A Mosque in Munich: Nazis, the CIA, and the Rise of the Musl

"Science," the Greek word for knowledge, when appended to the word "political," creates what seems like an oxymoron. For who could claim to know politics? More complicated than any game, most people who play it become addicts and die without understanding what they were addicted to. The rest of us suffer under their malpractice as our "leaders." A truer case of the blind leading the blind could not be found. Plumb the depths of confusion here.

Re: A Mosque in Munich: Nazis, the CIA, and the Rise of the

Postby admin » Wed Jun 10, 2015 9:10 pm

Chapter 16: 1950s REDUX

YOUSSEF NADA SITS in regal splendor, slouched in a faux-ancien-regime chair next to a window overlooking Europe. His villa is perched on a hill next to Lake Lugano, whose dark green waters snake between alpine foothills. Thick forests run down to the lake's edge; this primordial view is marred only by a few towns cut into the banks. Nada's picture windows are decorated with trophies from his trips around the world on behalf of the Muslim Brotherhood. On one table stands a deep-blue glass vase from Pakistan; on another are silver candelabras from North Africa. A strange pewter peanut graces a third -- a memorial to his days in agriculture. The furniture is an assortment of Eastern and Western styles, set next to giant handwoven rugs from Central Asia. Nada is now frail but still dapper in a gray shirt with French cuffs, a flowered tie, a black blazer, and gray flannels. His eyes are dark and drawn, his goatee thin. He appears exhausted, but then he leans forward, eager to explain who he is.

"Engineer, I am engineer.
"Businessman, I am businessman.
"Banker, I am a banker.
"Intellectual, I am intellectual.
"Politician, I am a politician.
''Activist, I am activist.
"Islamist, I am Islamist.
"Terrorist, I am not."

It's hard to argue with that bullet-point resume. In hindsight, the charges of terrorism leveled against Nada seem like an act of desperation by the U.S. government, fulfilling a need to do something, anything, after the 9/11 attacks. A case of Aktionismus, a German word that means "a love of action": action for action's sake. Despite Nada's extensive contact over the years with German speakers, he can barely communicate in the language, but he knows this word. He stumbles over it and says it again, "It is all Aktionismus." Then he sits back, pleased with himself. Linguist I might not be, but you get my point.

And in fact, for all the intense cooperation between U.S. and Swiss prosecutors, the charges that Nada financed terrorism have never been proven or explained publicly in a convincing way. In hindsight, Nada's Banque al-Taqwa was a disastrous investment for members of the Muslim Brotherhood but less likely a secret funding vehicle for terrorists. Perhaps it could be proved that some of the initial profits from the bank were given to terrorist organizations such as Hamas. Investors had given Nada wide latitude to donate their zakat -- their tithe, one of the five pillars of Islam. Thus when money came in during the bank's early, profitable days, he was authorized to skim off the requisite 10 percent zakat and channel it to any charity he chose. It's conceivable some went to questionable groups close to the Brotherhood, but that hasn't been proven. None of his bank's transfers -- and authorities had access to all of them because they were executed through mainstream Swiss banks -- were dubious enough to allow prosecutors to even bring a case to trial, let alone get a conviction.

Not only were Nada and Himmat not tried, but the travails of the past years apparently rejuvenated them. Nada has relished the role of underdog, setting up a website to refute some of the more absurd allegations made against him. He has spent countless hours regaling journalists, academics, and prosecutors with tales of his Islamist exploits. In a series of long interviews on Al-Jazeera television, he even claimed to have been the Brotherhood's foreign minister. Himmat, true, had to resign as head of the Islamic Community of Germany, but like Nada he remains in his villa, essentially in retirement. Both are now over seventy.

Their fates highlight an interesting development: in some ways the 9/11 attacks were the best thing that happened to the Brotherhood. Yes, there was a crackdown and for a while the Brotherhood suffered. But more important, the attacks made most Westerners judge Islamists by one criterion: is the person a terrorist? If so, then the full weight of government power would be brought to bear, from torture and war to prosecution and jail. But if not, then the person was okay. He or she wasn't Al Qaeda. Such people weren't blowing things up. They were not only tolerated but valued. Far from problematic, their extremist and undemocratic views were a sign of credibility. They could talk to the "Muslim street." They became one of democracy's most highly valued commodities: a dialogue partner.


Herve Terrel strides briskly into a cafe with oak and brass fixtures across from the Madeleine, a huge church in central Paris that looks like a Greek temple. It is early morning, and Terrel is on his way to work in the French government's interior ministry, where he helps formulate policy related to the country's Muslims. When I first met him in 2004, France was literally burning -- Muslim ghettos were aflame with burning cars -- but Terrel was unperturbed, absolutely certain that France had the right strategy: co-opting the Muslim Brotherhood.

With more than four million Muslims, France has one of Islam's largest populations in Europe. The immigrants have added a youthful element to an aging population and helped forge business and cultural ties to the Muslim world. But most are concentrated in ghettos like Amriou's, where they live cut off from French society, with poor prospects for education and jobs. The 9/11 terrorist attacks focused attention on these communities, where young Muslims were recruited to fight the West in Afghanistan. In 2005, tens of thousands rioted, burning cars night after night. Terrel is part of a group of high-level civil servants charged with coming up with a solution.

In 2003, French officials had already decided that Muslims needed a voice and set up the French Council of the Muslim Faith. The body was to be elected, but officials had a problem: who should vote? French citizens don't register their religious affiliation, so the country has no list of Muslims. The solution was for mosques to elect representatives. Bigger mosques would get more votes, based on the theory that they represented more Muslims. That formula helped one group in particular: the UOIF, the group in France closest to the Muslim Brotherhood.

The UOIF is an amalgam of several Islamist groups with roots in Said Ramadan's Islamic Center of Geneva. The group came to prominence in 1989 when two girls were ejected from school for wearing headscarves. The UOIF began to organize protests and quickly established itself as a force in the slums of major French cities. Until then, France's Muslim organizations were divided according to their members' countries of origin. The UOIF, by contrast, advocated an "Islam de France;' although it saw no contradiction in paying for this with foreign money. The group receives extensive funding from Arab countries. Even today, UOIF officials say, one quarter of its annual budget of just under three million euros, or about $4 million, comes from donors abroad, especially Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Kuwait. That support means the UOIF mosques are large, claiming more votes in the council elections -- far beyond the UOIF's actual strength. In 2003 elections, the UOIF won control of twelve of the twenty-five regional councils that represent the central council across France -- it suddenly was thrust into a position of power.

The UOIF was affiliated with the Muslim Brotherhood, Terrel readily conceded with a cocked eyebrow, but he could handle them. "If you say the UOIF is not the Muslim Brotherhood, it's a kind of naivete. They are. But they also accept the rules here and want to play the game. That's why they're so seductive to people who don't really understand things."

I wondered if he fell into that category. Why then fix the voting rules to favor the big Saudi-funded Muslim Brotherhood mosques? Perhaps the interior ministry should have set up a voting system that tried to reach other Muslims -- more secular ones who didn't go to mosque every day.

Terrel disagreed emphatically. "Favoring the Brotherhood was the point. It's not a problem to deal with them; on the contrary. In all of Europe, the only groups that have thought of how to find their place in society are Islamists." True, the Brotherhood does not represent all Muslims, but for Terrel they are attractive because "they have the intellectual level to talk with a government official" like him. In other words, they wear suits, have university degrees, and can formulate their demands in ways that a politician can understand. It reminded me of Amcomlib's decision to drop its support of the old Muslim leader Ibrahim Gacaoglu in favor of Said Ramadan. Ordinary people don't make good interlocutors. They don't have a political program that you can discuss. Ordinary people are messy.

The UOIF was also attractive because it helped fill a hole in social services that the state was unwilling to address. UOIF mosques offer after-school tutoring, day care, and activities for women. One outside supporter of this work was Dounia Bouzar, a prominent French Muslim social scientist, who argued in a book of 2001 that groups like the Brotherhood make valuable mediators between mainstream society and Muslim immigrants. Their services, she argued, help Muslims integrate. But after watching the situation develop over the next few years, Bouzar changed her views. Instead of integrating Muslims, the Brotherhood's all-embracing form of Islam builds a cocoon around its people, allowing them little contact with mainstream society. Education is often stunted and chances for professional success limited. "It's a vision of society that separates people into two camps, Islamic and non-Islamic." said Bouzar. "They have a need to Islamicize everything." By embracing groups like the UOIF, Western politicians essentially went along with this paradigm, tacitly accepting the Islamist tenet that Islam is the answer to every problem.

Bouzar and other Muslims began to realize that most difficulties that Muslims face don't have to do with religion -- and thus it didn't make sense to put a religious group in charge of solving them. Muslims' problems were common among all poor immigrants: unemployment, poor education, street crime. There is nothing specifically Muslim about these issues. The argument that Islam is the answer, however, was so seductive that soon Washington was formulating similar policies, echoing its actions from half a century earlier.


In late 2005, the U.S. State Department decided that European Muslims needed Americas help. Too many were living in parallel societies, cut off from the mainstream. Extremism and violence were rampant; it was no coincidence that three of the four 9/11 hijacker pilots had been radicalized in Europe or that Islamist terrorists had killed hundreds in London and Madrid. What Europe needed, the State Department figured, was help to set up an international network "to discuss alienation and extremism."

The idea was intriguing. The United States was the target of Islamic radicals, but its own communities had not produced the violence found in Europe. Experts had long debated the reasons for this. Some cited the fact that often the Muslims who immigrated to the United States either had jobs or planned to study. In Europe, by contrast, Muslims had come to work in industrial jobs that didn't exist anymore. They had working-class levels of education and lacked the skills to find new employment, leaving many frustrated, with too much time on their hands. Social services were thought to be related to the problem. In the United States, unemployed Muslims had few welfare benefits to help them out. If they wanted to survive, they had to work long hours. In Europe those who lacked employment could claim relatively generous welfare benefits and have time to indulge in extremist politics. Other explanations were batted around too: that Islamic violence was largely an Arab and Pakistani phenomenon; whereas a high percentage of Muslims in Europe had immigrated from these regions, those in the United States represented a broader array of homelands.

But no one made the single argument that informed the State Department's plan: that the United States had better Muslim leadership. A State Department-sponsored conference on November 15 and 16, 2005, called Muslim Communities Participating in Society: A Belgian-US. Dialogue, brought together sixty-five Belgian Muslims and US. tutors from the Islamic Society of North America. The US. diplomats thought so highly of ISNA that it seems to have been appointed as a co-organizer of the conference.

From a historical perspective, this was almost comical -- a case of taking coal to Newcastle. ISNA, as seen in Chapter 14, was founded by people with extremely close ties to Nada and the Muslim Brotherhood leadership in Europe. The State Department was importing Muslim Brotherhood Islamists with roots in Europe to tell European Muslims how to organize and integrate. Even more interesting, some of those European Muslims invited to the conference were themselves part of the current Muslim Brotherhood network.

