The Pythagorean Sourcebook and Library

That's French for "the ancient system," as in the ancient system of feudal privileges and the exercise of autocratic power over the peasants. The ancien regime never goes away, like vampires and dinosaur bones they are always hidden in the earth, exercising a mysterious influence. It is not paranoia to believe that the elites scheme against the common man. Inform yourself about their schemes here.

Re: The Pythagorean Sourcebook and Library

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WHILE THE FOLLOWING BIBLIOGRAPHY of 400 titles cannot be considered as constituting the final word on writings which relate to Pythagorean studies, it does include all the important works that we are familiar with, and some works that are less frequently cited.

To make this bibliography more useful, the listing has been divided into several categories: Pythagorean Texts, Secondary Sources, Classical Philosophy, Mathematics, Music, Astronomy, Medieval and Renaissance, Sacred Geometry, and Whole Systems. A few words of explanation have been added underneath each category heading, and titles are arranged alphabetically by author under each category. The major problem with this format is that certain works could fall into more than one category. Despite this potential shortcoming, it was decided that the virtues of this arrangement outweigh any potential drawbacks.

For individuals who are beginning a study of Pythagorean thought, the best starting point is probably the lengthy and very well written section on the Pythagoreans to be found in W.K.C. Guthrie's History of Greek Philosophy, vol. 1. While his conclusions are not universally accepted, another excellent study is Cornford's article "Science and Mysticism in the Pythagorean Tradition." In terms of general histories of Greek philosophy, the accounts of Pythagorean thought given by John Burnet in Early Greek Philosophy and John Robinson in An Introduction to Early Greek Philosophy are better than most. The topic of Neopythagorean thought in the late Hellenistic period has yet to receive the full scale treatment that it deserves, but good accounts of Neopythagorean philosophers can be found in Dillon's The Middle Platonists. No account of Pythagorean scholarship would be complete without mentioning the massive, though perhaps hypercritical, study of Walter Burkert, Lore and Science in Ancient Pythagoreanism. Two other significant and delightful studies, which approach the topic from somewhat different angles, are Vogel's Pythagoras and Early Pythagoreanism: An Interpretation of Neglected Evidence on the Philosopher Pythagoras and Heninger's Touches of Sweet Harmony: Pythagorean Cosmology and Renaissance Poetics. Finally, Holger Thesleff has made very important contributions to Pythagorean studies in two volumes, An Introduction to the Pythagorean Writings of the Hellenistic Period and The Pythagorean Writings of the Hellenistic Period. In the latter volume Thesleff has collected together and edited the Greek texts of the Hellenistic Pythagorica.


The writings in this section are individual Pythagorean or Neopythagorean writings. If these writings appear in this volume, that fact is noted and the page number is given.

Anonymous. Accounts of Pythagorean thought in Sextus Empiricus, Vol. I, 429-39; Vol. 2, 49-57; Vol. 3, 331-61, Loeb Classical Library, Harvard University Press, 1933.

Anonymous. The Golden Verses of the Pythagoreans. Brook, Surrey, Shrine of Wisdom, n.d.

Anonymous. The Golden Verses of Pythagoras. In this volume, 163-65.

Anonymous. The Life of Pythagoras preserved by Photius. In this volume, 137-40.

Anonymous. Pythagorean Symbols or Maxims. In this volume, 159-61.

Apollonius of Tyana. The Letters of Apollonius of Tyana: A Critical Text with Prolegomena, Translation and Commentary by R. J. Penella, Leiden, E.J, Brill, 1979.

Archytas. The Fragments of Archytas. In Chaignet, Pythagore et la philosophie pythagoricienne, Paris, 1874, vol. 1, 256-331; in this volume, 177-201.

Aristoxenus of Tarentum. Apothegms. In Taylor, Political Fragments, 65; in this volume, 243.

Boeckh. Philolaus des Pythagoreer's Lehren, nebst den Bruchstucken seiner Werke. Berlin, 1819.

Brown, Hellen Ann. Philosophorum Pythagoreorum collectionis specimen. Diss., University of Chicago, 1944. (Greek texts.)

Callicratidas. On the Felicity of Families. In Taylor, Political Fragments, 50-57; in this volume, 235-37.

Cardini, Maria Timpanaro, ed. Pitagorici: Testimonianze e frammenti. 3 vols. Florence, La Nuova Italia, 1958-64. (Greek texts.)

Chaignet, A.E. Pythagore et la philosophie pythagoricienne. 2 vols. Paris, Librairie Academique, 1874. (Contains the fragments of Philolaus and Archytas).

Charondas the Catanean. Preface to the Laws of Charondas the Catanean. In Taylor, Political Fragments, 38-45; in this volume, 231-33.

Clinias. A Fragment of Clinias. In Taylor, Life of Pythagoras, 167; in this volume, 265.

Crito. On Prudence and Prosperity. In Taylor, Life of Pythagoras, 177-79; in this volume, 251-52.

Delatte, A. La Vie de Pythagore de Diogene Laerce: edition critique avec introduction et commentaire. Brussels, Lamertin, 1922.

Demophilus. "The Pythagoric Sentences of Demophilus," in Sallust on the Gods and the World. Trans. by Thomas Taylor. (1793) Los Angeles, Philosophical Research Society, 1976.

Diehl, E., and Young, David, eds. Theognis, ps. -Pythagoras, ps. -Phocylides. Leipzig, Teubner, 1961.

Diels, H. and Kranz, W. Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker. 6th ed., 3 vols. Berlin, Weidmann, 1951-2. (Greek texts, translated in Freeman, Ancilia to the Pre-Socratic Philosophers, Harvard University Press, 1983.)

Diogenes Laertius. Lives of the Eminent Philosophers. 2 vols. Trans. by R.D. Hicks. Harvard University Press, 1925.

Diogenes Laertius. Life of Pythagoras. In this volume, 141-56.

Diotogenes. Concerning a Kingdom. In Taylor, Political Fragments, 18-26; in this volume, 222-24.

Diotogenes. On Sanctity. In Taylor, Political Fragments. 10-11, 37-38; in this volume, 221.

Ecphantus the Crotonian. On a Kingdom. In Taylor, Political Fragments. 27-37; in this volume, 257-59.

Euryphamus. Concerning Human Life. In Taylor, Life of Pythagoras, 148-50; in this volume, 245-46.

Fabre d'Olivet, Antoine. Les Vers Dores de Pythagore. (1813) Paris, L'Age d'Homme, n.d.

Fabre d'Olivet, Antoine. The Golden Verses of Pythagoras. Trans. by N.L. Redfield. (1917) New York, Weiser, 1975.

Fairbanks, Arthur. The First Philosophers of Greece: An Edition and Translation of the Remaining Fragments of the Pre-Sokratic Philosophers. Together with a Translation of the More Important Accounts of Their Opinions Contained in the Early Epitomes of Their Works. New York, Charles Scribners, 1898.

Freeman, Kathleen. Ancilla to the Pre-Socratic Philosophers. (1948) Harvard University Press, 1983.

Hadas, Moses, and Smith, Morton. Heroes and Gods: Spiritual Biographies in Antiquity. New York, Harper & Row, 1965. (Contains a trans. of Porphyry's Life of Pythagoras.)

Hierocles. Ethical Fragments. In Taylor, Political Fragments. 71-115; in this volume, 275-86.

Hierocles. Commentary of Hierocles on the Golden Verses of Pythagoras. Translated by N. Rowe from the French version of Andre Dacier. (1907) London, Theosophical Publishing House, 1971.

Hipparchus. On Tranquility. In Taylor, Life of Pythagoras. 151-53; in this volume, 247-48.

Hippodamus the Thurian. On a Republic. In Taylor, Political Fragments. 1-10, 17; in this volume, 217-20.

Hippodamus the Thurian. On Felicity. In Taylor, Life of Pythagoras. 143-47; in this volume, 215-17.

Iamblichus. Iamblichi De vita Pythagorica liber; accedit epimetrum De Pythagorae Aureo carmine. St. Petersburg, 1884. (Greek text.)

Iamblichus. De Vita Pythagorica. Ed. by Deubner. Leipzig, Teubner, 1937. (Greek text.)

Iamblichus. De vita Pythagorica liber. Edited by August Nauck. (1884) Amsterdam, 1965.

Iamblichus. The Life of Pythagoras. Trans. by Thomas Taylor. (1818) London, I.M. Watkins, 1965; in this volume, 57-122.

Iamblichus. Exhortation to Philosophy. Trans. by Thomas M. Johnson. Grand Rapids. Phanes Press, 1988. (Part of Iamblichus' "Pythagorean Encyclopedia;" contains his commentary on the Pythagorean Maxims.)

Iamblichus. (Pseudo-Iamblichus) Theologumena Arithmeticae. Edited by V. de Falco. Leipzig, Teubner, 1922. (Greek text.)

Maddalena, A. I Pitagorici: raccolta delle testimonianze e dei frammenti pervenutici. Bari, 1954. (Italian trans. of texts in DK with essays and notes.)

Metopus. Concerning Virtue. In Taylor, life of Pythagoras, 164-66; in this volume, 249.

Ocellus Lucanus. On the Nature of the Universe. (1831) Trans. by Thomas Taylor. Los Angeles, Philosophical Research Society, 1976.

Ocellus Lucanus. On the Nature of the Universe. In this volume, 203-11.

Pempelus. On Parents. In Taylor, Political Fragments. 67-69; in this volume, 261.

Perictyone. On the Harmony of a Woman. In Taylor, Political Fragments. 57-65; in this volume, 239-41.

Philolaus. The Fragments of Philolaus. In Chaignet, Pythagore et la philosophie pythagoricienne. Paris, 1874, vol. 1, p. 226-54; in this volume, 167-75.

Philostratus. The life of Apollonius of Tyana. 2 vols. Trans. by F.C. Conybeare. Harvard University Press, 1912.

