to

[XXXI. 1-6. M. II, 225, 226, 228, 229; Âpast. I, 4, 14, 6; Gaut. II, 50, 51.--7. M. II, 230.--8. M. II, 231; Âpast. I, 1, 3, 44.--9. M. II, 234.--10. M. II, 233.

9. 'The father is said to be of the same nature as the Gârhapatya fire, because the Âhavanîya is produced from it; the mother is said to be of the same nature as the Dakshina fire, because it {footnote p. 129} has a separate origin, or because she has the sacrificial implements, such as the pestle and mortar and the like, in her charge; and the spiritual teacher is said to be of the same nature as the Âhavanîya fire, because all oblations fall to his share, as the Smriti says (Y. I, 27), "Let him (the pupil) deliver to him (the teacher) the collected alms."' (Nand.)]

p. 129

them, derives no benefit from any religious observance.

10. By honouring his mother, he gains the present world; by honouring his father, the world of gods; and by paying strict obedience to his spiritual teacher, the world of Brahman.
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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

Postby admin » Tue Apr 27, 2021 11:23 pm

XXXII.

1. A king, a priest, a learned Brâhmana, one who stops wicked proceedings, an Upâdhyâya, a paternal uncle, a maternal grandfather, a maternal uncle, a father-in-law, an eldest brother, and[1] the parents-in-law of a son or a daughter are equal to a teacher;

2. And so are their wives, who are equal in caste to them.

3. And their mother's sister, their father's sister, and I their eldest sister.

4. A father-in-law, a paternal uncle, a maternal

[XXXII. 1. M. II, 206.--2. M. II, 210.--3. M. II, 131.--4. M. II, 130; Âpast. I, 4, 14, 11.--5, 6. M. II, 210, 211; Âpast. I, 2, 7, 27; Gaut. II, 31, 32.--7. M. II, 129,--8, 9. M. XI, 205; Y. III, 292.--10. Âpast. I, 1, 2, 20.--11, 12. M. II, 201; Âpast. I, 2, 8, 15.--13. M. II, 212; Gaut. II, 34.--14. M. II, 20.--15. M. II, 217; Gaut. II, 33; VI, 2.--16. M. II, 136; Gaut. VI, 20.--17. M. II, 135; Âpast. I, 4, 14, 25.--18. M. II, 155.

1. 1 The particle ka is used here, according to Nand., in order to include a paternal grandfather and other persons mentioned in a Smriti.

3. 1 The particle ka here refers, according to Nand., to the paternal grandmother and others mentioned in a Smriti.]

p. 130

uncle, and a priest he must honour by rising to meet and saluting them, even though they be younger than himself.

5. The wives of Gurus (superiors), who are of a lower class than their husbands (such as Kshatriya or Vaisya or Mûrdhâvasikta wives), shall be honoured by (rising to meet and) saluting them from far; but he must not embrace their feet.

6. He should avoid to rub and anoint the limbs of Guru's wives, or to anoint their eyes, or to arrange their hair, or to wash their feet, or to do other such services for them.

7. To the wife of another, even though he does not know her, he must either say 'sister' (if she is of equal age with himself), or 'daughter' (if she is younger than himself), or 'mother' (if she is older than himself).

8. Let him not say 'thou[1]' to his Gurus (superiors).

9. If he has offended one of them (by saying 'thou' to him, or in some other manner), he must keep a fast and not eat again till the end of the day, after having obtained his forgiveness.

10. He must avoid to quarrel with his spiritual teacher and to argue with him (from emulation).

11. And he must not censure him;

[5. Sûdra wives are exempt from this rule; he should rise to meet, but not salute them. (Nand.)

8. 1 Other insulting language, as e. g. if he says hush or pish to them, is also included in this term. The use of the particle ka indicates that other persons entitled to respect are also intended in this Sûtra. (Nand.)

10. 'The particle ka is used in order to include Brâhmanas in general in this prohibition.' (Nand.)

11. 'The use of the particle ka shows that defamatory speeches are also intended.' (Nand.)]

p. 131

12. Nor act so as to displease him.

13. (A pupil) must not embrace the feet of a Guru's young wife, if he has completed his twentieth year, or can distinguish virtue from vice.

14. But a young student may at pleasure prostrate himself before a young wife of his Guru, (stretching out both hands) as ordained (see XXVIII, 15), 'I, N. N. (ho! salute thee).'

15. On returning from a journey he shall (once) embrace the feet of the wives of his Gurus (superiors), and daily, salute them, remembering the practice of the virtuous.

16. Wealth, kindred, age, the performance of religious observances, and, fifthly, sacred knowledge are titles to respect; each subsequent one is superior to the one preceding in order.

17. A Brâhmana, though only ten years old[1], and a member of the kingly caste, though a hundred years old, must be considered as father and son; and of these two, the Brâhmana is the father.

18. The seniority of Brâhmanas is founded upon sacred knowledge; of Kshatriyas, upon valour in arms; of Vaisyas, upon grain and (other) wealth; of Sûdras, upon (priority of) birth.
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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

Postby admin » Tue Apr 27, 2021 11:24 pm

XXXIII.

1. Now man has three most dangerous enemies, called carnal desire, wrath, and greed.

[17. 1 I. e. a Brâhmana for whom the ceremony of initiation has been performed (Nand.) This proverb is also found in the Nîtisâstra 1,55, in the Mahâbhârata II, 1385 seq., &c., and in other works. See Böhtlingk, Ind. Sprüche, 6163, 2456, &c.