One participant was a Belgian convert named Michael Privot, who at the time was vice president of a Saudi-Muslim Brotherhood organization called the Forum of European Muslim Youth and Student Organizations. This body was founded with direct support from the Muslim Brotherhood's umbrella organization in Europe, the Federation of Islamic Organizations in Europe. Privot was also vice secretary of the Complex Educatif et Culturel Islamique de Verviers, a center of Muslim Brotherhood activity in Brussels. It was also the home of one of Hamas's fund-raising groups, the Al- Aqsa Foundation (a group banned in several European countries, including Germany and Holland, for supporting terrorism). The meeting offered a chance for Muslim Brotherhood activists like Privot to meet their US. counterparts. In addition, the State Department helped bring Belgian Muslims to the United States -- to be trained as imams by ISNA and to participate in an ISNA summer program in Chicago. In short, it was a networking session for the Muslim Brotherhood -- paid for by US. taxpayers.

State Department officials acknowledged that they had invited people accused of extremism but said they did not care about track records. Instead, all that mattered were the groups' or individuals' current statements. In testimony before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, the US. ambassador to Belgium, Tom Korologos, said, "Some of the organizations whose members participated in the Conference have been accused of being extremist. It is possible that some individual members of those organizations have made statements that have been termed extremist. Our view, however, was to base our selection on the stated policies and specific actions of organizations and individuals today with regard to harmonious Muslim integration into American and European society." And then, with a rhetorical flourish, he concluded that "four or five more conferences like this can lead to a network of moderate Muslims."

In internal communication, however, Mr. Korologos's staff revealed a less altruistic goal. In one cable sent at the end of 2006, the US. embassy in Brussels conceded that "the embassy's engagement with Belgian Muslims is seen by some members of the majority community, and some Muslims also, as interference in Belgium's internal affairs." This was justified, the cable concluded, not to build a network of moderates, but rather to "increase our credibility with both Muslims and mainstream Belgians with the ultimate goal of creating a more positive image of the US., its policies, society, and values."

In 2007, a similar project took place in Germany. The US. consulate in Munich actively backed the creation of an Islamic academy in the town of Penzberg. The group behind the academy had close ties to Milli Gorus -- essentially a Turkish version of the Muslim Brotherhood, which regularly appears on lists of extremist organizations in Germany. That is why the Bavarian state government' led by the conservative Christian Social Union, was opposed to the academy. The situation was complex -- members of the group in Penzberg seemed to make a good-faith effort to distance themselves from extremism -- but many German officials were not convinced and wanted to wait a while before accepting the group's newfound moderation. Thus the State Department's quick embrace of the group created a bizarre political constellation: the Bush administration, which had lambasted "old Europe" for being weak on fighting extremism, was actively undermining a conservative European government for being too tough on Islamists.

The embassy's actions formed part of a broader change in strategy -- but one debated largely in secret. The strategy was, as a 2006 cable from the U.S. embassy in Berlin put it, a "policy of using American Muslims to reach out to other Muslims." This paralleled U.S. efforts in the 1950S to enlist Muslims in Munich for similar public relations purposes. Though it did smack of manipulating Islam, in many ways this activity is not controversial: why not send U.S. citizens to tell the story of the United States? The problem lay in who got chosen for this role. Just as in the 1950s and '60s, the United States opted for the Brotherhood.

The most public advocate of this new strategy was the prominent political scientist Robert S. Leiken of the Nixon Center think tank. In a widely read piece in Foreign Affairs, he and his colleague Steven Brooke made numerous sensible points. For example, they pointed out that the Brotherhood has often been treated as a monolith and that Western officials have ignored moderates in the movement. They also noted that terrorists have often held the Brotherhood in contempt for not embracing global jihad -- thus, in the context of Middle Eastern politics, the Brotherhood is not the most extreme group. They also rightly said the United States should not be afraid of engaging the Brotherhood, or any group, if it furthers U.S. interests.

These are all valid observations, but the article misses a few key points. While it is correct, for example, that the Brotherhood does not embrace global jihad against the West, its support of jihad in Israel and Iraq means it explicitly endorses terrorism. The authors also do not seriously address the sheer volume of the group's anti-Semitic utterances over the years, up to the present. They acknowledge the existence of this problem, but more as a historical fact than a present and ongoing reality. To exemplify the Brotherhood's thinking today, the two political scientists cite one moderate sermon that they heard in London. It's worth considering that the authors were present in the mosque as the guest of the man giving the sermon; perhaps his words were tailored to please them? The authors make no effort to balance positive developments with recurring problems -- for example, the continuing role of Youssef Qaradawi. They note only that the UOIF in France doesn't invite the imam to its conferences anymore, but fail to acknowledge his role in setting norms in Europe through his fatwa council, websites, and television broadcasts. Maybe most important, the article conflates the Brotherhood in the Middle East and the West. One can argue that Western countries should reach out to oppressed Brotherhood members in authoritarian Egypt. But this doesn't mean that one also has to endorse the Brotherhood's role among Western Muslims. What seems moderate in Egypt can be radical in Paris or Munich.

This endorsement of the Brotherhood began to spread beyond the State Department. The Department of Homeland Security continued to oppose the Brotherhood and made any sort of affiliation with the organization grounds for refusing a person entry into the United States. Thus Tariq Ramadan, Said Ramadan's son and a popular lecturer among young European Muslims, was refused admittance. Besides his familial affiliations, the younger Ramadan wrote a foreword for the first collection of fatwas issued by Qaradawi's fatwa council. The merits of the department's actions can be debated -- Ramadan was hardly a terrorist, and if his views are objectionable, they should be debated, not silenced -- but in any case it was largely a rearguard action. By the second half of the decade, even the CIA -- reflecting its mindset of the 1950s -- was backing the Brotherhood. In 2006 and 2008, the CIA issued reports on the organization. The former was more detailed, laying out a blueprint for dealing with the group. Called "Muslim Brotherhood: Pivotal Actor in European Political Islam." the report stated that "MB groups are likely to be pivotal to the future of political Islam in Europe ... They also show impressive internal dynamism, organization, and media savvy." The report conceded that "European intelligence services consider the Brotherhood a security threat and critics -- including more pluralistic Muslims -- accuse it of hindering Muslim social integration." But the report nevertheless concluded that "MB-related groups offer an alternative to more violent Islamic movements."

The new Obama administration evinced similar support. During the presidential campaign, the Obama team appointed Mazen Asbahi as its Muslim outreach coordinator, although Asbahi had extensive contacts with Brotherhood organizations and was even head of the Muslim Student Association, which was founded by people with ties to the Munich mosque. This information was either disregarded or missed when Asbahi was vetted during the campaign. He resigned in 2008 only when the facts, dug up by an online newsletter focused on the Muslim Brotherhood, were published in a national newspaper.

In power, the Obama administration has continued its predecessor's endorsement of Islamists. In January 2009, for example, the State Department sponsored a visit of German Muslim leaders to one of the bastions of the Muslim Brotherhood in the United States, the International Institute of Islamic Thought -- the organization set up after the epochal meeting in 1977 at Himmat's home base near Lake Lugano. The German visitors were key government officials in charge of integration or recruitment of minorities into the police. One of the briefers (or "one of those giving the briefing") was Jamal Barzinji -- who as seen in Chapter 14 had worked for Nada in the 1970s and later was one of the triumvirate who set up a number of key Brotherhood-inspired structures in the United States.

Like many Brotherhood-related groups, IIIT faded from public view after the 9/11 attacks but has experienced a renaissance recently. IIIT had been closely associated with a raft of Islamist organizations in northern Virginia that were raided by federal agents because of their suspected ties to extremist Islam. As elsewhere, this action followed a familiar pattern. The groups in question, including IIIT, were primarily problematic for ideological reasons -- for trying to push the Brotherhood's vision of an Islamicized society, which clearly cannot work in a pluralistic culture. But instead of being challenged on the field of ideas, where they could easily be shown to hold beliefs antithetical to democratic ideals, they were accused of supporting criminal activities and were raided. This had a double effect: it created the strange spectacle of the legal arm of the government trying desperately to prosecute these groups while, at the same time, the diplomatic arm held them up as models of integration. In addition, the failure to convict the Muslims was seen as an exoneration, almost a seal of approval.


Few people illustrate the West's fascination with and repulsion toward the Brotherhood better than Ibrahim el-Zayat, the young Muslim leader given the reins of the Islamic Community of Germany in 2002, when Ghaleb Himmat was forced out. Just thirty-three years old at the time, he became only the fourth head of the organization, after Said Ramadan, Faisal Yazdani, and, for nearly thirty years, Himmat. Zayat represented the new generation, in some ways the culmination of years of Islamist efforts to find a foothold in Europe and build something lasting.

Born in Europe to an Egyptian father and German mother, Zayat was perfectly at home in the West but had close ties to the old country. He spoke German and English fluently and held a master's degree in political science from a German university. He understood how political decisions are made in Germany -- the complex interactions of think tanks, church, and political foundations where "opinion makers" meet and discuss ideas, which filter up through the political parties to become a consensus that is eventually implemented. It is not grassroots activism or organizing, but a system that gave power to elites, who are meant to cull out radical ideas and come up with sensible solutions. A consummate lobbyist, Zayat knew this. At times, he seemed to do nothing but go from one conference to another: to a Protestant church's political academy, a Catholic church's roundtable, a Social Democrats' intercultural dialogue, the European Parliament's subcommittee on minorities, and so on, always present, always cutting an impressive figure, usually dressed in a blue power suit with a pressed white shirt and richly patterned tie -- a man who might be a junior executive at an investment bank.

But what sets him apart from other politically ambitious men of his age are his ties to Islamism. His father, an Egyptian, had settled in Marburg and became a leader in local Muslim affairs. Zayat assumed this mantle. He seemed to have either founded or been closely involved with every recently established Muslim Brotherhood-related group in Europe. These included the European Trust (board of directors with power of attorney), the Federation of Islamic Organizations in Europe (board of directors), the Muslim Student Union (past president), the European Mosque Construction and Support Community (power of attorney), the World Assembly of Muslim Youth (European representative), the Islamic Education Institute (member), the Society of Muslim Social Scientists (associate director), and the Forum of European Muslim Youth and Student Organizations (board of directors).