Phyntis. On Woman's Temperance. In Taylor, Political Fragments, 69-74; in this volume, 263-64.

Polus. On Justice. In Taylor, life of Pythagoras. 182; in this volume, 253.

Porphyrius. "Vita Pythagorae" in Porphyrii Opuscula Selecta, ed. A. Nauck, 2nd edn. (1886) Hildesheim, 0lms, 1963.

Porphyry. The Life of Pythagoras. In this volume, 123-35.

Sextus Pythagoreus. The Sentences of Sextus. Ed. and trans. by R. Edwards and R. Wild. Chico, Scholars Press, 1981.

Sextus. Select Sentences of Sextus the Pythagorean. In Taylor, Life of Pythagoras. 192-200; in this volume, 267-70.

Speusippus. Fragments from his work On Pythagorean Numbers in Thomas, Greek Mathematical Works, vol. I, Harvard University Press, 1939.

Sthenidas the Locrian. On a Kingdom. In Taylor, Political Fragments, 26-27, in this volume, 255.

Taylor, Thomas, trans. Political Fragments of Archytas. Charondas. Zaleucus and Pythagoreans. preserved by Stobaeus; and also Ethical Fragments of Hierocles, the celebrated Commentator on the Golden Pythagoric Verses. preserved by the same author. London, 1822.

Theages. On the Virtues. In Taylor, life of Pythagoras, 161-63, 168-73; in this volume, 225-28.

Thesleff, Holger. The Pythagorean Writings of the Hellenistic Period. Abo, Abo Akaderni, 1965. (A complete collection of the Hellenistic Pythagorean writings in the original Greek.)

Timaeus Locrus. De natura mundi et animae. Uberlieferung, Testimonia, Text und Ubersetzung von W. Marg. Editio maior. Leiden, E.J. Brill, 1972.

Timaeus Locrus. Uber die Natur des Kosmos und der Seele. Konunentiert von M. Baltes. Leiden, E.J. Brill, 1972.

Timaios of Locri. On the Nature of the World and the Soul. Trans. by T.H. Tobin. Chico, Scholars Press, 1985.

Timaeus of Locri. On the World and the Soul. In this volume, 287-96.

Zaleucus the Locrian. Preface to the Laws of Zaleucus the Locrian. In Taylor, Political Fragments, 46-50; in this volume, 229-30.


The writings in this section, while not actual Pythagorean writings, are all specific studies of Pythagoras, Pythagorean thought, or Pythagorean writings.

Balch, L. "The Neo-pythagorean Moralists and the New Testament," in H. Temporini and W. Haase (ed.), Aufstieg und Niedergang der roemischen Welt, Berlin, de Gruyter, 1983, Teil II, Band 26.

Bamford, Christopher. "Homage to Pythagoras," in Lindisfarne Letter 14.

Bindel, Ernst. Pythagoras. Stuttgart, Freies Geistesleben, 1962.

Bomer, F. Der Lateinische Neuplatonismus und Neupythagoreismus. Leipzig, Harrassowitz, 1936.

Boehm, F. De Symbolis Pythagoreis. Diss., Berlin, 1905.

Boyance, Pierre. "Note sur la Tetractys," L'Antiquite Classique 20 (1951), 421-5.

Boyance, Pierre. "Sur l'Abaris d'Heraclide le Pontique," Revue des etudes anciennes 36 (1934) 321-52.

Boyance, Pierre. "Sur la vie pythagoricienne," Revue des etudes grecques 52 (1939), 36-50.

Burkert, Walter. "Hellenistiche Pseudopythagorica," Philologus 105 (1961), 16-43, 226-246.

Burkert, W. Lore and Science in Ancient Pythagoreanism. Harvard University Press, 1972.

Burnet, John. "Pythagoras and Pythagoreanism," in Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, New York, 1919, vol. X, 520-530.

Bywater, J. "On the Fragments Attributed to Philolaus the Pythagorean," Journal of Philology 1 (1868), 20-53.

Cameron, Alister. The Pythagorean Background of the Theory of Recollection. Menasha, WI, George Banta, 1938.

Carcopino, Jerome. La basilique pythagoricienne de la Pone Majeure. Paris, L'artisan du livre, 1927.

Carcopino, Jerome. Aspects Mystiques de la Rome Paienne. Paris, L'Artisan du Livre, 1941.

Carcopino, Jerome. De Pythagore aux Apotres. Paris, Flammarion, 1956.

Casa, Adriana della. Nigidio Figulo. Rome, Ateneo, 1962.

Chaignet, A.E. Pythagore et la philosophie pythagoricienne. 2 vols. Paris, Librairie Academique, 1874.

Cornford, F.M. "The Earliest Pythagorean Cosmology," in his Plato and Parmenides. London, Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1939.

Cornford, F.M. "The Invention of Space," in Essays in Honor of Gilbert Murray. London, Allen and Unwin, 1936.

Cornford, Francis M. "Mysticism and Science in the Pythagorean Tradition," Classical Quarterly 16 (1922), 137-150; 17 (1923), 1-12.

Dacier, Andre. The life of Pythagoras. (Trans. from French, London, 1707.) York Beach, Samuel Weiser, 1981.

Delatte, Armand. Etudes sur la litterature pythagoricienne. Paris, Champion, 1915.

Delatte, Armand. Essai sur la politique pythagoricienne. Paris, Champion, 1922.

Dillon, John. The Middle Platonists. Cornell University Press, 1977. (Contains a good account of the Neopythagoreans.)

Eliade, Mircea. "Orpheus, Pythagoras, and the New Eschatology," chapter 22 in A History of Religious Ideas, vol. 2, University of Chicago Press, 1982.

Festugiere, A. "Les memoires pythagoriques cites par Alexandre Polyhistor," Revue des etudes grecques 58 (1945), 1-65.

Frank, Erich. Plato und die sogenannten Pythagoreer. Halle, 1923.

Freeman, Kathleen. Companion to the Pre-Socratic Philosophers: A Companion to Diels' Fragmente Der Vorsokratiker. Oxford University Press, 1946.

Fritz, Kurt von. "Pythagoras of Samos," in The Dictionary of Scientific Biography, New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1975, vol. 9, 214-25.

Fritz, Kurt von. Pythagorean Politics in Southern Italy: An Analysis of the Sources. (1940) New York, Octagon Books, 1977.

Fritz, K. von, Dorrie, H., and van der Waerden, B.L. "Pythagoras" and "Pythagoreer" in Pauly-Wissowa Realencyclopadie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, vol. 27 (1963), and suppl. vol. 10 (1965).

Godwin, Joscelyn. "Pythagoreans, Today?", in Lindisfarne Letter 14.

Goettling, C.W. "Die Symbole des Pythagoras," Gesammelte Abhandlungen, vol. 1, Halle, 1851.

Goodenough, E.R. "A Nee-Pythagorean Source in Philo Judaeus." Yale Classical Studies
3 (1932), 117-64.

Gorman, Peter. Pythagoras, a life. London, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1979.

Guthrie, W.K.C. A History of Greek Philosophy. Vol. 1: The Earlier Presocratics and The Pythagoreans. Cambridge University Press, 1971.

Haase, Rudolf. "Literatur zur Geschichte des harmonikalen Pythagoreismus" [558 entries] in Aufsatze zur harmonikalen Naturphilosophie, Graz, Akademische Druck-und Verlagsanstalt, 1974.

Heidel, W.A. "Peras and Apeiron in the Pythagorean Philosophy," Archiv fur Geschichte der Philosophie 14 (1901), 384-399.

Heidel, W.A. "Notes on Philolaus," American Journal of Philosophy 28 (1907), 77-81.

Jager, Hans. Die Quellen des Porphyrios in seiner Pythagoras-Biographie. Diss., Zurich, Chur, 1919.

Kahn, Charles. "Pythagorean Philosophy before Plato," in Morelatos, The Pre-Socratics: A Collection of Essays, Garden City, Anchor Press, 1974, 161-85.

Kucharski, Paul. "Les principes des pythagoriciens et la dyade de Platon," Archives de Philosophie 22 (1959), 385-431.

Kucharski, Paul. "Aux frontieres du P1atonisme et du Pythagorisme," Archives de Philosophie 19.1 (1955-56), 7-43.

Levy, Isidore. La legend de Pythagore de Grece en Palestine. Paris, Champion, 1927.

Levy, Isidore. Recherches sur les sources de la legend de Pythagoras. Paris, Leroux, 1926.

Lindisfarne Letter 14, "Homage to Pythagoras." West Stockbridge, MA, Lindisfarne Press, 1982.

Long, H.S. A Study of the Doctrine of Metempsychosis in Greece from Pythagoras to Plato. Diss., Princeton, 1948.

Mallinger, Jean. Pythagore et les mysteres. Paris, Nic1aus, 1944.

Minar, Edwin L., Jr. "Pythagorean Communism," Transactions of the American Philological Association 75 (1944), 34-46.

Minar, E.L. Early Pythagorean Politics in Practice and Theory. Baltimore, Waverly Press, 1942.

Morrison, J.S. "Pythagoras of Samos," Classical Quarterly 50 (1956), 135-156.

Morrison, J.S. "The Origins of Plato's Philosopher-Statesman," Classical Quarterly 52 (1958), 198-218.

Oppermann, Hans. "Eine Pythagoraslegend," Bonner Jahrbucher 130 (1925), 284-301.

Philip, J.A. "Aristotle's Monograph On the Pythagoreans," Transactions of the American Philological Association 94 (1963), 185-198.

Raine, Kathleen. "Blake, Yeats and Pythagoras," in Lindisfarne Letter 14.

Raven, J.E. Pythagoreans and Eleatics. Cambridge University Press, 1948.