XXXIII. 1. Âpast. I, 8, 23, 4, 5.

1. The mention which has been made in the preceding section, that on or rules of conduct, of the breach of the vow of {footnote p. 132} chastity and the penance for it (see XXVIII, 48, 49), causes him (Vishnu) to discuss the law of penance (Prâyaskitta). This is done in the following section, to which Chapter XXXIV serves as Introduction. (Nand.) The section on Prâyaskitta extends as far as Chapter LVII.]

p. 132

2. They are specially dangerous to the order of householders, because they have (houses, wives, and other) property.

3. Man, being overcome by those (three enemies), commits crimes in the highest degree, high crimes, minor crimes, and crimes in the fourth degree;

4. Also crimes effecting loss of caste, crimes degrading to a mixed caste, and crimes rendering the perpetrator unworthy (to receive alms and the like);

5. And crimes causing defilement, and miscellaneous offences.

6. This is the threefold path to hell, destructive of self: carnal desire, wrath, and greed: therefore must a man shun those three vices.
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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

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XXXIV.

1. Sexual connection with one's mother, or daughter, or daughter-in-law are crimes in the highest degree.

2. Such criminals in the highest degree should proceed into the flames; for there is not any other way to atone for their crime.
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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

Postby admin » Tue Apr 27, 2021 11:24 pm

XXXV.

1. Killing a Brâhmana, drinking spirituous liquor,

[6. This proverb is also found in the Bhagavad-gîtâ, XVI, 21, and in the Mahâbhârata, V, 1036. See Böhtlingk, Ind. Sprüche, 2645.

XXXV. 1. M. IX, 235; XI, 55; Y. III, 227; Âpast. I, 7, 21, 8; Gaut. XXI, 1.--2, 3. M. XI, 181; Y. III, 227, 261; Gaut. XXI, 3.--4. M. XI, 181.]

p. 133

stealing the gold of a Brâhmana, and sexual connection with a Guru's wife are high crimes.

2. And social intercourse with such (criminals is also a high crime).

3. He who associates with an outcast is outcasted himself after a year;

4. And so is he who rides in the same carriage with him, or who eats in his company, or who sits on the same bench, or who lies on the same couch with him.

5. Sexual intercourse, intercourse in sacrificing, and intercourse by the mouth (with an outcast) entails immediate loss of caste.

6. Such mortal sinners are purified by a horse sacrifice and by visiting all Tîrthas (places of pilgrimage) on earth.
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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

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XXXVI.

1. Killing a Kshatriya or Vaisya engaged in a sacrifice, or a woman in her courses, or a pregnant woman, or a woman (of the Brâhmana caste) who has bathed after temporary uncleanness[1], or an embryo

[5. 'Intercourse of marriage' means sexual connection with an outcasted man or woman, or giving a damsel in marriage to an outcasted man, 'Intercourse in sacrificing' means sacrificing for, or with, an outcast. 'Mouthly intercourse' means teaching, or being taught by, or studying together with, an outcast. The present rule holds good in cases of voluntary intercourse only; if the intercourse was involuntary, the loss of caste does not follow till after a year. Others assert that the immediate loss of caste is entailed by particularly intimate intercourse only. (Nand.)

XXXVI. 1. M. XI, 88; Y. III, 251; Âpast. I, 9, 24, 6, 8, 9.--2-7. M. XI, 57-59, 171, 172; Y. III, 228-233.--2. Gaut. XXI, 10.--5. Gaut. XXI, I.--7. Âpast. I, 7, 21, 9.

1. I The term âtreyî (atrigotrâ) has been translated here and in {footnote p. 134} other places in accordance with that interpretation which is sanctioned by the majority among the commentators of law works. Nand., on the other hand, gives the preference to the opinion of those who tender it by 'a woman descended from or married to a man of the race of Atri.']

p. 134

of unknown sex, or one come for protection, are crimes equal to the crime of killing a Brâhmana.

2. Giving false evidence and killing a friend: these two crimes are equal to the drinking of spirituous liquor.

3. Appropriating to one's self land belonging to a Brâhmana or a deposit (belonging to a Brâhmana and not consisting of gold) are crimes equal to a theft of gold (belonging to a Brâhmana).

4. Sexual connection with the wife of a paternal uncle, of a maternal grandfather, of a maternal uncle, of a father-in-law, or of the king, are crimes equal to sexual connection with a Guru's wife;

5. And so is sexual intercourse with the father's or mother's sister and with one's own sister;

6. And sexual connection with the wife of a learned Brâhmana, or a priest, or an Upâdhyâya, or a friend;

7. And with a sister's female friend (or with one's own female friend), with a woman of one's own race, with a woman belonging to the Brâhmana caste, with a (Brâhmana) maiden (who is not yet betrothed to a man), with a low-caste woman, with a woman in her courses, with a woman come for protection,

[2. 'The term etau, "these," is used in order to include the forgetting of Veda texts and other crimes, which are mentioned as equal to drinking spirituous liquor by Manu (XI, 57) and Yâgñavalkya (III, 229).' (Nand.)

5. 'The particle ka in this Sûtra refers to little girls, as ordained by Manu, XI, 59.' (Nand.)]

p. 131

with a female ascetic, and with a woman entrusted to one's own care.

8. Such minor offenders become pure, like mortal sinners, by a horse-sacrifice and by visiting Tîrthas.
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