And that was only his pro bono work. He made his money through Islam too, as head of SLM Liegenschaftsmanagement GmbH, a company that buys and sells real estate on behalf of mosques. One of his biggest clients is the Turkish Islamist group Milli Gorus. Given the large population of ethnic Turks in Germany, Milli Gorus has somewhat eclipsed the Muslim Brotherhood in terms of influence in that country, but Zayat has helped bridge this gap through his business and personal ties. He founded SLM at the age of twenty-nine, in 1997, along with another young Islamist, Oguz Ucuncu, the current head of Milli Gorus. Zayat is married to the daughter of Mehmet Erbakan (the former head of Milli Gorus) and the niece of the movement's founder, Necmettin Erbakan. Zayat's ties to global Islamism are so extensive that he has been featured in long profiles in major German media. In one sensationalistic work, he was described as the spider in the center of a web of terrorism. The book The War in Our Cities was so riddled with factual errors and shrill assertions that Zayat's lawyers had a field day forcing the book publisher to strike out passages or issue retractions. But its overall point was valid: Zayat is one of the most influential Islamists in Europe.

The question remains whether Zayat and others like him -- from ISNA functionaries in Chicago to UOIF members in Paris -- can be called members of the Muslim Brotherhood. Is it even fair to use that term when most of these people were born in the West, might not speak Arabic or Urdu, and support local laws and customs? In Zayat's case, the Egyptian government simply claims that he is a member of the Brotherhood, implying that it still has a functioning overseas network of people who take orders from Akef in Cairo and support the party back in Egypt. The Egyptian government tried him in absentia in a military court. But then again, Egypt's track record on human rights is so miserable and persecution of the Brotherhood so extensive that it's hard to trust anything its officials say on the matter. More intriguing, Ikhwanweb, the Brotherhood's official website, also claimed he was a member. Later, however, it issued a retraction and a denial from Zayat.

The question is to some degree pointless because the Brotherhood nowadays functions as two phenomena: One is narrowly de fined as an Egyptian political party. The other -- more relevant in the West in the twenty-first century -- is an ideological universe that includes the works of Qaradawi and Qutb, Ramadan and von Denffer, and could be defined even more broadly as including nearly identical movements around the world, including Pakistan's Jamaat or Turkey's Milli Gorus. In this sense, it's hard to see how Zayat, with his extensive ties to all these groups, could be considered as functioning outside the Brotherhood. Although he tries to prevent this label from being attached to him, he seems to be losing the fight. In 2005, he unsuccessfully sued a German parliamentarian to prevent her from using the term in reference to him. The court affirmed her right to express her opinion that he "clearly is a functionary of the Muslim Brotherhood."

Personally, I avoided the term when talking to Zayat. Over the years, I had come to know him fairly well. I had interviewed him twice and we had participated in numerous conferences, including a series of closed-door roundtables sponsored by the Catholic Church, aimed at breaking down the barriers between Islamists and Germany's security services. At one of those meetings, I had seen him emotionally defend the Brotherhood as an important reform movement -- undoubtedly true in the context of Egyptian politics. But I also could see why he rejected the label. He was born in Germany, his kids went to Montessori schools, and he had a sharp, if somewhat bitter, sense of humor. He didn't want to be pegged as a puppet of Akef's and of the other old men in the Brotherhood's Cairo headquarters.

Our final meeting took place in his office in Cologne. After taking over, Zayat had essentially moved the Islamic Community of Germany's operations to Cologne from Munich, although officially the group was still based in the Munich mosque. In a way, this reflected the group's history of strongman rule. When Himmat ran it, he was based in Switzerland. Now Zayat was running it from Cologne. The mosque remained in Munich, a pawn in larger struggles.

Zayat's office in Osterather Strasse is home to numerous other Islamist-leaning organizations, including the Society of Muslim Social Scientists, the Muslim Student Association, a Muslim bookstore, a kindergarten for the Islamic Community of Germany, and the national offices of the Islamrat, an umbrella group of Islamic organizations, most notably Milli Gorus. I arrived early and sat waiting for him in the bookstore. A clerk greeted me with a suspicious look, a grunt, and a gesture toward a chair, but later he warmed up when I asked if he could recommend an introduction to Islam. He thrust into my hands a copy of von Denffer's On Islamic Comportment, a collection of essays by well-known Islamist authors, including von Denffer's mentor, Khurshid Ahmad.

A few minutes later, Zayat came in, looking stockier and grayer than he did when I had last seen him, but as professional as ever. We headed out in his BMW 3-series sedan, a comfortably messy older model with an old-fashioned car phone. As we zipped into traffic, I was reminded of why I liked him.

"A lot of people say that Ian Johnson is a CIA agent because you write so little."

"My boss says that too." I said.

"You should write more. Sloth is a sin."

We tore through traffic, exchanging more pleasantries and jokes on the way to lunch.

We parked and stepped into a cafeteria-style Turkish restaurant. Zayat immediately took command, ordering a tureen of soup and a huge plate of sliced meat topped with croutons and doused in garlicky yogurt. At the cashier he whipped out his wallet and paid before I could react. "You're with an Arab now, you have no chance!" he said, leading us to a table.

Zayat had been having a hard time. German officials want a dialogue with "Muslims" -- in some ways a strange term that lumps together completely different people, from first-generation Turks who speak little German to Bosnian immigrants and local converts. They know that Zayat and his allies in Milli Gorus represent many Muslims, especially the more troubled youth, who pose the biggest security threat. But Zayat's web of links has begun to be known in Germany, and he is not always welcome. The Federal Center for Political Education, for example, had listed him as an approved interlocutor on Muslim issues. That had carried a lot of weight because the center was set up after the war to promote democratic education in West German society, and its recommendations are generally seen as safe. But when commentators pointed out Zayat's links to the ideological world of the Brotherhood, the center quickly pulled his name off its website. Then he seemed to achieve a breakthrough when he participated in the German federal government's Islamkonferenz, a government effort to establish a formal dialogue with the Muslim community. But when Zayat's presence was made public, he was dropped. In 2009, police raided several mosques and prayer rooms linked to the Brotherhood, and some German newspapers said the head of the organization in Germany was Zayat, further tarnishing his reputation.

All this has helped push Zayat out of the front row of acceptable dialogue partners, but he continues to organize and keep the network functioning, allowing others to step forward. This background role is probably not what he wants, but it's something he and the Brotherhood have mastered over the years. A few years earlier, he had wired money to the Taibah International Aid Association, a Bosnian organization linked to fundamentalist groups. He concedes that he made the transfers, but says he was just doing this on behalf of Saudi donors. When I ask him why he was involved with the Saudis, his answer is disappointing: "To prevent worse from happening." one of the classic cop-out answers given by people who stay in bad groups too long.

"I don't deny that I'm in these groups." he says, getting a bit tense. "When I'm asked clearly, then I answer."

That's part of the problem, of course. Brotherhood figures and groups are always saying they have no ties with extremists, but only admit them when asked about specific connections. They never make clear statements, nor clean breaks with the past. The Islamic Community of Germany has never owned up to its past, for example, or taken a real interest in its history. At its annual meeting in late 2008, the group celebrated its fiftieth anniversary, even though it wasn't legally established as the Mosque Construction Commission until 1960. It claims, on its website, that it was founded by the old soldiers (who had first met in 1958, hence the anniversary), but the group didn't mention that it threw the soldiers out. It has begun offering a Said Ramadan Prize for people who have helped the cause, but doesn't note that Ramadan was also kicked out. It acknowledges that a string of radicals have passed through its mosques, but says each one is an exception. The past is always being rewritten or excused away.

That doesn't prevent Zayat from winning friends. Some people are swayed by the group's claim that its rough edges represent authenticity. One of the best examples is Werner Schiffauer, a prominent German anthropologist who has written extensively about Islamists in Turkey and Germany. His approach is rigorously modern: informants are given pseudonyms, and their statements taken at face value. He does no investigative work and only checks stories against each other for internal logic -- he never consults public records or tries to create a historical narrative. His research is also driven by a sense of guilt: that foreigners are victims and German society is oppressive. Thus he has become an advocate for groups like Milli Gorus; for example, he once served as a friendly witness on behalf of a group member. I remember seeing Schiffauer's ideological worlds collide when Zayat's Society of Muslim Social Scientists gave him an award at its annual meeting. When Schiffauer, speaking as a good leftist, said Muslims were victims of society, just like homosexuals, the room exploded in anger. One man had a violent fit of anger and had to be escorted from the room. Schiffauer ended up arguing with the man, stating that he didn't care what the man thought. In essence, the Muslim man was supposed to act as a proper subject of study, supplying partial proof of a theory that defined Muslims as victims.

Cultivating friends is important, Zayat says, but he wants me to understand something more important. With our meal long finished and teas drunk, he waves away all the groups he's joined and all the troubles he's had. There is an important lesson in this, and he wants to impart it to me. I hunch over the table and listen. It has to do with a group that wanted to build a mosque in Berlin, Inssan e.V. The group was founded by Muslims after the 9/11 attacks and needed money. Zayat arranged for the European Trust to donate several million euros to buy a piece of land for it in Berlin. When the purchase became public, a furor erupted over Zayat's involvement, and the local district government denied Inssan a building permit. So I asked Zayat if that was because his group was involved.

"No, you can't say that. If a plan to build a mosque is made public, everyone is against it. Mosques must always be built secretly."

Surely that can't be right, I said. m been to German cities and seen how local Muslims had built bridges to local communities and gotten wide support for their projects. It didn't always happen that way -- racism was still a big problem -- but it seemed to me that over the long term, transparency was the best bet. Wasn't the fact that Inssan's mosque project was undertaken by a small group of activists funded by the Brotherhood the real problem?

Zayat's answer was timeless, something that could have been uttered by von Mende, Dreher, or Ramadan: "No, it's not that. It's secrecy. If it's not public, you can build any mosque, regardless of who's behind it. You just have to keep it secret."
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Re: A Mosque in Munich: Nazis, the CIA, and the Rise of the

Postby admin » Wed Jun 10, 2015 9:10 pm

EPILOGUE: Inside the Mosque

IT IS A WEEKDAY in December, and the Islamic Center of Munich is almost empty. It is bright inside -- the large windows and shiny tiles make it look warm -- but the concrete walls do little to protect against the early winter weather. The heat is off and the mosque is cold.

Ahmad von Denffer wears a parka as he shuffles through the mosque. A burly fifty-five-year-old with a thick beard, he could be a Bavarian forest ranger, but for the knee-length robe that pokes out from the parka. Surgeon green, the robe is von Denffer's uniform, his announcement to the world that he hasn't just converted to Islam but identifies with one of its groups. In his case, it would be the Pakistani movement Jamaat-e-Islamiya.

Von Denffer's parents were born in Riga, the capital of Latvia, where von Mende's family originated. Founded in medieval times by German knights and merchants, the old Hanseatic seaport had a large German minority until Germany's twentieth-century meltdown, when the country lost not only vast territories but also its dominance in eastern Europe. When his parents were deported at the war's end, they settled in the Rhineland, and von Denffer was born there in 1949. He was a classic West German baby boomer. He grew up comfortably in the banking capital, Frankfurt, got a high school diploma, and then did his military service. It was there he discovered Islam: "I had too much time on my hands in the army. Back then we had to serve eighteen months and I read and read. I read about world religions. The one that made the most sense was Islam."