Richardson, Hilda. "The Myth of Er (Plato, Republic, 616B)," Classical Quarterly 20 (1926), 113-34.

Ridgeway, William. "What Led Pythagoras to the Doctrine that the World was Built of Numbers?" Classical Review 10 (March 1896), 92-95.

Rivaud, A. "Platon et la politique pythagoricienne," Melanges Gustave Glotz, vol. 2. Paris, Presses Universitairs de France, 1932.

Rohde, Erwin. "Die Quellen des Iamblichus in seiner Biographie des Pythagoras," Rheinisches Museum fur Philologie 26 (1871), 554-6; 27 (1872), 23-61.

Rosenthal, F. "Some Pythagorean Documents Transmitted in Arabic," Orientalia 10 (1941), 104-15; 383-95.

Rougier, Louis. L' Origine astronomique de la croyance pythagoricienne en l'immortalite celeste des ames. Cairo, Institut francais d'Archeologie orientale, 1933.

Rougier, L. La Religion astrale des Pythagoriciens. Paris, Presses Universitairs de France, 1959.

Rutherford, Ward. Pythagoras: Lover of Wisdom. Aquarian Press, Wellingborough, 1984.
Santillana, G. de and Pitts, W. "Philolaus in Limbo: or, "What happened to the Pythagoreans?", Isis (42) 1951, 112-20.

Seltman, C.T. "The Problem of the First Italiote Coins," Numismatic Chronicle, 6th series, 9 (1949), 1-21.

Stanley, Thomas. "Pythagoras," from his History of Philosophy. (1687) Los Angeles, Philosophical Research Society, 1970.

Stapelton, H.E. "Ancient and Modern Aspects of Pythagoreanism, " Osiris 13 (1958), 12-53.

Stocks, J.L. "Plato and the Tripartite Soul," Mind, n.s., 24 (1915), 207-21.

Swanson, R. A. "Ovid's Pythagorean Essay," Classical Journal 54 (1958), 21-24.

Taran, L. Asclepius of Tralles: Commentary to Nicomachus' Introduction to Arithmetic. (Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, n.s., 59, 4.) Philadelphia, American Philosophical Society, 1969.

Taylor, A.E. "Two Pythagorean Philosophemes," Classical Review 40 (1926), 149-51.

Thesleff, Holger. An Introduction to the Pythagorean Writings of the Hellenistic Period. Abo, Abo Akademi, 1961.

Vogel, Cornelia 1. de. Pythagoras and Early Pythagoreanism: An Interpretation of Neglected Evidence on the Philosopher Pythagoras. Assen, Van Gorcum, 1966.

Waerden, B.L. van der. "Die Harmonielehre der Pythagoreer," Hermes 78 (1968), 163-199.

Watters, Hallie. The Pythagorean Way of Life with a Discussion of the Golden Verses. (Masters thesis.) Adyar, Theosophical Publishing House, 1926.

Wellmann, Max. "Eine pythagoreische Urkunde des IV. Jahrhunderts vor Christus," Hermes (1919), 225-48.

White, M. "The Duration of the Samian Tyranny," Journal of Hellenic Studies 74 (1954), 36-43.

Whittaker, John. "Epekeina nou kai ousias, " Vigilate Christianae 23 (1969), 91-104. (On Moderatus.)

Whittaker, John. "Neopythagoreanism and Negative Theology." Symbolae Osloenses 44 (1969), 109-25.

Whittaker, John. "Neopythagoreanism and the Transcendent Absolute," Symbolae Osloenses 48 (1973), 77-86.

Zeller, Eduard. A History of Greek Philosophy: From the Earliest Period to the Time of Socrates. Trans. by S.F. Alleyne. Vol. I: Pre-Socratic Philosophy. London, 1881.


These works on early classical philosophy and Greek religion discuss Pythagorean thought.

Armstrong, A.H., ed. Cambridge History of Later Greek and Early Medieval Philosophy. Cambridge University Press, 1967.

Aujoulat, Noel. Le Neo-Platonisme Alexandrin: Hierocles d 'Alexandrie. Leiden, E.J. Brill, 1987.

Baldry, H.C. "Embryological Analogies in Presocratic Cosmogony." Classical Quarterly 26 (1932), 27-34.

Booth, N.B. "Were Zeno's Arguments Directed Against the Pythagoreans?" Phronesis 2 (1957), 90-103.

Brommer, P. "De numeris idealibus," Mnemosyne 3.11 (1943), 263-295.

Brumbaugh, Robert S. Plato's Mathematical Imagination: The Mathematical Passages in the Dialogues and Their Interpretation. Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 1954.

Burnet, J. Early Greek Philosophy: Part I. Thales to Plato. London, Macmillan, 1914.

Burnet, John. Early Greek Philosophy. 4th ed. London, Macmillan 1930.

Capek, M. "The Theory of Eternal Recurrence," Journal of Philosophy (57) 1960, 289-96.

Copleston, S.J. A History of Philosophy: Greece and Rome. New York, Doubleday, 1962.

Cornford, F.M. "Mystery Religions and Pre-Socratic Philosophy," in The Cambridge Ancient History, Cambridge University Press, 1926, vol. 4, 522-78.

Cornford, F.M. Principium Sapientiae: The Origins of Greek Philosophical Thought. Cambridge University Press, 1952.

Cornford, F.M. Plato's Cosmology. London, Routledge, 1937.

Cornford, F.M. The Laws of Motion in Ancient Thought. Cambridge University Press, 1931.

Cornford, F.M. From Religion to Philosophy. London, Arnold, 1912

Critchlow, Keith. "The Platonic Tradition on the Nature of Proportion," in Lindisfarne Letter 10.

Gomperz, Theodor. Greek Thinkers. London, Murray, 1912.

Guthrie, W.K.C. "The Presocratic World-Picture," Harvard Theological Review, 45 (1952), 87-104.

Kirk, G.S., and Raven, J.E. The Presocratic Philosophers: A Critical History with a Selection of Texts. Cambridge University Press, 1957.

Merlan, Philip. From Platonism to Neoplatonism. The Hague, Nijhoff, 1960.

Onians, R.B. The Origins of European Thought about the Body, the Mind. the Soul. the World. Time and Fate. Cambridge University Press, 1951.

Porphyry. On Abstinence from Animal Food. Edited by E. Wynne-Tyson. London, Barnes & Noble, 1965.

Robinson, John. An Introduction to Early Greek Philosophy. New York, Houghton Mifflin, 1968.

Rohde, Erwin. Psyche: The Cult of Souls and Belief in Immortality Among the Greeks. London, Routledge, 1925.

Taran, L. Speusippus of Athens: A Critical Study with a Collection of the Related Texts and Commentary. Leiden, E.J. Brill, 1982.

Taylor, A.E. A Commentary on Plato's Timaeus. Oxford University Press, 1928.

Zeller, Eduard. Outlines of the History of Greek Philosophy. New York, Dover, 1980.


These works contain information on the mathematical discoveries of the Pythagoreans. Also included are works dealing with Pythagorean arithmology and geometry.

Adam, James. The Nuptial Number of Plato. (1891) London, Kairos, 1985.

Allendy, Rene. Le Symbolisme des nombres. Paris, Charcornac, 1921.

Anatolius. (Edited by Heiberg.) Anatolius sur les db: premiers nombres. (On the Numbers Up to Ten.) Macon, Protat Freres, 1900. (Greek text.)

Butler, Christopher. Number Symbolism. New York, Barnes & Noble, 1970.

Fritz, Kurt von. "The Discovery of Incommensurability by Hippasos of Metapontum," Annals of Mathematics 46 (1945), 242-264.

Gardner, Martin. "Simple Proofs of the Pythagorean Theorem," Scientific American 211.4 (Oct. 1964), 118-125.

Guenon, Rene. "La Tetraktys et le carre de quatre," Etudes Traditionnelles 42 (May 1937).

Guenon, Rene. Symboles fondamentaux de la Science sacree. Paris, Gallimard, 1962 (includes the above article).

Heath, Thomas. A History of Greek Mathematics. 2 vols. Oxford University Press, 1921.

Heath, T. L. The Thirteen Books of Euclid's Elements. 3 vols. Cambridge University Press, 1926.

Heidel, W.A. "The Pythagoreans and Greek Mathematics," American Journal of Philology 61 (1940), 1-33.

Hippocrates. De Hebdomad. Classical Quarterly 65 (1971), 365-88.

Hopper, V.F. Medieval Number Symbolism: Its Sources, Meaning and Influence on Thought and Symbolism. New York, Columbia University Press, 1938.

Junge, Gustave. "Die pythagoreische Zahlenlehre," Deutsche Mathematik 5 (1940), 341-57.

Junge, Gustave. "Von Hippasos bis Philolaus: das Irrationale und die geometrischen Grundbegriffe," Classica et Medievalia 19 (1958), 41-72.

Kleinhammes, Otto. Die Quadratur des Kreises aus dem Geiste der Musik. Wanger im Allgau, J. Kleinhammes, 1949.

Kozminsky, Isidore. Numbers, Their Meaning and Magic. New York, Putnam's Sons, 1927.

Kucharski, Paul. Etude sur la doctrine pythagoricienne de la tetrad. Paris, Les Belles Lettres, 1952.

Michel, P. De Pythagore a Euclide. Paris, Les Belles Lettres, 1950.

Neugebauer. O. The Exact Sciences in Antiquity. Princeton University Press, 1952.

Nicomachus of Gerasa. Introduction to Arithmetic. Trans. by Martin Luther D'Ooge. New York, MacMillan, 1926.

Oliver, G. The Pythagorean Triangle. (1875) San Diego, Wizards Bookshelf, 1975.

Pacioli, Luca. Summa de arithmetica, geometria, proportioni & proportionalita. Venice, 1494.

Pacioli, Luca. De divina proportione. Milan, 1956; and Paris, Librairie du Compagnonnage, 1984.