He began to practice it haphazardly and slowly gravitated to Munich. He started visiting the Islamic Center of Munich regularly in the late 1970s, just a few years after it had opened. This was the time when the Muslim Brotherhood was trying to make a comeback after years of oppression; it was actively organizing. Even though ordinary Turkish Muslims were shut out, the mosque had changed its bylaws to allow prominent Islamist organizers from around the world to join the governing council. That included the Jamaat-e-Islamiya leaders Khurshid Ahmad and Khurram Murad. Von Denffer says Murad played a big role in his life. Soon, von Denffer went to Jamaat's British center in Leicester to study and then to Pakistan for advanced training. It was the time of the jihad against the Soviet Union in Afghanistan, and Pakistan was a hotbed of political Islam.

For years, von Denffer was the young German convert among the mosque's senior Arab and Pakistani political activists. But with time, he began to take on an important role. He authored books in English and German that supported the classic positions of political Islam: special enclaves for Muslims, implementation of sharia in Western countries, and support for military jihad wherever Muslims might be in trouble. He became a leader of the mosque.

Von Denffer is interested in discussing the history of the mosque. Most of the time, all that outsiders want to know about are the links to terrorism or extremism. He has answered too many questions about Abouhalima and the first World Trade Center bombing, not to mention Salim and Al Qaeda. And then 9/11, the financial freeze on Himmat, and his resignation from all posts. More recently, German federal police raided the Islamic Center of Munich, looking for proof of money laundering and other financial misdeeds.

Von Denffer finds it much more interesting to talk about the 1950s. He knows of the ex-soldiers but says they left voluntarily, not that they were kicked out. Obliquely, he acknowledges the students' ambitious goal of a worldwide revival of Islam.

"They had different views," von Denffer says. "The refugees were locally oriented, the students were internationally oriented."

He also knows about Said Ramadan. And what he says about Ramadan is probably true, at least as seen from the perspective of a movement that ignores its own history. "If you were to ask people who come here to pray, only a very small number would know his name."


Said Ramadan might have been cut out of the Munich mosque and the revival of the Muslim Brotherhood, but he remained a semi-mythical figure in the world of political Islam, even after his retreat to Geneva. He remained in Switzerland, cultivating his image and popping up from time to time at the center of a controversy.

Right after he left in the mid-1960s, he was the focus of the "affaire des Freres Musulmans." Another attempt to kill Nasser had been uncovered, and the Egyptians claimed that Ramadan was at the center of it. Nasser's secret police provided hordes of documents, guns, and money to prove their point. But coming as it was from a dictatorship, the material was hard to judge -- how much of it was real? The Swiss police vigorously debated Ramadan's status. At this point they came to a conclusion: "Said Ramadan is, among others, an information agent of the English and the Americans." In another report, a Swiss officer reminded the authorities that Ramadan had cooperated closely with Swiss federal police. He was allowed to stay.

Around this time, in 1965, he got a letter (which would become famous) from Malcolm X, who was seeking advice. Later, he went on a whistle-stop tour of the Muslim world, denouncing Nasser. Soviet newspapers alleged that he was a U.S. agent trying to undermine the United Arab Republic -- a short-lived experiment at unifying Egypt and Syria under socialist leadership.

Like many Muslim Brothers, Ramadan was also fascinated by the Islamic revolution in Iran, which took place in 1979. Although he was Sunni Muslim and the Iranians were Shia, he cultivated good ties with Tehran. In the early 1980s, that got him involved in one of his messiest controversies: the assassination of an Iranian diplomat in Washington. The diplomat had remained loyal to the shah, prompting a fanatical American convert, Dawud Salahuddin, to gun him down. Dressed as a delivery man, Salahuddin rang the diplomat's doorbell. Salahuddin had hidden a pistol in a package, and when the diplomat opened the door, Salahuddin opened fire. Salahuddin fled -- to Geneva, where Ramadan was able to secure him safe passage to Tehran, where he remains today. Salahuddin says Ramadan was definitely not involved in the murder. He is keen to protect him from any charges. The two had met in the mid-1970s in Washington when Ramadan was giving a lecture. Salahuddin clearly still reveres him. But he essentially admits that Ramadan's role was accessory after the fact, sheltering him in Geneva and arranging his escape. "If he hadn't made a call, I wouldn't have come here." Salahuddin said in a telephone interview from Tehran.

Over the last fifteen years of his life, Ramadan slid into irrelevance. Islamism was on the rise, but Ramadan was often ill, and many assumed he had already died. His son Tariq, who is a famous Muslim activist in his own right, described his decline in a touching essay. He wrote that his father spent many years able to follow world events only from afar, prone to "long silences sunk in memory and thoughts and, often, in bitterness."


What of those shut out of the mosque? After von Mende died, the exile groups lost their main benefactor. But they didn't disband. Veli Kayum led the Turkestanis. Hayit continued to work for the West Germans and was the subject of attacks in the Soviet press. He also kept up his academic work, writing a volume on the Basmaci rebellion, the great uprising in Central Asia against communist rule that the novelist Ahmad Kamal claimed to have joined.

One wonders what would have happened if von Mende had lived longer. Would his people have regained control over the mosque? It's possible but doubtful. For three years after von Mende's death, his deputy, Walter Schenk, ran the office. But it became increasingly anachronistic -- a small group of hard-line cold warriors battling on as the world moved toward detente. When the office finally was closed in 1966, Schenk -- who like von Mende had had strong Nazi ties -- was unable to find significant work. He ended up drinking himself to death. Perhaps von Mende had followed a similar path, but instead of drink, he had worked and worried himself to death. It's hard to imagine that the Research Service Eastern Europe was positioned to playa role in Germany's new, Islamic future.

Some of von Mende's other creations continued. Namangani continued to run the Ecclesiastical Administration, the group that had given birth to the Mosque Construction Commission. He eventually retired and moved to Turkey, drawing a West German and then a united German pension. Until the end, he and Gacaoglu continued their sparring, like two wrestlers locked for eternity. Gacaoglu would occasionally write to Bavarian state or federal officials, accusing Namangani of all manner of incompetence. Namangani died in 2002. For all their differences, Namangani and Gacaoglu shared the same fate. To the end, neither was able to build a mosque for his followers. Both had to use small rooms at the back of factories, rented cheap. Neither man attended the Islamic Center of Munich. As for Garip Sultan, the young soldier who worked in the Ostministerium and then for Amcomlib, he returned to Munich after several years of covert propaganda work in the United States. When Amcomlib began focusing exclusively on radio broadcasting in the mid-1960s, he became head of the Tatar desk. He retired and still lives in Munich. He also avoided the mosque. And the Muslims at the grassroots? Some stayed with Namangani or Gacaoglu. Over time, they were outnumbered by the tens of thousands of Turkish migrants who came to work in Munich's booming economy. Some attended the mosque for big holidays; many faded away.


Von Denffer is back from the afternoon prayer. "The history of the mosque," he says, and muses. Yes, it was important, even internationally important. Now he says it is a local institution. History has moved on, even for it. After an hour of sitting, von Denffer is getting cold. It is midafternoon but the sun has almost set. The inside of the mosque is blanketed in a dull pink light, a winter sunset. The possibility of knowing what happened in Munich seems to recede. As if on cue, von Denffer says consolingly, "It was fifteen, twenty years after the war. It was a completely different time back then. The circumstances under which things happened here are hardly imaginable."
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Re: A Mosque in Munich: Nazis, the CIA, and the Rise of the

Postby admin » Wed Jun 10, 2015 9:14 pm


This was by far the most complicated project I have worked on. It consumed three years of research and another year of writing, taking me to a dozen countries and even more archives. I say this only to point out that it wouldn't have been possible without the extraordinary help of many different people. Most readers can skip this section, but I feel it is absolutely necessary to thank ...


When I returned to Berlin in 2001, I had the good fortune of working with Almut Schoenfeld, a researcher and reporter in the Wall Street Journal's Berlin bureau. Her contagious enthusiasm and genuine interest resulted in many incredible finds among the living and the dead. Without her work this book would not have been possible.

David Crawford, also of the Journal's Berlin bureau, has been a friend and colleague for over twenty years. Together we covered the initial stories on Islamic terrorism in Germany. More important, David showed me that there was a bigger story to write.

Steve Merley, an outstanding investigative researcher, helped me with innumerable points regarding the Muslim Brotherhood. He is easily the best-informed person on the modern Saudi-Muslim Brotherhood nexus in the West. The last section of the book would not have been possible without his help.

In Europe:

Special thanks to Ahmet Senyurt, a leading expert on contemporary Islam in Germany. Ahmet was a constant reminder that the problem has never been Islam; it is the religion's misuse by opportunists, politicians, and misguided idealists.

I was helped greatly by the expertise and camaraderie of Dr. Stefan Meining, a journalist with Bavarian Broadcasting. It was Stefan who first looked in the Bavarian state archives for clues to the history of the mosque. He also produced an hour-long documentary on the mosque for German public television.

I would also like to thank the following people, in alphabetical order:

• Malik Aoudia and Samir Benyounes for companionship and research help, especially at the fatwa council meeting in London and in Paris's banlieues
• Sylvain Besson, of the Swiss newspaper Le Temps, for pointing to files in the Swiss national archives
• Abby Collins, of Harvard University's "Berlin Dialogues," for sponsoring my talk in 2007 on the Munich mosque and for many stimulating conversations
• Johannes Kandel, of the Friedrich Ebert Stiftung in Berlin, for hosting discussions on Islam in Europe
• Gilles Kepel, at the Fondation Nationale des Sciences Politiques in Paris, for discussions on Islamism in Europe
• Kristina Klein, Nicole Menck, and Ruth Scherpf of the Journal's Berlin bureau
• Bertil Lintner (of Sweden, via Chiangmai) for helping identify Ahmad Kamal's work in Burma
• Dr. Juergen Micksch, of the Interkultureller Rat in Deutschland e.v., who allowed me to attend several discussions on Islamism
• Dr. Herbert Landolin Muller, at the Landesamt fur Verfassungsschutz in Baden- Wurttenburg, an expert on the Muslim Brotherhood, who exemplifies the true meaning of intelligence work
• Gary Smith, of the American Academy in Berlin, for encouraging me to write a piece on Islamic law for the academy's Berlin Journal and who also organized many stimulating discussions on the topic that enriched my thinking
• Assistant Professor Riem Spielhaus, of Berlin's Humboldt University, for many patient conversations
• Professor Dr. Ursula Spuler-Stegemann, at Marburg University, an early and prophetic writer on Islamism in Germany
• Dr. Guido Steinberg, of the Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik, for conversations on Islamism
• Michael Whine, of the Community Security Trust in London, for his inspiring evenhandedness
• Raimund Wolfert, a historian of Norway, for insights into von Mende's wife, Karo Espeseth

In Egypt:

• researcher extraordinaire Mandi Fahmy
• Gamal al-Banna, who shared ideas and insights into his brother, Hasan

In the archives:

Much of this book is based on archives and was possible only because many archivists went out of their way to track down files. I would especially like to thank, alphabetically:

• Salim Abdullah of the Islam-Archiv Deutschland in Soest
• Simon Braune of the Middle East Institute in Washington
• Dr. Caroline Gigl at the Bayerisches Hauptstaatsarchiv in Munich
• David Haight and Chalsea Millner of the Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library in Abilene, Kansas
• Scott Koch, the CIA's information and privacy coordinator
• Dr. Ingo Loose and Ilona Kalb at Humboldt University's archive
• Mr. Knud Piening and Johannes Freiherr von Boeselager in the German Foreign Office's political archive in Berlin
• Anatol Shemelev of the Hoover Archive in Palo Alto, California
• Ruth Stalder of the Swiss Federal Archives
• John Taylor, Sammy Popat, Matthew Olsen, Paul Brown, and William Cunliffe at NARA in Washington
• Scott S. Taylor and Nicholas B. Scheetz of Georgetown University's Special Collection

Emigre families:

This book would also not have been possible without the friendly support of many individuals and families who opened their personal archives to me, even though it sometimes meant revisiting painful memories. I would like to thank, alphabetically:

• the late Dr. Baymirza Hayit
• the family of Ahmad Kamal, whose recollections helped illuminate their mysterious and mercurial patriarch
• the late Professor Dr. Gerhard Kegel for his personal file on Said Ramadan
• Professor Dr. Erling von Mende for making available part of his father's files
• Ehrenfried Schutte, a tireless campaigner on behalf of the victims of the Yalta agreement, who shared valuable reminiscences and documents on the Ostministerium
• Garip Sultan, who in the true spirit of Tatar hospitality invited me into his home numerous times
• Karin West, who made available priceless reminiscences and her tape recording of Bob Dreher's farewell party

In the United States:

Because I was based in Berlin during the initial phase of my research, I was aided by several American researchers. One, Chris Law, formerly a reporter with the National Security News Service in Washington and now an investigator with the Senate Committee on Finance, helped obtain FOIA information from the CIA and army intelligence, a feat for which I remain in awe. He also helped track down CIA agents from that period. Many thanks also to Chris's former colleagues at NSNS, David Armstrong and Joseph Trento, for valuable advice. In addition, Chris Conkey, a news assistant and later reporter in the Journal'sWashington bureau, helped get files from various archives.

I would also like to thank, alphabetically:

• Zeyno Baran, Eric Brown, Hillel Fradkin, and S. Enders Wimbush, of the Hudson Institute, for discussions on contemporary Islamism and for sponsoring my talk and paper in 2007 on the Munich mosque
• Daniel Benjamin, of the Center for Strategic and International Studies, for discussions on terrorism
• Professor Richard Breitman, of American University, for helping navigate archival releases through the Nazi War Crimes Disclosure Act
• Ron Bright, who helped crack parts of the Ahmad Kamal story. Ron, through FOIA, obtained Kamal's FBI papers; thanks to him for sharing that information, and to Ric Gillespie, executive director of the International Group for Historic Aircraft Recovery, which published Ron's paper.
• Jeffrey Burds, at Northeastern University, for his advice on covert operations in the early Cold War
• Stephen L. Crane, author of a little-known masterpiece on the Turkic Nazi soldiers, who shared his archive
• Jim Critchlow for a scrupulously honest book on Radio Liberty and for guidance as I tried to fathom the world of 1950S broadcasting and exile politics
• Bob Dreyfuss, who shared his files on Said Ramadan's trip to Princeton
• Jim Engell, of Harvard University's English department, for discussions on writing
• Jenny Fichmann, a freelance researcher in Palo Alto, for help in the Hoover archives
• Merle and Marshall Goldman, of Harvard University, for support and ideas
• Hope Harrison, at George Washington University, for many fruitful discussions and for sponsoring a talk that highlighted flaws in my original thesis
• Stephanie Ho and David Hathaway for hospitality and support
• Nancy Kobrin for discussions on psychology and terrorism
• Anita Kolaczkowska and family for discussions on Ahmad Kamal
• Mark Kramer, the writer and former head of the Nieman Foundation's narrative writing program, for editing work and discussions on how to frame the book. Also thanks to members of Mark's narrative writing class, who were unstinting in their criticism.
• Professor Mark Kramer, head of Harvard University's Cold War Studies Program, for advice and discussions
• Andreas Krueger, then of the German embassy in Washington, for helping organize a talk I gave to the U.S. Congress on Islamism.
• Jonathan Laurence, of Boston College, for public and private debates about engaging the Muslim Brotherhood
• Robert Leiken, of the Nixon Center, for stimulating conversations on the Muslim Brotherhood
• Jim Mann, writer-in-residence at Johns Hopkins University-SAIS, for FOIA advice
• Tom McIntyre, of San Francisco, for discussions on writing as well as support and hospitality
• the Nieman Foundation for Journalism at Harvard and its director, Bob Giles, for sponsoring me during the 2006-2007 academic year. The stay there helped immeasurably in broadening the book.
• Kenneth Osgood, of Florida Atlantic University, for his expertise on covert propaganda
• Christian Ostermann, of the Wilson Center's Cold War International History Program, for advice and criticism
• Richard Pipes for recollections of Soviet-Islamic studies in the Cold War.
• Glenn R. Simpson, of the Journal, for sharing ideas and notes
• Gene and Gloria Sosin for their generous time and for Gloria's small gem of a book
• Scott T. Taylor and family for insights into Washington
• Roger Thurow, of the Journal, for companionship and reporting advice in Switzerland
• Tim Weiner, of the New York Times, for generously sharing material and advice

Readers, critics, and family:

I am grateful to a number of readers and editors who helped guide this project over several years, including Leslie T. Chang and Peter Hessler of Skinflint, Colorado; Doug Hunt of the University of Missouri; Lorne Blumer of Toronto; James Scott of Charleston and Craig Welch of Seattle; Yaroslav Trofimov of the Journal; the Journal's editing staff, especially Mike Miller and Mike Allen, and above all former chief editor Paul Steiger, who in an era of declining news holes recognized the value of the initial story, gave me time to work on it, and found the space to run six thousand words.

Special thanks to Andrea Schulz and Tom Bouman at Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, whose insightful editing and support shaped the book; manuscript editor Susanna Brougham for a very close reading; and, as always, my agent, Chris Calhoun, of Sterling Lord Literistic, who made it all happen.

Finally I owe a great debt to family members: my father, Denis, who read and discussed this book from its inception; my sister Cathy and her family for support, especially with Longmorn on Darß; and Elke, for years of help and support.
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Re: A Mosque in Munich: Nazis, the CIA, and the Rise of the

Postby admin » Wed Jun 10, 2015 9:15 pm




AA B40 Auswartiges Amt, Berlin, Bestand 40, "Referat IIA3, Ost-West-Beziehungen" (Foreign Office, Berlin, Record Group 40, "Division IIA3, East-West Relations")

AAPA ZA Politisches Archiv des Auswartiges Amt, Zwischenarchiv (Political Archive of the Foreign Office, Temporary Archive), Berlin Amstgericht Munchen, Registerakten (Sonderband) VR 6256, Islamische Gemeinschaft in Deutschland e.V.

BA Bundesarchiv (Federal Archives), Koblenz

BA-MA Bundesarchiv-Militararchiv (Federal Archives-Military Archives), Freiburg

BAR Schweizerisches Bundesarchiv (Swiss Federal Archives), Bern

BAR Ramadan BAR E 4320(C) 1994/120, Bd. 220, Dossier (4183:0) 420/36 Ramadan, Said, 1960-1988

BAR Touhami BAR E 4320-01(C) 1996/202, 34 Fiche Louahala, Touhami, 1956-1986

BayHStA Bayerisches Hauptstaatarchiv (Bavarian Central State Archives), Munich

BayHStA Laflu Verw Landesfluchtlingsverwaltung (State Refugee Administration), Record Groups 1894 and 1900

BStU Die Bundesbeauftragte fir die Unterlagen des Staatssicherheitsdienstes der ehemaligen Deutschen Demokratisch Republik (Federal Commissioner for the Records of the State Security Service of the Former German Democratic Republic), Berlin

CIA Central Intelligence Agency, Freedom of Information Act release to author, "Subject: von Mende, Gerhard" and "Subject: Gacaoglu, Ibrahim"

Georgetown Georgetown University Special Collections: Diplomacy, International Affairs, Intelligence, Name file on "Kelley, Robert F." and "Lodeesen, Jon D."

GHWK Haus der Wannsee-Konferenz, Gedenk- und Bildungsstatte (House of the Wannsee Conference, Memorial and Educational Site)

Hoover Hoover Institution Library and Archives, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA

Hoover Dallin Hoover "Alexander Dallin" collection

Hoover Henze Hoover "Paul B. Henze" collection

Hoover RFE/RL Hoover "Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Inc." collection

ICRC International Committee of the Red Cross, Geneva

Islam-Archiv Islam-Archiv Deutschland, Soest (Islam-Archive, Germany, Soest)

IZ Institut fur Zeitgeschichte (Institute for Contemporary History), Munich

NA National Archives, Kew Gardens, UK

NAFO 141 NA Foreign Office (Egypt: Embassy and Consular Activities)

NARA National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC

NARA RG 59 NARA, General Records of the Department of State

NARA RG 263 NARA, Records of the Central Intelligence Agency, Directorate of Operations, records released under the Nazi and Japanese War Crimes Disclosure Acts, including separate name files for "Kedia, Michel," "von Mende, Gerhard," "al- Hussaini, Amin," and "Unglaube, Heinz"

NARA RG 319 NARA, Records of the Army Staff, Investigative Records Repository, unprocessed files for "Ibrahim Gacaoglu Personnel File Folder XE306651," "Gerhard von Mende Personal File Folder D007362," "Gerhard von Mende Personal File Folder XE007362"

NAWO 208 NA War Office (Military Intelligence, Middle East and Egypt)

UAHUB Universitatsarchiv, Humboldt Universitat Berlin (University Archive, Humboldt University, Berlin)

WASt Deutsche Dienststelle fur die Benachrichtigung der nachsten angehorigen von Gefallenen der ehemaligen deutschen Wehrmacht (German Authority for the notification of next of kin of members of the former German Wehrmacht who were killed in action), Berlin


Dreher Dreher, Robert, papers relating to CIA service of Robert H. Dreher in Germany and Vietnam. In possession of the Oerkvitz family.