Robbins, Frank E. "The Tradition of Greek Arithmology," Classical Philology 16 (1921), 97-123.

Saint-Martin, Louis-Claude de. Les Nombres. Paris, Documents martinistes, 1983.

Schnitzler, Gunter, ed. Musik und Zahl: Interdiziplinare Beitrage zum Grenzbereich zwischen Musik und Mathematik. Bonn, Verlag fur systematische Musikwissenschaft, 1976.

Speusippus. Fragments from his work "On Pythagorean Numbers" in Thomas, Greek Mathematical Works, vol. 1, Harvard University Press, 1939.

Taylor, Thomas. The Theoretic Arithmetic of the Pythagoreans. (1816) New York, Samuel Weiser, 1978.

Theon of Smyrna. Mathematics Useful for Understanding Plato. Trans. by R. & D. Lawlor. San Diego, Wizards Bookshelf, 1979.

Thomas, Ivor. Greek Mathematical Works. Vol. I: From Thales to Euclid. Harvard University Press, 1951.

Waerden, B.L. van der. "Die Arithmetik der Pythagoreer," Mathematische Annalen, 1 (1948), 127-53; 2 (1948), 676-700.

Waerden, B.L. van der. Science Awakening: Egyptian, Babylonian and Greek Mathematics. New York, Science Editions, 1961.

Waerden, B.L. van der. Geometry and Algebra in Ancient Civilizations. New York, Springer-Verlag, 1983.

Wasserstein, A. "Theatetus and the Theory of Numbers," Classical Quarterly 52 (1958), 165-79.

Wedberg, A. Plato's Philosophy of Mathematics. Stockholm, Almquist and Wiksell, 1955.

Weiss, C.H. Betrachtung des Dimensionsverhaltnisse in den Hauptkorpem des spharoidischen Systems und ihren Gegenkorpen, im Vergleich mitden harmonischen Verhaltnissen der Tone. Berlin, 1820.

Wescott, Wynn. Numbers: Their Occult Power and Mystic Virtues. (1902) London, Theosophical Publishing House, 1974.


These writings deal with Pythagorean musical and harmonic theory.

Abert, Hermann. Die Musikanschauung des Mittelalters und ihre Grundlagen. Halle, 1905, reprinted Tutzing, Schneider, 1964.

Amy-Sage, Fidele. La Musique et l'esprit. Paris, Voile d'Isis, 1920.

Aristeides Quintilianus. On Music Trans. by T. Mathiesen. Yale University Press, 1983.

Bailly, Edmond. Le Chant des Voyelles comme Invocation aux Dieux Planetaires. (1911) Nice, Belisae, 1976.

Barbour, J. Murray. "The Persistence of the Pythagorean Tuning System," Scripta Mathematica 1 (1932-33), 286-304.

Becker, Oskar. "Fruhgriechische Mathematik und Musiklehre," Archiv fur Musikwissenschaft 14 (1957), 156-164.

Boethius. The Principles of Music. Trans. by Calvin M. Bower. Diss., George Peabody College for Teachers, 1966.

Bonnaire, M.U. De l'influence de la musique sur les moeurs. Vienne, 1856.

Bower, Calvin. "Boethius and Nicomachus, an Essay Concerning the Sources of De Institutione Musica," Vivarium 16 (1978), 1-45.

Cazden, Norman. "Pythagoras and Aristoxenus Reconciled," Journal of the American Musicological Society 11.2-3 (1958), 97-105.

Chailley, Jacques. Nombres et symboles dans le langage de la musique. Paris, Academie
des Beaux-Arts, 1982.

Chamberlain, David S. "Philosophy of Music in the Consolatio of Boethius," Speculum 45 (1970), 80-97.

Cornford, F.M. "The Harmony of the Spheres" in his The Unwritten Philosophy and Other Essays. Cambridge University Press, 1950.

Coste, Charles. L'Influence de la musique. Poligny, 1863.

Crocker, Richard L. "Pythagorean Mathematics and Music," Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, 22.2 (1963), 189-98; 22.3 (1964), 325-36.

Dalberg, J.F.H. von. Untersuchungen uber die Ursprung der Harmonie. Erfurt, 1800.

De Vismes du Valgay, A.-P.-J. Pasilogie. Paris, 1806.

Denereaz, Alexandre. Cours d'harmonie. Paris, Gauthier-Villars, 1906.

During, I. Ptolemaios und Porphyrios uber die Musik. Goteborg, 1934. (Goteborgs Hogskolas Arsskrift 40)

Fabre d'Olivet, Antoine. La Musique expliquee comme Science et comme Art. (1842-50) Paris, Dorbon Aine, 1928.

Gandillot, Maurice. Essai sur la Gamme. Paris, Cavel, 1937.

Godwin, Joscelyn. Cosmic Music: Three Musical Keys to the Interpretation of Reality. West Stockbridge, Mass., Lindisfarne Press, 1987.

Godwin, Joscelyn. Music, Mysticism and Magic: A Sourcebook. London, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1986.

Godwin, Joscelyn. Harmonies of Heaven and Earth. London, Thames & Hudson, 1987.

Godwin, Joscelyn. "The Golden Chain of Orpheus: A Survey of Musical Esotericism in the West," Temenos 4 (1985), 7-25; 5 (1985), 211-39.

Henderson, Isobel. "Ancient Greek Music," New Oxford History of Music, Oxford University Press, 1957, 336-403.

Henry, Charles. "Conception psycho-physique de la Gamme," Bull. de l'Inst. Gen. Psychologique 21.1-3 (1921).

Ikhwan al-Safa. Epistle on Music. Trans. by A. Shiloah. Tel-Aviv University, Department of Musicology, 1978.

Junge, G. "Die Spharenharmonie und die pythagorisch-platonische Zahlenlehre," Classica et Medievalia 8 (1947), 183-94.

La Borde, J.B. de. Memoire sur les Proportions Musicales, le genre enharmonique des grecs, et celui des modernes. Paris, 1781.

Le Voile d'Isis, special number on "La Musique dans ses rapports avec l'Esoterisme," Apr. 1928.

Levarie, Siegmund and Levy, Ernst. Musical Morphology. Kent State University Press, 1983. Levarie, Siegmund, and Levy, Ernst. Tone: A Study in Musical Acoustics. Kent State University Press, 1968.

Levin, Flora R. The Harmonics of Nicomachus and the Pythagorean Tradition. (American Classical Studies, No. 1.) New York, Interbook, 1975.

Liebard, Louis. Anachronie Musicale, ou la pyramide inversee. Besancon, Resonances, 1979.

Lohmann, Johannes. "Die griechische Musik als mathematische Form," Archiv fur Musikwissenschaft 14 (1957), 147-155.

Lucas, Louis. Une Revolution dans la Musique: essai d'application, a la musique, d'une theorie philosophique. Paris, 1849.

McClain, Ernest G. "Plato's Musical Cosmology," Main Currents in Modern Thought 30.1 (1973), 34-42.

McClain, Ernest G. "Musical Marriages in Plato's Republic," Journal of Music Theory 18.2 (1974), 242-72.

McClain, Ernest G. "A New Look at Plato's Timaeus," Music and Man 1.4 (1975),

McClain, Ernest G. The Myth of Invariance. New York, Nicolas-Hays, 1976.

McClain, Ernest G. The Pythagorean Plato: Prelude to the Song Itself. York Beach, Nicolas-Hays, 1984.

Meyer-Baer, Kathi. Music of the Spheres and the Dance of Death. Princeton University Press, 1970.

Millet, Yves. "La primaute de la gamme dite de Pythagore: son symbolisme cosmique," Etudes Traditionnelles 59 (1958), 37-44, 138-161.

Montargis, Frederic. De Platone Musico. (1886) Utrecht, Joamchimsthal, 1976.

Mountford, J.F. "The Musical Scales of Plato's Republic," Classical Quarterly 17 (1923), 125-136.

Paul, Maela and Muxelhaus, Patrick. Le Chant Sacre des Energies. Paris, Presence, 1983.

Pfrogner, Hermann. Lebendige Tonwelt: zur Phanomen Musik. Munich, Langen Muller, 1976.

Portnoy, Julius. Music in the Life of Man. New York, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1963.

Provost, Prudent. La Musique renovee selon la synthese acoustique. Paris, Societe francaise d'editions litteraires et techniques, 1931.

Reinach, Theodore. "La Musique des Spheres," Revue de Etudes grecques 13 (1900), 432-49.

Rice, Isaac. What is Music? New York, 1875.

Roussier, P.J. Memoire sur la Musique des Anciens. (1770) New York, Broude. 1966.

Rudhyar, Dane. The Magic of Tone and the Art of Music. Boulder, Shambhala, 1982.

Scott, Cyril. Music: Its Secret Influence throughout the Ages. (1933) New York, Weiser, 1969.

Thamar, Jean. "Notion de la Musique Traditionnelle," Etudes Traditionnelles 48 (1947), 281-293, 336-349; 49 (1948), 58-67, 106-112, 240-253, 301-308, 348-356; 50 (1949), 216-227, 303-318.

Troupenas, E. "Essai sur la Theorie de la Musique deduite du principe metaphysique," Revue musicale 17 (1832), 129-31.

Vassiliadou, Maria. "Le pythagorisme et la musique," in Musique et Philosophie, Colloque de Dijon, 1983, 15-26.

Villoteau, G.A. Memoire sur la possibilite et l'utilite d'une theorie exacte des principes
narurels de la Musique. Paris, 1807.

Waerden. B.L. van der. "Die Harmonielehre der Pythagoreer," Hermes 78 (1943), 163-199.

Walker, D.P. "Kepler's Celestial Music," Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 30 (1967), 228-50.


These writings deal with Pythagorean astronomy and cosmology.

Azbel (= Emile Chizat). Harmonie des mondes: Loi des distances et des harmonies planetaires. Paris, Hugues-Roben, 1903.

Burch, G.B. "The Counter-Earth," Osiris (1954), 267-94.

Dicks, D.R. Early Greek Astronomy to Aristotle. Ithaca, Cornell University Press, 1970.

Dreyer, John Louis Emil. History of the Planetary Systems from Thales to Kepler. Cambridge University Press, 1906.

Guenon, Rene. "Le symbolisme du Zodiaque chez les pythagoriciens," Etudes Traditionnelles 43 (June 1938).

Guenon, Rene. Symboles fondamentaux de la Science sacree. Paris, Gallimard, 1962 (includes the above article).

Heath, Thomas L. Greek Astronomy. New York, AMS Press, 1969.

Waerden, B.L. van der. Die Astronomie der Pythagoreer. Amsterdam, Royal Academy, 1951.


These studies deal primarily with Pythagorean thought in the Medieval and Renaissance periods.

Africa, Thomas W. "Copernicus' Relation to Aristarchus and Pythagoras," Isis 52 (1961), 403-409.

Amman, P.J. "The Musical Theory and Philosophy of Roben Fludd," Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, 30 (1967), 198-227.

Boethius. De arithmetica. Edited with commentary by Girardus Rufus. Paris, 1521.

Boethius. De musica. Oscar Paul, ed. Leipzig, 1872.

Bongo, Pietro. Myticae numerorum significationis liber. Bergamo, 1585. Expanded ed., Basel, 1618, entitled De Numerorum Mysteria.

Clulee, Nicholas. The Glass of Creation: Renaissance Mathematics and Natural Philosophy. Diss., University of Chicago, 1973.

Debus, Allen G. "Mathematics and Nature in the Chemical Texts of the Renaissance," Ambix 15 (1968), 1-28.

Fludd, Robert. Utriusque cosmi historia scilicet et minoris metaphysica, physica atque technica historia. Oppenheim, 1621.

Giorgio, Francesco. De harmonia mundi. Venice, 1525.

Godwin, Joscelyn. Roben Fludd: Hermetic Philosopher and Surveyor of Two Worlds. London, Thames & Hudson, 1979.

Hart, Thomas Elwood. "Calculated Casualties in Beowulf: Geometrical Scaffolding and Verbal Symbol," Studia neophilologica 53 (1981), 3-35.

Hart, Thomas Elwood. "Twelfth-Century Platonism and the Geometry of Textual Space in Hartman's Iwein: A 'Pythagorean' Theory," Res publica litterarum 2 (1979), 81-107.

Heninger, S.K., Jr. "Some Renaissance Versions of the Pythagorean Tetrad," Studies in the Renaissance 8 (1961), 7-35.

Heninger, S.K., Jr. "Pythagorean Cosmology and the Triumph of Heliocentrism," in Le soleil a la renaissance. Presses universitaires de Bruxelles, 1965, 33-53.

Heninger, S.K., Jr. Touches of Sweet Harmony: Pythagorean Cosmology and Renaissance Poetics. San Marino, CA, Huntington Library, 1974.

Heninger, S.K., Jr. The Cosmographical Glass: Renaissance Diagrams oft he Universe. San Marino, CA, Huntington Library, 1977.

Hopper, V.F. Medieval Number Symbolism: Its Sources, Meaning and Influence on Thought and Symbolism. New York, Columbia University Press, 1938.

Ingpen, William. The Secrets of Numbers. London, 1624.

Kayser, Hans. Ein harmonikaler Teilungskanon. Zurich, Occident, 1946.

Kepler, Johannes. Mysterium cosmographicum. Tubingen, 1596.

Kepler, Johannes. Harmonice mundi. Linz, 1619.

Kircher, Athanasius. Musurgia universalis sive ars magna consoni et dissoni in x libros digesta. Rome, 1650.

Kircher, Athanasisus. Arithmologia: sive de abditis numerorum mysteriis. Rome, 1665.

Koyre, A. Metaphysics and Measurement: Essays in the Scientific Revolution. Harvard University Press, 1968.

Macrobius. Commentary on the Dream of Scipio. Trans. and ed. W. H. Slahl. New York, Columbia University Press, 1952.

Martianus Capella. De Nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurrii. Ed., A. Dick. Leipzig, 1925.

Munxelhaus, Barbara. Pythagoras Musicus: zur Rezeption der pythagorischen Musiktheorie als quadrivialer Wissenschaft im Lateinischen Mittelalter. Bonn, Verlag fur systematische Musikwissenschaft, 1976.

Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. An Introduction to Islamic Cosmological Doctrines. (Rev. ed.) Boulder, Shambhala, 1978.

Patrides, C.A. "The Numerological Approach to Cosmic Order During the English Renaissance," Isis 49 (1958), 391-397.

Reuchlin, Johann. On the Art of the Kabbalah. (1516) Trans. by Martin & Sarah Goodman. New York, Abaris Books, 1983.

Rosen, Edward. "Was Copernicus a Pythagorean?" Isis 53 (1962), 504-509.

Walker, D.P. Studies in Musical Science in the Late Renaissance. London, Warburg Institute, 1978.

Yates, Francis A. The Occult Philosophy in the Elizabethan Age. London, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1979.


The writings in this section are concerned with Pythagorean and Platonic geometry in a theoretic and practical sense. Also included are works dealing with the application of "Pythagorean" canons of proportion in sacred architecture.

Bond, F.B., and Lea, T.S. Gematria: A Preliminary Investigation of the Cabala. (1917) London, RILKO, 1977.

Bond, F.B., and Lea, T.S. The Apostolic Gnosis. London, RILKO, 1979. (On Greek gematria.)

Bouleau, Charles. The Painter's Secret Geometry. Trans. by J. Griffin. Paris, 1963.

Brunes, Tons. Secrets of Ancient Geometry. 2 vols. Copenhagen, Rhodos, 1967.

Caskey, L.D. Geometry of the Greek Vases. Boston, 1922.

Colman, Samuel. Nature's Harmonic Unity. (1912) New York, Blom, 1971.

Critchlow, Keith. "The Platonic Tradition on the Nature of Proportion," in Lindisfarne Letter 10.

Critchlow, Keith. Islamic Patterns: An Analytical and Cosmological Approach. New York, Schocken Books, 1976.

Critchlow, Keith. Order in Space: A Design Sourcebook. New York, Viking, 1965.

Critchlow, Keith. Time Stands Still: New Light on Megalithic Science. New York, St. Martins Press, 1982.

Doczi, Gyorgy. The Power of Limits: Proportional Harmonies in Nature, An and Architecture. Boulder, Shambhala, 1981.

Ghyka, Matila C. Le Nombre d'Or. 2 vols. Paris, Gallimard, 1931.

Ghyka, Matila C. The Geometry of An and Life. New York, Dover, 1977.

Gougy, Charles. L 'Harmonie des proportions et des formes dans l'architecture d 'apres les lois de l'harmonie des sons. Paris, Charles Massin, 1925.

Guenon, Rene. The Symbolism of the Cross. London, Luzac, 1975.

Hambridge, Jay. Dynamic Symmetry: The Greek Vase. 1920.

Hambridge, Jay. The Parthenon and other Greek Temples: Their Dynamic Symmetry. 1924.

Hambridge, Jay. The Elements of Dynamic Symmetry. Yale University Press, 1948.

Hudson, H.P., ed. Ruler and Compass. Longmans Green, 1915.

Huntley, H.E. The Divine Proportion: A Study in Mathematical Beauty. New York, Dover, 1970.

Iverson, E. Canon and Proportions in Egyptian Art. Warminster, Aris and Phillips, 1975.

Kielland, E.C. Geometry in Egyptian Art. London, Tiranti, 1955.

Lawlor, Robert. "Ancient Temple Architecture," in Lindisfarne Letter 10.

Lawlor, Robert. Sacred Geometry: Philosophy and Practice. London, Thames and Hudson,

Lesser, G. Gothic Cathedrals and Sacred Geometry. 3 vols. London, Tiranti, 1957.

Lindisfarne Letter No. 10, "Geometry and Architecture." West Stockbridge, MA, Lindisfarne Press, 1980.

Lund, F.M. Ad Quatratum: A Study of the Geometrical Basis of Classical and Mediaevel architecture. London, Batsford, 1921.

Macaulay, Anne. "Apollo: The Pythagorean Definition of God," in Lindisfarne Letter 14.

Michell, John. City of Revelation. London, Sphere, 1978. (On Greek gematria.)

Purce, Jill. The Mystic Spiral: Journey of the Soul. London, Thames & Hudson, 1974.

Saint-Yves d'Alveydre. L'Archeometre. (1912) Paris, Dorbon Aine, 1979.

Scholfield, P,H. The Theory of Proportion in Architecture. Cambridge, 1958.

Schwaller de Lubicz, R.A. The Temple in Man. Trans. by R. & D. Lawlor. Brookline, MA, Autumn Press, 1977.

Simson, Otto von. The Gothic Cathedral. New York, Pantheon, 1956.

Stirling, William. The Canon: An Exposition of the Pagan Mystery Perpetuated in the Cabala as the Rule of All the Am. (1897) London, RILKO, 1981 (On Greek gematria.)

Sunderland, Elizabeth R. "Symbolic Numbers and Romanesque Church Plans," Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 18 (1959), 94-103.

Talemarianus, Petrus. De L'Architecture Naturelle. Paris, Vega, 1950.

Thompson, D.W. On Growth and Form. Cambridge University Press, 1917.

Williams, R. The Geometrical Foundation of Natural Structure. New York, Dover, 1979.


Included here are works pertaining to the application of the Pythagorean approach. especially the principles of harmonics, to scientific, artistic or philosophical synthesis.