Hoffmann Papers and correspondence relating to works of Joachim Hoffmann. In possession of the Hoffmann family.

Mende Personal and work correspondence, 1945-1963, of Gerhard von Mende. In possession of the von Mende family.

Narzikul Papers relating to wartime service of Isakjan Narzikul. In possession of Stephen L. Crane.

Schutte Personal papers, Ostministerium files, and correspondence of Dr. Ehrenfried Schutte. In possession of Dr. Schutte.

Sultan Personal papers and letters of Garip Sultan. In possession of Mr. Sultan.

Ungermann Personal papers, British intelligence documents relating to Siegfried Ungermann. In possession of the Hoffmann family.

Unglaube Manuscript of autobiography of Heinz Unglaube. In possession of the author.


Abdel Khalek, Mohamed Farid. 13September 2004, Cairo.

Abdullah, Mohammad Salim. 14 December 2004, Soest, Germany.

Akef, Mahdi. 14 September 2004, Cairo.

Allam, Fouad. 15 September 2004, Cairo.

Allworth, Edward A. 7 January 2006, New York City.

Alshibaya, Nina. 16 August 2004, Munich.

Amriou, Mourad. 10 September, 1 November and 3 November 2004, Paris.

Banna, Gama al-. 13September 2004, Cairo.

Bouzar, Dounia. 4 September 2004, Paris.

Critchlow, James. 3 February 2006, Cambridge, MA.

Denffer, Ahmad von. 9 December 2004, Munich.

Grimm, Muhammad Abdul Karim, 21 October 2004, Hamburg.

Hayit, Baymirza. * 25 October 2004, Cologne.

Helbawy, Kamal al-. 20 October 2005, London.

Himmat, Ghaleb. Telephone interview, 1 June 2005, Campione d'Italia.

Kamal-Haller, Tura. 16 June 2006, Munich.

Kassajep, Margaret. * 17August 2004, Munich.

Kegel, Dr. Gerhard. * 25 October 2004, Cologne.

Klump, Will. 17 January 2006, New York City.

Kolaczkowska, Anita. 12 April 2007, Palo Alto, CA.

Kuniholm, Bruce. Telephone interview. 18 April 2006, Durham, NC.

Lahaty, Mohamed. 2 September 2004, Paris.

Louahala, Touhami. 30 July 2006, Montelimar, France.

Mahgary, Mohamad Ali el-. 17 December 2004, Nuremberg, Germany.

Melbardis, Alexander. 6 September 2005, Pfaffing, Germany.

Mende, Dr. Erling von. 31 January 2005, Berlin.

Mogaddedi, Obeidullah. 1 February 2005, Springe, Germany.

Murphy, David E. 7 May 2006, Punta Gorda, FL.

Nada, Youssef. 2 June 2004, Campione d'Italia.

Nasar, Rusi. 10 May 2006, Falls Church, VA.

Oerkvitz, Chuck and Helen. 7 February 2006, Gwynedd, PA.

Patch, Isaac. Telephone interview. 23 May 2005, Franconia, NH.

Pipes, Richard. 25 October 2006, Cambridge, MA.

Rawi, Ahmed al-. 21 July 2004, Markfield, UK.

Rhoer, Edward van der. Email exchanges, 31 January and 1 February 2006, Washington, DC.

Said, Refaat al-. 14 September 2004, Cairo.

Salahuddin, Dawud. Telephone interview, 28 February 2006, Tehran.

Schutte, Ehrenfried. * 27 January 2005, Munich.

Sosin, Gene and Gloria. 3 May 2006, White Plains, NY.

Stewart, Gaither "Jack". 1 October 2005, Rome.

Sultan, Garip. 27 January and 9 March 2005; 28 March and 31 May 2006, Munich.

Terrel, Herve. 14 May 2004, Paris.

West, Karin. 27 March 2006, Munich.

Yazdani, Faisal. 28 January and 13 December 2005, Munich.

Zaidan, Amir. 18 March 2005, Berlin.

Zayat, Ibrahim el-. 19 April 2005, Cologne.

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Re: A Mosque in Munich: Nazis, the CIA, and the Rise of the

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xiii A peculiar map of the world: Published by the Islamic Foundation, which is headquartered in the English town of Markfield, this map is discussed in Chapter 14.

1 "Leaf of Eastern tree"; This is the first stanza of "Gingko Biloba," from Goethe's West-Eastern Divan. The next two stanzas of the poem are found on the opening pages of the sections entitled "Cold Wars" and "Modern Wars."

1. The Eastern Front

3 Garip Sultan: He was born Garif Sultan, 28 September 1923. For an explanation of his name change, see pages 46-47. The words of the German officer are as he remembers them; they could not be independently verified. All actions and feelings are as he described them in interviews on 27 January 2005, 9 March 2005, 28 March 2006, and 31 May 2006, in Munich. See also Garip Sultan, Die Grundung der Wolga-Tatarischen Legion.

Sultan's military service is also confirmed by U.S. intelligence documents found in NARA RG 319, Garip Sultan Personal File Folder XE615072. According to this information, he went to officer training school in Frolow near Stalingrad, was commissioned as a second lieutenant, and served in the 272nd Infantry Division.

The Tatars had lost: The Tatars are traditionally described as descendants of the Golden Horde, but their history is more complicated. Anthropologists such as Greta Lynn Uehling (Beyond Memory: The Crimean Tatars' Deportation and Re turn, pp. 30-31) believe they also in part stemmed from the Sunni Muslim peoples indigenous to the region who had settled there well before the Mongolian invasion. The traditional history given in this chapter is a shorthand, in part because this is how the people in this book and their contemporaries thought of the Tatars -- as people with a proud, even fierce history.

6 The Red Army's colossal collapse: Alexander Dallin (German Rule in Russia: A Study in Occupation Politics, p. 69) estimates that the Germans had taken up to four million Soviet prisoners by the end of 1941. Others, such as Alex Alexei (Soviet Nationalities in German Wartime Strategy, 1941-1945, p. 8), say three million. I have chosen the lower number.

8 Kayum visited a Muslim prisoner-of-war camp: The soldier's quotation on dying, Kayum's address to soldiers, and the report of the meeting with Hayit are taken from Stephen L. Crane, Survivor from an Unknown War: The Life of Isakjan Narzikul, pp. 77-95. The book is a memoir, and the citations are given as a young Uzbek soldier, Isakjan Narzikul, remembered them and related them to Crane. Narzikul died in 1989.

Shot by Nazi liquidation squads: Richard Breitman, Architect of Genocide: Himmler and the Final Solution, pp. 180-81. See also Crane, p. 74, and Dallin, p. 418.

9 "You are the foundation": Regarding Hayit's address, see Crane, p. 94.

The famous Chah-I-Zindeh mosque: See Antonio J. Munoz, Forgotten Legions: Obscure Combat Formations of the Waffen-SS, p. 172, for a photo showing a soldier with this patch. Crane (p. 169) includes a photo of a plaque with the same mosque but the phrase slightly changed to Allah biz Bilen.

Operation Tiger B: German federal archives in Koblenz, cited in Joachim Hoffmann, Die Ostlegionen, 1941-1943, p. 27.

Formations of Cossacks: OKH/GenStdH/GenQu an Befh Hgeb Sud, Mitte, Nord, 6. 10. 1941 (BA-MA, RH 22/V. 198), cited in Hoffmann, p. 21.

10 "I am a Muslim": Sebastian Cwiklinski, Wolgatataren im Deutschland des Zweiten Weltkriegs: Deutsche Ostpolitik und tatarischer Nationalismus, p. 38. The person doing the survey was Ahmet Temir, who worked for von Mende (ibid., p. 36).

Two Turkish generals: They were Ali Fuad Erden, a member of parliament and the former head of the Turkish General Staff Academy, and Hussein Erkilet, a prominent pan-Turkist.

Troops were also lightly armed: Hoffmann, p. 173.

Turks, Caucasians, and Cossacks: Dallin estimates 153, 000 (p. 540); Hoffmann says 250, 000 (p. 172). Patrik von zur Muhlen (Zwischen Hakenkreuz und Sowjetstern: Der Nationalismus der sowjetischen Orientvolker im Zweiten Weltkrieg, p. 72) estimates that approximately one million Soviet citizens served, of whom 300, 000 were Muslims. Similar estimates are found in Hoffmann (p. 11) and Alexiev (p. 4).

An exception was made for "Turkic peoples": Hoffmann, p. 24.

11 "I consider only the Mohammedans": The exact quotation in German reads as follows: "Fur sicher halte ich nur die Mohammedaner. Alle anderen halte ich nicht fur sicher. Das kann uns uberall passieren, da muß man wahnsinnig vorsichtig sein. Ich halte das Aufstellen von Bataillonen dieser rein kaukasischen Volker zunachst fur sehr riskant, wahrend ich keine Gefahr darin sehe, wenn man tatsachlich rein mohammedanische Einheiten aufstellt." Cited in Helmut Heiber, ed., Hitlers Lagebesprechungen: Die Protokollfragmente seiner militurischen Konferenzen, 1942-1945, p. 73.

11 The Warsaw city uprising: Narzikul wrote this, as recorded in Crane, p. 144. He implausibly argues that they spent their time helping partisans and saving women by taking them as lovers.

The Tatar liaison office: This discussion of Unglaube's affinity for the Tatars is drawn from Unglaube's unpublished autobiography, in the author's possession.

12 His destination: the Ostministerium: Information on Sultan's encounter with Unglaube is based on my interviews with Sultan. This meeting between the two men is confirmed in Cwiklinski (p. 40). Unglaube's words are as Sultan remembers them.

2. The Turkologist

13 The term Silk Road: This term was also used in the Byzantine era, although credit for coining it is usually given to the geographer Ferdinand von Richthofen. The explorer Albert von LeCoq contributed many archaeological treasures to the Museum fur Volkerkunde, as it is referred to in German.

14 The first modern use of jihad: Wolfgang G. Schwanitz, "Die Berliner Djihadisierung des Islams."

Gerhard von Mende: Biographical details have been drawn from personnel files, including a handwritten autobiography archived at Humboldt University, Berlin (UAHUB M 138 Bd. 1, resume of 16 November 1939) and interviews with Ehrenfried Schutte (27 January 2005, Munich), Erling von Mende (31 January 2005, Berlin), Baymirza Hayit (25 October 2004, Cologne), and Sultan (27 January and 9 March 2005, and 28 March and 31 May 2006, Munich).