Amoux, George. Musique Platonicienne, Arne du Monde. Paris, Dervy, 1960.

Azbel (=Emil Chizat). Le Beau et sa Loi: Loi de l'Action et des Nombres, Loi de l'Harmonie, Loi de l'Intelligence. Paris, Hugues-Robert, 1899.

Bailly, Edmond. Le Son dans la Nature. Paris, L'Art Independant, 1900.

Bindel, Ernst. Die Zahlengrundlagen der Musik im Wandel der Zeiten. 2 vols. Stuttgart, Freies Geistesleben, 1950, 1951.

Blair, Lawrence. Rhythms of Vision. New York, Schocken, 1975.

Briseux, C.E. Traite du Beau essential dans les Arts. Paris, 1752.

Britt, Ernest. "La Synthese de la Musique," Annales du XXe Siecle, 2 (1914), reprinted Paris, Vega, 1938.

Britt, Ernest. Gamme Siderale et Gamme Musicale: Etude Paleosophique. Paris, Aux Ecoutes, 1924. Britt, Ernest. La Lyre d'Apollon. Paris, Vega, 1931.

Choisnard, Paul. La Chaine des Harmonies et la Spirale dans La Nature. (2nd augmented ed.) Paris, Ernest Leroux, 1926.

Denereaz, Alexandre. La Gamme, ce probleme cosmique. Zurich, Hug, 1939.

"Francisque," Le Secret de Pythagore devoile, ou le fond de La musique. Rochefort, 1869.

Franz, Marie-Louise von. Number and Time. London, Rider, 1974.

Fuller, Buckminster. Synergetics. New York, Macmillan, 1975.

Fuller, Buckminster and Applewhite, Edgar. Synergetics II. New York, Macmillan, 1979.

Griveau, Maurice. Programme d'une science idealiste. Paris, Revue Moderne d'Esthetique, 1896.

Griveau, Maurice. La sphere de la beaute Paris, Alcan, 1901.

Guyot, E. La Boussole de l'harmonie universelle, esthetique applicable aux arts des sons, de la couleur et de La forme. Albi, Corbiere et Julien, 1894.

Hill, Clarence. Harmonia Harmonica. 3 vols. Bournemouth, Author, 1920-1935.

Kayser, Hans. Akroasis: The Theory of World Harmonics. Trans. by R. Lilienfeld. Boston, Plowshare, 1970.

Kayser, Hans. Orphikon: eine harmonikale Symbolik. Basel, Schwabe, 1973.

Kayser, Hans. Lehrbuch der Harmonik. Zurich, Occident, 1950.

Labat, J.B. Les Nombres appliques a la Science Musicale. Bordeaux, 1861.

Lacuria, P.F.G. Les Harmonies de l'Etre exprimees par les Nombres. 2 vols. Paris, 1847.

Landsberg, G.F. "Essai Tentative d'adaptation des Lois Musicales a une clef des Lois Universelles," Voile d'Isis, 1914, 385-394.

Lange, Anny von. Mensch, Musik und Kosmos. 2 vols. Freiburg, Die Kommenden, 1960.

Lawlor, Robert. "Pythagorean Number as Form, Color and Light," in Lindisfarne Letter 14.

Levarie, Sigmund and Levy, Ernst. "The Pythagorean Table," Main Currents in Modern Thought 30.4 (1973), 117-29.

Levy, Ernst. "The Pythagorean Concept of Measure," Main Currents in Modern Thought 21.3, (1965), 51-57.

Malfatti de Montereggio, Johann. Anarchie und Hierarchie des Wissen. Leipzig, 1845.

Malfatti de Montereggio, Johann. Etudes sur la mathese (= French trans. of the above). Paris, A. Frank, 1849.

Neroman, Dom. La Lecon de Platon. Paris, Arma Artis, 1983.

Pouyaud, Robert. "Astrologie et Harmonie coloree," L'Atelier de la Rose, 1951, 36-40.

Schmidt, Thomas Michael. Musik und Kosmos als Schozpfungswunder. Frankfurt, Schmidt, 1974.

Spitzer, L. Classical and Christian Ideas of World Harmony. Johns Hopkins Press, 1963.

Swiecianowski, Jules. L'echelle musicale comme loi de l'harmonie dans l'universe et dans l'art. Warsaw, 1881.

Thimus, Albert von. Die harmonikale Symbolik des Alterthums. 2 vols. (1868, 1876) Hildesheim, Olms, 1972.

Wagner, Johann Jacob. Von der Natur der Dinge. Leipzig, 1803.

Zajonc, Arthur G. "The Two Lights," in Lindisfarne Letter 14.
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Re: The Pythagorean Sourcebook and Library

Postby admin » Wed Nov 13, 2013 5:46 am



Abaris the Hyperborean, 80-81, 109-10, 121;
called air-walker, 91, 129
Abroteles, 121
Abrotelia, 122
Achmonidas, 121
Acusiladas, 121
Adicus, 121
Aeetius, 121
Aegon, 121
Aemon, 121
Aeneas, 121
Aethalides, 132, 142
Ageas, 121
Agelas, 121
Agesarchus, 121
Agesidamus, 121
Agylus, 121
Alcaeus, 99
Alceas, 121
Alcimachus, 119, 121
Alcimadas, 156
Alcmaeon, 28, 83, 121
Alexander, 148
Aliochus, 121
Alopecus, 121
Amaerus, 121
Amasis, 124, 141
Ammonius Saccas, 41
Anaxagoras, 156
Anaximander, 59, 123
Anaximenes, 155
Ancaeus, 58, 123
Androcles, 125
Androcydes, 93
Andron, 49
Antimedon, 121
Antimenes, 121
Anthen, 121
Antiphon, 124, 141
Apollodorus, 144
Apollonius, 40, 117, 123
Arceas, 121
Archemachus, 121
Archippus, 117, 121, 134-35, 152
Archytas, 37-38, 83, 105, 117, 120, 121;
fragments, 177-201
Aresas, 120
Arignota, 124
Arimnestus, 123
Aristaeus, 83, 120
Aristangelus, 121
Aristeas, 91, 121
Aristides, 121
Aristippus, 121, 147
Aristocleia, 131
Aristoclidas, 121
Aristocrates, 89, 100, 121
Aristomenes, 121
Aristotle, 49, 63, 145-46, 149; interest in the
Pythagorean school; on Limit and Unlimited, 23; writings on the Pythagoreans
Aristoxenus, 38-39, 49, 113, 117, 125, 127,
135, 141, 145-46, 154; fragments, 243
Arytus, 121
Asteas, 121
Aston, 143
Astraeus, 125
Astylus, 121
Athamas, 121
Athosion, 121
Augustine, 42
Austophon, 151
Auticlides, 144
Autocharidas, 121

Babelyma, 122
Bathylaus, 121
Bias, 59
Bitale, 93
Boethius, 43
Brontinus, 121, 152
Bryas, 121
Bryo, 122
Brysson, 83
Bulagoras, 120
Butherus, 121
Buthius, 121
Byndacis, 122

Calais, 121
Callibrotus, 121
Callicratidas, fragments, 235-37
Carophantidas, 121
Cebes, 38
Cerambus, 121
Charondas, 83, 89, 100, 122. 145; fragments,
Chilas, 121
Chilonis, 122
Chrysippus, 122
Cicero, 40
Cleaechmas, 122
Cleanor, 121
C1earatus, 121
Clement, 42
Cleon, 121
Cleophron, 121
Cleosthenes, 121
Clinagoras, 121
Clinias, 105, 114, 120-21; fragments, 265
Cornford, F.M., 22, 48
Cranous, 121
Cratesiclea, 122
Cratinus, 151
Crito, 121; fragments, 251-52
Cronius, 41
Cylon, 37, 75, 116, 119, 134

Dacidas, 121
Damarmenus, 121
Damocles, 121
Damo, 93, 152
Damon, 113, 121, 135
Damotages, 121
Dardaneus, 121
Deanax, 121
Delatte, Armand, 163
Democedes, 119
Democritus, 123
Demon, 121
Demosthenes. 121
Dexithes, 121
Dicaerchus, 49, 121, 126, 152
Dicas, 121
Dicon, 121
Dillon, 40
Dimachus, 119
Dinarchus, 120-21
Dinocrates, 121
Diocles, 117, 154, 121
Diodorus, 119-20
Diogenes. 125, 129
Diogenes Laertius, 141
Dion, 105
Dionysius, 103-104, 113, 135
Dionysophanes, 125
Diotogenes, fragments, 221-24
d'Olivet, Fabre, 13
Drymon, 121
Duris, 123
Dymas, 121

Echecrates, 38, 117, 121, 154
Echecratia, 122
Ecphantus, 121; fragments, 257-259
Eiriscus, 121
E1ecaon, 89
Empedocles, 83, 121, 152, 155-56; called wind-stiller, 91, 129
Empedus, 121
Epaminondas, 117, 134, 143
Epichannus, 120
Epimenides, 83, 110, 142; called expiator, 91, 129
Epiphron, 121
Episylus, 121
Eratosthenes, 154
Eratas, 121
Eubulus, 89
Eudorus, 40
Eudoxus, 124
Euelthon, 121
Eunomus, 141
Eunostus, 123, 125
Euphemus, 121
Euphorbus, 71, 132, 142
Eurycrates, 121
Eurymedon , 121
Eurymenes, 103•104, 126
Euryphamus, 102-03; fragments, 245-46
Euryphemus, 121
Eurytus, 83, 91, 94, 120, 121, 154
Euthycles, 121
Euthynus, 121
Evaeus, 121
Evandrus, 121
Evanor, 121
Evetes, 121

Favorinus, 144, 154
Ficino, Marsilio, 13, 42

Gartydas, 120
Glorippus, 121
Guthrie, Kenneth Sylvan, 13, 17
Glycinus, 121
Gyptius, 121

Hall, Manly P., 13
Helicaon, 100, 121
Heloris, 121
Heracleides, 33, 142-43, 152-53
Heraclitus, 142, 142n
Hermippus, 141, 144, 152, 156
Hermodamas, 123, 126
Hermotimus, 132, 142
Hestiaeus, 121
Hiero, 120
Hierocles, ethical fragments, 275-86
Hieronymus, 147
Hipparchides, 121
Hipparchus, 75, 152; fragments, 247-48
Hippasus, 83, 119, 121, 143
Hippobotus, 103, 135, 152
Hippodamus, fragments, 215-20
Hippodomas, 77
Hippomedon, 79, 121
Hippon, 121
Hipposthenes, 121
Hippostratus, 121

Iambkichus, 42, 271, 321
Icmus, 121
Itmaeus, 121

Justin Martyr, 42

Lacon, 121
Lacrates, 121
Lacritus, 121
Laphion, 121
Lasthenia, 122
Leocritus, 121
Leocydes, 121
Leon, 121
Leophron, 121
Leptines, 121
Leucippus, 83
Levy, Ernst, 48
Litagus, 120
Lycon, 121
Lycus, 124
Lyramnus, 122
Lysiades, 122
Lysibius, 121
Lysis, 38, 75, 83, 102-03, 121, 134-35, 143,

Macrobius, 42
Malion 121
Marmacus, 141
Martianus Capella, 42-43
Medici, Cosimo de', 42
Megistias, 121
Melanippus, 121
Melisias, 121
Melissus, 121
Menestor, 121
Menon, 121
Meton, 119, 121
Metopus, 121; fragments, 249
Milo, 83, 117, 134, 151-52
Milon, 121
Miltiades, 89, 121
Mimnomachus, 121
Mnesarchus (father of Pythagoras), 58-59,
123, 125, 141; (son of Pythagoras), 120,
Mnesibulus, 121
Mnesimachus, 151
Moderatus, 41
Moses, 60
Mya, 122
Myes, 121
Myia, 124, 137
Myllia, 135
Myllias, 103-04

Nastas, 121
Nausitheus, 122
Nausithus, 89
Neanthes, 103, 123, 135, 155
Neocritus, 122
Nicomachus, 41, 117, 126, 135
Nigidius Figulus, 40
Ninon, 119
Nisleadusa, 122
Numenius, 41

Ocellus. 121; On the Nature of the Universe.
203; On Laws, 213
Occillus, 121
Odius, 121
Onatus, 121
Opsimus, 121
Oresandrus, 121
Orestadas, 121

Paction, 121
Parmenides, 121, 145, 155-6,
Parmiseus, 12 I
Parthenis, 58
Pempelus, fragments, 261
Perialus, 75
Perictyone, fragments, 239-41
Phaedon, 121
Phaenec1es, 121
Phalaris, 109-10
Phanto, 117
Phanton, 121, 154
Pherecydes, 59, 102, 116-7, 123, 126, 134,
141, 152
Philo, 40
Philodamus, 121
Philolaus, 38, 83, 94, 105, 120-1, 154;
fragments, 167-75; music heard near his
tomb, 91
Philonidas, 121
Philostratus, 40
Philtis, 122
Phintias, 113, 121, 135
Photius, 137
Phrontidas, 121
Phrynichus, 121
Phyntis, fragments, 263
Phytius, 89, 100, 121
Pisicrates, 121
Pisirrhonde, 122
Pisyrrhydus, 121
Plato, 38, 52, 105, 299; letter to Archytas,
Plotinus, 42
Plutarch, 40-1
Polemaeus, 121
Polemarchus, 121
Poliades, 121
Polus, fragments, 235

Rhexibius. 121
Rhodippus, 121

Sara, 137
Sextus, Pythagorean Sentences, 267-71
Sillus, 121
Simmias, 38
Simus, 121, 124
Smichias, 121
Sosicrates, 143
Sosistratus, 121
Sosthenes, 121
Sostratius, 121
Speusippus, 38
Spintharus, 105
Sthenidas, fragments, 255
Sthenonidas, 121
Syllus, 94

Taylor, Thomas, 13
Te1auges, 93, 124, 137, 152-3
Thales, 59, 125
Theaetetus, 100, 154
Theages, 119; fragments, 225-8
Theano, 90, 120, 122, 124, 137, 152-3
Themistoclea, 147
Theoc1es, 89
Theodorus, 121
Theon, 41; on the Tetraktys, 317-9
Theorides, 120
Thesleff, Holger, 39
Thestor, 114
Thompson, Francis, 44
Thraseus, 121
Thrasydamus, 121
Thrasymedes, 121
Thymaridas, 83, 93, 114, 121
Timaeus (of Croton), 121; (of Locri), On the World and the Soul, 287-96; (the Parian), 121; (of Tauromenium), 49, 124, 144, 155
Timares, 89, 121
Timaratus, 100
Timasius, 121
Timesianax, 121
Timon, 150
Timosthenes, 121
Timycha, 103-4, 122, 135
Tyrrhenus, 123, 125, 141
Tyrsenis, 122
Tyrsenus, 121

Whitehead, Alfred North, 19

Xenocades, 121
Xenon, 121
Xenophanes, 150
Xenophantes, 121
Xenophilus, 38, 117, 121, 154
Xentas, 121

Zaleucus, 83, 89, 100, 121, 145; fragments, 229-30
Zalmoxis, 83, 100, 125, 141
Zoilus, 141
Zopyrus, 121
Zoroaster, 20, 125
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Re: The Pythagorean Sourcebook and Library

Postby admin » Wed Nov 13, 2013 5:50 am


Alcmaeon, 151
analogia, 29, 37
Anaximenes, Letter to, of Pythagoras, 155
Apeiron, see Unlimited
Apollo, 30; as the One, 41; see also Pythios
Apolionius of Tyana, The Life of, 40
Apothems of Aristoxenus, 243
Archytas, The Fragments of, 177-201
Arithmetic, Introduction to, 41
arithmetic mean; see mean, arithmetic
Arithmetic, On, 43
arithmology, 321; in Plutarch, 40
Athletics, On, 62

catharsis, 31, 36, 84-85
Chronicles (of Duris), 123
church fathers, 297-98
Clinias, A Fragment of, 265
Common Mathematical Science, On the, 42
Commentaries (of Favorinus), 144
Constitution of the Delians, 145
counter-earth, 129, 170, 301
Croton, 143

decad, 133, 137, 171, 175
Description of the Earth, 124
Divergence of the Academics from Plato, On
the, 41
dodecahedron, 116
dogmata agrapha, 38
doxographers, 307; fragments from, 307-314
Dream of Scipio, Commentary on the, 42
dualism, 33-34, 51-52
duality, 22
dyad, 21, 133, 137; indefinite, 24, 38, 42,
148, 308

elements, four, 174, 206-208, 291-292
Ethical Fragments of Hierocles, 275-86
Exhortation to Philosophy, 42

Fables, 123
Felicity of Families, On the, 235-37
friendship, 112-114

gematria, 41, 53
geometric mean; see mean, geometric
Geometry, Introduction to, 41
gnomon, 24, 300
Gods, Concerning the, 80, 93
Golden Verses of Pythagoras, The, 163-65
Good, On the, 41
Greek dialects, the antiquity of, 115

harmonic mean; see mean, harmonic
harmonic proportion (6:8::912), 24-28, 169,
as "metaphysical octave, " 50; see also
harmonics, musical proportions
harmonics, 24-28, 86-88
Harmonics, Manual of, 41
harmony, 22; etymology of, 51; and health,
28; and justice, 36; of Limit and
Unlimited, 168; as mediation, 25; as a
blending of opposites, 28; in the soul, 33;
and symmetry, 28
Harmony of a Woman, On the, 239-41
"Hearers;" see Pythagorean school,
Helothales, the Father of Epicharmus of Cos,
Hermes, 69, 149
Histories (of Lycus), 124
History of Alexander, 144
History of Philosophy in Ten Books, 42
History of Sicily, 49, 155
Hoopoe, 41
Human Life, Concerning, 245-46
Hymn to Number, 51
Hyperboreans, 13; see also Abaris

Illustrious Virtuous Men, On, 124, 141
Incredible Things Beyond Thule, On the, 125
Indestructibility of the Soul, On the, 41

justice, 253; as proportion, 33; see also, harmony,
philosophy, political, logos
Justice, On, 253

Kingdom, Concerning a, 222-224
Kingdom, On a, (of Ecphantus), 257-59
Kingdom, On a, (of Sthenidas), 255
knowledge, as harmonic element, 34
kosmos, 22, 139, 299

Laws, On, 215
Limit, 22-24, 29, 46, 168, 171-72, 182-83,
251, 301. 304
Lives of Satyrus, Epitome of the, 152
logos, 25

Marriage of Philology and Mercury, 42
Mathematics Useful for Understanding Plato,
mathematikoi; see Pythagorean school,
maxims, Pythagorean; see Pythagorean
school, symbols and maxims
mean, arithmetic, 25; geometric, 28; harmonic,
microcosm, man as, 31, 139
Middle Platonism, 40-42
Miscellaneous History, 144-45, 154
monad, 40, 42, 133, 137, 148, 171, 179; as
origin of all things, 138
monochord, 24-28
Moralia, 40
Muses, the, 30
music, its effect on the soul, 34; of the spheres, 129
music theory; see harmonics
music therapy, 35, 84-85
Music, On, 43
musical proportion; see harmonic proportion
musical ratios, 168-69, 185, 191, 327; leimma
Or semitone (243:246), 27-28, 50; octave
(1:2), 25, 27; perfect fifth (2:3), 25, 27; perfect fourth (3:4), 25,
27; whole tone, 27, 28