15 Determined to succeed: Herrad Schenk, Wie in einem uferlosen Strom: Das Leben meiner Eltern, pp. 214, 221.

The historian Otto Hoetzsch: Karl Schlogel, "The Futility of One Professor's Life: Otto Hoetzsch and German Russian Studies," Sketches of Europe.

16 Marrying Karo Espeseth: Espeseth, in Livet Gikk Videre (Life Went On), pp. 83-84, describes how she initially drove von Mende away through her erratic behavior.

The postwar outburst of creativity: Ibid., p. 100.

Sullying the young nation's honor: See Espeseth, Sar som ennu blor (Sores That Still Bleed), and Ellen Rees, "Sores That Still Bleed: Germany, the Great War, and Violence Against Women in the Modernist Literary Imagination," in Conquering Women: Women and War in the German Cultural Imagination, pp. 62-75.

17 "Because of the strict political unity": Gerhard von Mende, Der Nationale Kampf der Rußlandturken: Ein Beitrag zur nationalen Frage in der Sovetunion, p.184.

18 He had joined the SA: For von Mende's reasons for joining, then leaving the SA, see Espeseth, Livet Gikk Videre, pp. 99-100. Also, the von Mende resume (undated "Lebenslauf") at UAHUB M 138 Bd. 3 Bl. 1.

19 "There should, according to my view": Quotations from the evaluation of 19 August 1937, in UAHUB M 138Bd. 3 Bl. 1. Thanks to Ingo Loose for his interpretation of von Niedermayer's comments. Loose, "Berliner Wissenschaftler im 'Osteinsatz: 1939-1945: Akademische Mobilitat zwischen Berliner Universitat und Reichsuniversitat Posen." Die Berliner Universitut in der NS-Zeit, Bd. 1: Strukturen und Personen, pp. 62-63.

Follow the party line: For von Niedermayer's Nazi leanings, see Hans-Ulrich Seidt, Berlin Kabul Moskau: Oskar Ritter von Niedermayer und Deutschlands Geopolitik, pp. 271ff.

His letters show: For example, letter of 2 May 1938, UAHUB M 138Bd. 3 Bl. 1.

The Adolf-Hitler-Schule: Letter of 16 March 1938, UAHUB M 138Bd. 3 Bl. 1.

Regular contact with Georg Leibbrandt: Letter of 7 October 1940, UAHUB M 138Bd. 3 Bl. 1.

She didn't like the Nazis: Espeseth, Livet Gikk Videre, p. 124.

Published by the Anti-Komintern: Letter of 6 May 1938, in Humboldt Archive, cited in Cwiklinski, p. 14.

20 About a Jewish colleague: Letter of 28 June (probably 1940) about Dr. Friedrich Levi, UAHUB M 138Bd. 3 Bl. 1.

The Peoples of the Soviet Union: Gerhard von Mende, Die Volker der Sowjetunion (Reichenau/Saale: Rudolf Schneider Verlag, 1939).

21 Old contact in the Nazis' Foreign Office: Cwiklinski, p. 14.

The coveted rank of full professor: Letter of 27 November 1941, UAHUB M 138 Bd. 3 Bl. 1. The letter was signed by Hitler, but it was standard for high-ranking civil servants to be appointed by the head of state.

3. The Nazi Prototype

23 An old friend of Hitler's: Rosenberg biographical notes taken from Dallin, pp.24-26.

24 "The strong separatist movement": The quotation from Rosenberg is taken from Der Zukunjtsweg, p. 93, cited in Dallin, p. 47.

An anti-Soviet movement called Prometheus: Roman Smal-Stocky, "The Struggle of the Subjugated Nations in the Soviet Union for Freedom: Sketch of the History of the Promethean Movement." The Ukrainian Quarterly; Stephen Dorril, MI6: Fifty Years of Special Operations, pp. 184ff. On efforts to deploy Prometheans in Manchuria, see Jeffrey Burds, "The Soviet War Against 'Fifth Columnists': The Case of Chechnya, 1942-44." Journal of Contemporary History.

25 The death of Mustafa Chokay: Chokay is the Anglicized version of Coqayoglu. also known in Russian as Chokaev. Another Anglicization is Chokai.

He had been helping: In the 1930s Kayum had written reports for Georg Leibbrandt of the NSDAP's Foreign Office. Cwiklinski. p. 14.

Von Mende's boss in the Ostministerium: Dallin. p. 266, and von zur Muhlen, p. 79. Dallin writes: "Von Mende became in effect the master of the Ostministerium's nationality policy, embarking on a drive for the recognition of separatist 'national committees,' primarily for the non-Slavic groups."

25 Emerged from the shakeup unscathed: Based on interviews with Turkestani leaders, such as Nasar, 10 May 2006, Washington, DC.

26 Sultan arrived in Berlin: Interviews with Sultan.

The results were sensational: Tatar recruitment statistics are from Hoffmann, P·42.

Newspapers crucial to the effort: Ibid., pp. 128-29.

Overseen by the Wehrmacht's: Cwiklinski, p. 50.

27 Idel'-Ural anti-Semitic statements. Idel'-Ural, No. 18, 6 May 1944, p. 4, cited in Cwiklinski, p. 81.

The high percentage of "German" topics: Sultan, p. 26, cited in Cwiklinski, p.82.

Musa Galil, a prominent poet: Biographical details can be found in Cwiklinski, PP·70-73.

Sultan was considered for the top post: Von zur Muhlen, p. 99.

28 Jews and other undesirables: GHWK, documents T/299 and T/300, from "The trial of Adolf Eichmann: Record of proceedings in the District Court of Jerusalem."

Another person who attended the conference and played a role in the Munich mosque was Otto Brautigam, who would serve in the West German Foreign Office, rising to high rank and occasionally helping von Mende shepherd his projects related to the Muslims.

The Harvard historian Alexander Dallin: Dallin's characterization of von Mende appears on p. 558 of his book.

The Karainen were protected: Kiril Feferman, "Nazi Germany and the Mountain Jews: Was There a Policy?" Holocaust and Genocide Studies. Thanks to Richard Breitman for pointing out this paper.

29 "I still think back with some horror": Letter of 24 August 1951, von Mende papers.

Tossing him in the air: The general was Ernst Kostring. Dallin, p. 246.

30 Parroted Nazi slogans: Milli Turkistan, No. 15, p. 9, as cited in Dallin, p. 275.

Brutally denouncing the dissidents: Von zur Muhlen, p. 97, citing 26 January 1945 document from BA, NS 31/30.

Turkestani congress in Vienna: Dallin, p. 610.

Destroyed in an air raid: Espeseth, Livet Gikk Videre, p. 190.

31 Fears that they were religious fanatics: Georgetown, Kelley papers, box 5, folder 3, 5 February 1952, "Transmission Memorandum of Conversation with Professor Gerhard von Mende, German Turcologist," p. 7. Identifying agency markers have been removed, but judging from the content, this is likely a Department of State cable.

The Grand Mufti of Jerusalem: Hoover, Dallin collection, box 1, folder 16, letter of 19 November 1953, von Mende to Dallin.

32 Set up mullah schools: Hoffmann, p. 169.

"Recognize" the national committees: Dallin, p. 654.

Tatars set up a provisional government: Cwiklinski, pp. 55-56.

Head of the military department: German federal military archives, cited in Cwiklinski, p. 55.

4. Reviving the Ostministerium

35 Munich was a ruined city: James Critchlow, Radio Hole-in-the-Head/Radio Liberty: An Insiders Story of Cold War Broadcasting, pp. 2-4, and Gaither Stewart, Govar Killian, excerpted at http://southerncrossreview.org/29/stewart-excerpt.htm. Statistics on rubble and U.S. army help from Wolfram Selig, Chronik der Stadt Munchen, 1945-1948, p. 43.

37 "Center of subversion": Critchlow, p. 87.

Ideal home for Radio Liberty: History of Radio Liberty, including the quotation on "democratic elements." from Georgetown, Kelley papers, box 5, folder 5, "Biographical Sketch of Robert F. Kelley."

38 "I would look out the window": Critchlow, p. 4.

"We sometimes ate": Ibid., pp. 2-3.

Young, idealistic people: Critchlow's biographical details taken from Critchlow, PP·50-54.

40 The NSC was to advise: The NSC directive on covert operations was NSC 1012. Cited in Kenneth Osgood, Total Cold War: Eisenhower's Propaganda Battle at Home and Abroad, p. 39.

"Don't be afraid of that term": Ibid., p. 46.

41 Half the CIA budget: The broader mandate and the budget estimates are from Osgood, pp. 96-97.

The U.S. Information Agency alone spent: Figures are from "Draft Report on the Roles of Attributed and Unattributed Information and the Division of Responsibility Between the USIA and CIA." 22 April 1960, DDEL Sprague Committee, box 20, PCIAA#2, declassified 2 October 2007, MORI DocID: 1473135.

Half a billion dollars per year: Osgood, p. 90. One fifth of that, $100 million, was spent by the USIA.

Radio Liberty's parent: For its roots in the Truman administration, see NSC policy planning staff memorandum "The inauguration of organized political warfare." 4 May 1948, document 269, http://www.state.gov/www/about_state/ history/intel/260_269.html.

43 On covert propaganda missions: Peter Grose, Operation Rollback: Americas Secret War Behind the Iron Curtain, p. 129.

U.S. government involvement: Hoover, Radio Liberty General Vol. C, "Minutes of the Meeting of the Executive Committee [subsequently the Management Policy and Program Advisory Committees)." 28 April 1954.

In 1955 its budget: Hoover, Radio Liberty Corp. Minutes Vol. II, 1955-66, Fiscal year statements 1955, 1960, 1961, and 1963. Other years are missing.

In general, Amcomlib was spending about $350, 000 each year on the institute and $125, 000 each year on emigre groups -- excluding the $4 million it spent on employees, most of whom were emigres. In 1964, its budget got a hefty bump up to $10.5 million.

''A single stoker or sweeper": Critchlow, p. 15.

44 "Think about the massive volume": Ibid., p. 16.

Schub called it his "left hook": Interview with Gene and Gloria Sosin, 3 May 2006, White Plains, NY.

44 "I would demean the many devoted": Ibid.

"The boys in the back room": Ibid.

45 "Could not help seeing the anomaly": Ibid., pp. 28-29.

Awash with "displaced persons": BA B/106-8643, "Bericht des Bundesministeriurns fur Vertriebene, Vertriebene, Fluchtlinge, Kriegsgefangene, Heimatlose Auslander 1949-1952." Bonn 1953:11.Thanks to Stefan Meining for pointing out this document.

47 Vouched for Hayit and Kayum: Interview with Hayit; interview with Sultan, 27 January 2005; Crane, p. 200.

Other estimates are higher: Hayit's estimate from Baymirza Hayit, "Basmatchi": Nationaler Kampf Turkestans in den Jahren 1917 bis 1934. p. 403. Estimate for Kalmyks from von zur Muhlen, p. 227.