Natural, Ethical and Divine Conceptions
which are Perceived in the Science of Numbers, On the, 42
Natural Philosophers, Account of, 147
Nature, On, (of Philolaus), 167
Nature, On, (of Pythagoras), 80
Nature of the Universe, On the. 203-11
Neoplatonism, 41-42
Neopythagoreanism, 39-42
Nicomachus' Introduction to Arithmetic. Commentary
on, 42
Number, as first principle, 301; as immanent,
34-35; as paradigm, 21, 28-30, 169, 171;
and the soul, 33; as source of divine
natures, 93; the study of, 34; as transcendent,
numbers, as emanations of the One, 11, 50
Numbers, On, 41

One, the, 11-12, 21, 133, 137, 179, 302-303,
308; above being, 41; and the Good, 38,
41; above monad and dyad, 40
oracle at Delphi, 77
Orphism, 31, 36

Parents, On, 261
Peras; see Limit
Philolaus. The Fragments of, 167-75
philosophy, aesthetic, 52; as the care of the
soul, 32-33; educational, 33-36; ethical,
37, 185-190, 225-228, 249; political,
36-37, 99-103, 190-193, 217-220,
222-224, 255, 257-259; as purification,
see catharsis; term invented by
Pythagoras, 30; as a way of life, 30-33;
of whole systems, 43-48
Physics, 156
Piety, On, 143
Place, On, 41
Platonic solids; see regular solids
poiitikoi; see Pythagorean school, politikoi
praxis, 35-36
Preface to the Laws of Charondas the Catanean.
Preface to the Laws Of Zaleucus the Locrian,
Prudence and Prosperity, On. 251-52
pseudepigrapha, 39
Pythagoras, addressed boys of Croton, 68; addressed
men of Croton, 66-68; addressed
by a river, 90, 128, 144; addressed
women of Croton, 69-70; addressed young
men of Croton, 65-66; Anaximenes, Letter
10, 155; as the offspring of Apollo, 58,
123; Athletics, On, 62; his birth, 58-59;
biographical sources of information, 49;
brought down eagle, 71, 127-28; Croton,
143; cured by music, 72; descent to underworld,
147, 152; his diet, 130; dietary suggestions,
84; Education. On, 143; his
family, 152-53; Gods. On the, 80, 93;
received golden dart from Abaris the
Hyperborean, 92; possessed a golden t
high, 90, 128, 144; Golden Verses.
163-65; Helothales. the Father of
Epicharmus of Cos, 143; initiations in
Crete, 126; journey to Egypt, 60-61;
meaning of his name, 147; antiquity of
"miracle stories, " 49; use of music,
84-86, 129-30; heard the music of the
spheres, 72; Na1J4re, On, 80, 143-142; his
use of number, 133; his past lives, 71,
132, 142.312; personal habits, 146; Soul,
On the, 143; spoke against Phalaris,
109-110; called himself a philosopher,
143; Politics, On, 143; predicted number
of fish in net, 65, 128; religious observations,
94-96; Sacred Discourse, 93, 95,
119; Sacred Poem, 143; seen in two places
at once, 90, 128; spoke to an ox, 71, 127;
studies in Egypt and Babylonia, 61; tamed
wild bear, 70, 127; transmigration,
126; Universe, On the, 143; various
Pythagorases, 154; writings of, 142-43;
wrote poems under the name of Orpheus,
19, 143
Pythagoras, The Life of, (by Apollonius), 40
Pythagoras, The Life of, (by Aristoxenus),
113, 135
Pythagoras, The Life of, (by Diogenes),
Pythagoras. The Life of, (by Iamblichus),
Pythagoras, The Life of, (preserved by
Photius), 137-40
Pythagoras, The Life of, (by Porphyry),
Pythagoras. On, (by Hermippus), 144
Pythagorean, The, 151
Pythagorean Numbers. On, 38
Pythagorean school, akousmatikoi, 30-31, 63,
76, 130; cenobites, 63; daily program,
81-82; mathematikoi, 31, 76, 130, 137;
list of members, 121-22; politikoi, 31;
revolt against 37-38, 116-20, 134, 151-52;
the succession, 120; symbols or maxims,
78, 83, 131-32, 146, 159-61; teachings,
see philosophy
Pythagorean Symbols, On, 93
Pythagorean Woman, The, 151
Pythagoreans, On the, (by Aristotle), 49, 38,
63, 149
Pythios (Apollo), 147

Quadrivium, the, 34

regular solids, 34, 174, 291, 309, 315, 315
reincarnation; see transmigration
Reincarnation, On, 41
Republic, On a, 217-20
resonance, 34
Rules of Education, 145

Sacred Discourse, 93. 95, 119
Sanctity, On, 221
Secret Doctrines of Plato, On the, 41
Select Sentences of Sextus the Pythagorean.
Silli, 150
Sotion, Abridgement of. 143
soul, associated with body through number,
174; divided in three parts, 32-33
Soul, On the, 143
stereometry, 34
"Students;" see Pythagorean school.
Successions of the Philosophers, (by Alexander),
Successions of the Philosophers. (by
Sosicrates), 143
symbols, Pythagorean; see Pythagorean school, symbols or maxims

Table of Opposites, 23, 34, 130, 301 -02
Tarentines, The, 151
temperance, 103-108; see also philosophy,
ethical, and virtues
Tetraktys, 28-30, 307-308, 312, 77; as the
"Harmony of the Sirens, " 77; symbolism
of, 29
Theology of Arithmetic (by Iamblichus), 42
Theology of Arithmetic (by Nicomachus), 41
theoria, 35-36
therapeia, 35
Tranquility, On. 247-48
transmigration, 36; see also Pythagoras, his
past lives
triad, 133, 300
Tripod, The, 49

Unlimited, 22-24, 46, 168, 171-72, 182, 251,
299-301, 304

Virtue, Concerning, 249
virtues, the 225-28. 249
Virtues, On the, 225-28

Wheel of Generation, 36
Wisdom, On, 181
Woman's Temperance. On. 263-64
World and the Soul, On the, 287-96

Y, Pythagorean The, 158
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Re: The Pythagorean Sourcebook and Library

Postby admin » Wed Nov 13, 2013 5:57 am


FRONTISPIECE. PYTHAGORAS (From Stanley's History of Philosophy, 1687)










FIGURE 5. THE MONOCHORD. String, sounding box and moveable bridge.


FIGURE 6. THE HARMONIC NODAL POINTS AND OVERTONE SERIES ON THE MONOCHORD. The above figure illustrates the reciprocal relation which exists between string length and vibrational frequency. By stopping the string at the geometrical nodal points the harmonic overtones may be individually emphasized.
















FIGURE 14. THE MUSIC OF THE SPHERES. Shown in this engraving from Renaissance Italy are Apollo, the Muses, the planetary spheres and musical ratios.


FIGURE 15. A TABLE OF TONE NUMBERS. There is evidence that this table of tone numbers is a later addition to the text. The abbreviations I. and ap. represent the two types of semitones, the leimma and the apotome respectively.


FIGURE 16. THE REGULAR SOLIDS. The regular solids, also known as the Platonic solids, were first described by Plato in his Timaeus. Plato identified the dodecahedron with the cosmic sphere (later identified with aither), and the four other solids with the four elements. Each one of the elemental "molecules" is constructed out of the triangular "atoms" shown below. The five regular solids are the only polyhedra that can be constructed out of the same regular polygons. The archetypal ratios and geometries with which they are associated underlie the structure and divisions of three-dimensional space.


DODECAHEDRON: Aither / 12 Sides
TETRAHEDRON: Fire / 4 Sides
CUBE: Earth / 6 Sides
OCTAHEDRON: Air / 8 Sides
ICOSAHEDRON : Water / 20 Sides



FIGURE 18. THE DIVINE MONOCHORD. This particular monochord is tuned in the key of G, while the examples on the right and in the introduction use the key of C. The three top notes on this monochord are incorrectly placed.





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Re: The Pythagorean Sourcebook and Library

Postby admin » Wed Nov 13, 2013 7:32 am


PYTHAGORAS (fl. 500 B.C.E.), the first man to call himself a philosopher, was both a brilliant mathematician and spiritual teacher. This anthology is the largest collection of Pythagorean writings ever to appear in the English language. It contains the four ancient biographies of Pythagoras and over twenty-five Pythagorean and Neopythagorean writings from the classical and Hellenistic periods. The Pythagorean ethical and political tractates are especially interesting, for they are based on the premise that the universal principles of Harmony, Proportion, and Justice govern the physical cosmos, and these writings show how individuals and societies alike attain their peak of excellence when informed by these same principles. Indexed, illustrated, with appendices and an extensive bibliography, this work also contains an introductory essay by David Fideler.

"The material in, this book is indispensable for anyone who wishes to understand the real spiritual roots of Western civilization." -- Jacob Needleman, Professor of Philosophy, San Francisco State University; author of The Heart of Philosophy

"The Lives of Iamblichus, Porphyry, and Diogenes Laertius together would be a boon, but to have the whole Pythagorean corpus is a bonanza. The clearly written and instructive introduction of Fideler is a rousing paean to Pythagoras and his abiding influence .... Appropriate for all levels." -- Choice

"This book deserves to establish itself as the standard sourcework on Pythagoreanism. Definitely recommended." -- The Hermetic Journal

"Fideler's introduction provides invaluable background material for the student by highlighting and analyzing clearly the principle themes in the writings and judiciously alerting readers to the difficulty of separating fact and fancy in the master's biography. The Pythagorean Sourcebook thus succeeds in introducing students to the range of Pythagorean thought without misrepresenting it -- a feat that is not unimpressive ..." -- Sixteenth Century Journal

"The Pythagorean Sourcebook and Library is an indispensable compilation of original material in very readable translations to satisfy all needs for increasing our knowledge and understanding of Pythagoras and Pythagoreanism." -- Platon
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