Committed suicide the night before: Hayit, "Basmatchi," p. 403.

48 Alshibaya took the hint: Interview with his wife, Nina Alshibaya, 16 August 2004, Munich; she tells the story as he related it to her. Note also spelling of the name. The German spelling is Alschibaya, Alschebaja, or Alschibaja. I am using the English spelling, as per U.S. intelligence documents.

The Tolstoy Foundation: Besides doing work for the army's CIC, the foundation seems to have had close links to Frank Wisner, from the CIA's Directorate of Plans and the most influential covert operations official from World War II through the late 1950s.

In 1953, Eisenhower's Psychological Strategy Board received requests to aid the Tolstoy Foundation, which apparently had run into financial difficulties. The board referred financial aid requests to Wisner. In a subsequent letter, a White House official said Wisner agreed the foundation deserved help and "should not be allowed to collapse." DDEL White House Central Files, Confidential File, box 84, Tolstoy Foundation file, 22 October 1953, "Memorandum for: Mr. C. D. Jackson." and 9 October 1953, "Memorandum to Mr. Jackson."

Alshibaya's wife worked for the foundation: Interview with Alshibaya.

The goal was to recruit: For evidence on how Western intelligence agencies began to recruit Germans during the war, see Burds; also, Christopher Simpson, Blowback: The First Full Account of Americas Recruitment of Nazis and Its Disastrous Effect on the Cold War, Our Domestic and Foreign Policy.

Sultan was looking for work: Interview with Sultan, 27 January 2005.

49 Scottish League for European Freedom: British intelligence support discussed in Dorril, Chapter 14.

50 75 to 80 percent: Georgetown, Kelley papers, box 4, folder 3, memo of 18 November 1958, "Subject: Ministerial Director, Dr. Taubert."

"For Americans of my generation": Critchlow, pp. 93-94.

51 "To provide the myth": Interview with Will Klump, 17 January 2006, New York City.

U.S. efforts went nowhere: A chronology of the Coordinating Center's activities is found in Isaac Patch's memo of 20 November 1953, including a reference to salaries. The salaries were terminated when the negotiations broke down. Georgetown, Kelley papers, box 5, folder 3. Also, Patch memo, 24 November 1953, "Confidential Draft Memo -- Political Events, March to November, 1953." The events are also described in detail in Grose, pp. 129-35.

52 "Whether this analogy is justified": Georgetown, Kel1ey papers, box 4, folder 2, 5 February 1952, "Transmitting memorandum of conversation with Professor Gerhard von Mende, German Turcologist."

"An almost complete failure": DDEL, Jackson Committee, box I, folder I, 5 January 1953 memo, "Strictly Private."

"A tall, shrewd string bean": Critchlow, p. 18.

"The Muslims against the Slavs": This and other Patch quotations are from a telephone interview, 23 May 2005.

An old friend of US. intelligence: Ibid.

An agent code-named Ruppert: Details of the operation are taken from "Mission Rupert," undated, CIA MORI DocID 868611, and "Mission Ruppert: Survey of Mission and Summary of results obtained as of this Date," 31May 1945, MORI DodD 20055. Both in Michel Kedia Name File, NARA RG 263, A1-86, box 22.

The code name "Ruppert" is sometimes spel1ed with one p. I use the spelling Ruppert throughout because the second document, which uses this form, is longer and appears to be more authoritative. Also, Kedia's first name is variously given as Mikhail, Michael, or Michel.

Thanks to Jeffrey Burds and Richard Breitman for pointing out these documents.

53 The German army's Abwehr: NARA RG 263, RC 2002/A/11/6, box 73 folder 2, document number MC-002250. 24 March 1961, "Subject: Mende. Gerhard von Dr., aka Metrevelli, George."

Made his way to Switzerland: Espeseth, Livet Gikk Videre, 227-37. Her account of von Mende's flight to Switzerland and his stay in the US. camp also fits the account in US. intelligence documents, which notes that the men were found in Hochst and taken to Karlsruhe.

But Red Cross files show: Red Cross archives, ACICR B, G23, "Visites particulieres (G-K), 04.01.1940-31.10.1950. M. Kedia."

"I am sure that in spite of everything": NARA RG 263, RC 2002/A/11/6, box 73, folder 1, 17 July 1945, "Subject: Georgian Group."

54 Von Mende wrote for days: NARA RG 263. RC 2002/A/11/6, box 73 folder I, 31 October 1945, "Subject: Gerhard von Mende."

A moody prima donna: NARA RG 263, RC 2002/A/11/6, box 73, folder 1, undated evaluation, probably summer 1945.

"A man of exceptional intelligence": NARA RG 263, RC 2002/A/11/6. box 73, folder 1. undated 1945 evaluation reprinted on 15 November 1946. "Subject: Gerhart [sic] von Mende."

Never admitted to membership: For example. NARA RG 263, RC 2002/A/11/6. box 73, folder 1, undated (presumably 1945) resume lists al1 groups he joined but omits the SA.

55 "My husband has a group": Letter of 3 November 1945, von Mende papers. This is one of the few letters written in English. I corrected Espeseth's spelling mistakes but left the syntax.

The famous British historian: The letter has "Toynbee?" handwritten across the top and mentions that the recipient works for the Royal Institute of International Affairs, with which Toynbee was affiliated. According to the letter, the two had met at a conference in Berlin before the war.

56 Direct contact with the British: Believed to be the case by family members, his former employees, and U.S. intelligence. Based on interview with Erling von Mende; Narzikul, p. 258; NARA RG 263, box 2, folder 3, Counterintelligence Report No. 213 to AC of S, G-2, Headquarters, United States Forces European Theater, APO 757, March 1947, U.S. Army; also, U.S. military intelligence X-2, von Mende Personal File Folder D007362, which states that he "represents British intelligence."

"Major Morrison": Letter of 31 October 1945, von Mende papers.

Von Mende drove down to Munich: The operation involving von Mende and Alshibaya is described in NARA RG 263, Counterintelligence Report No. 213.

57 Alshibaya drove up to Hamburg: Ibid.

"Capriform": NARA RG 263, RC 2002/A/11/6, box 73, folder 1, n February 1949, "Subject: von Mende visit."

The Americans weren't interested: NARA RG 263, RC 2002/A/11/6, box 73, folder 1, 15 August 1949, document untitled.

58 "Persil certificates": Von Mende papers. For example, on 26 February 1946, he wrote one for Ernst Tormann, a former Ostministerium employee. The "Major Morrison" letter was also an effort to rehabilitate a colleague. On 31 December 1946 he also wrote a letter vouching for Walter Zeitler of the Ostministerium.

"Without you I would be": Letter of 24 February 1957, Hayit to von Mende, von Mende papers. (In German: "Ohne Sie ware ich in Deutschland ein Insel in eine Totenmeer.")

59 Reviewed in academic journals: The American Historical Review, Vol. 63, No. 3 (April 1958), p. 742.

Carried a two-part series: Fred Forest, 3 September 1951 and 10 September 1951. Among the employees it named were "Veli Kayum 'Khan,' war-time Fuhrer of the Turkestanis, who was reared in Germany and was a Nazi favorite; Vladimir Glazkov, the 'inventor' of the Cossack 'nation' and an agent of various intelligence services; and Fatali-Bey, an Azerbaijani officer and intimate associate of the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem."

Glazkov also worked for von Mende, while Fatali-Bey -- whose name was usually written without the hyphen, Fatalibey -- was with Amcomlib and would later be assassinated.

60 Von Mende immediately sent a letter: Letter of 29 October 1951, von Mende to Stetzko, von Mende papers.

Von Mende paid Kayum: AA ZA 105707, 1958 FDO Budget, 3 February 1958.

"Earlier services for Germany": AAPA ZA 105706 Band 48, 7 July 1961, "Betr.: Veli Kajum-Chan." (German: "in Anerkennung seiner fruheren Verdienste um Deutschland" and "der Ausbau der Beziehungen zu seinen Landsleuten schliesslich auch der deutschen Sache zugute komme, weil er aus alter Verbundenheit zu Deutschland es fur seine Pflicht ansehe, aufklarend uber deutsche Verhaltnisse zu wirken.")

A German, Walter Schenk: Thanks to Ray Brandon for pointing out Schenk's Lemberg ties. On Schenk's sacrifice of his university education for the Nazi cause, see Schenk, especially pp. 49ff.

Constantly changing his office's name: Von Mende tried out two other names first: institut fur Orientforschung (Sultan interview, 27 January 2005) and institut Turkestan (Zentral-Archiv MfS 6940/68, 14 November 1962, "An den Leiter der Abteilung X, Gen. Major Damm"). To complicate matters further, von Mende's office was also known as Buro fur Heimatvertriebene Auslander, a variation on the Buro fur Heimatlose Auslander. The difference is the word Heimatvertriebene, or "homeland expelled," instead of Heimatlose, or "homeland-less." NARA RG 263, box 1, NN3-263-02-008, 25 May 1955, "Memorandum of Conversation Professor G. von Mende Buro fur Heimatvertriebene Auslander," NARA RG 263, 760.00/5-2655.

61 Moved around the countryside: Letters of 5 April 1946, 29 May 1949, 20 March 1950, and 20 August 1950, von Mende papers.

Von Mende took a grand office: It was located at Cecilienallee 51-52. The architect was Heinrich Schell and the city development company Burohaus-Gesellschaft mbH. Thanks to Dr. Jorg A. E. Heimeshoff of the Institut fur Denkmalschutz und Denkmalpflege of the city of Dusseldorf for information on the building and to Dr. Robert Kaltenbrunner of the Bundesamt fur Bauwesen und Raumordnung for background on the style and history.

220,000 stateless foreigners: In an article written two years later, von Mende estimated that 220, 000 lived in West Germany. Given that the number was declining over time, at least 200, 000 must have been in Germany at this time. Bulletin des Presse und Informationsamtes der Bundesregierung, No. 881/S. 736, 11 May 1955.

An extra five thousand marks: AAPA ZA 105705, notes based on 13 February 1957 meeting.

He eventually added money: Except for the Bavarian intelligence agency's contribution, the exact breakdown of the funding of von Mende's organization is not clear from the documents. The federal Office for Protection of the Constitution and the Foreign Office are often cited in correspondence and third-party evaluations as von Mende's main backers. NARA RG 263, RC 2002/A/11/6, box 73, folder 2, 28 February 1955, untitled von Mende card file.

62 One such meeting took place: AAPA ZA 105774 Band 36, 3 May 1954, "Vermerk Betr.: Besprechung with 'American Committee for Liberation from Bolshevism."

63 Patch organized a big dinner: The meeting with von Mende took place on 9 February 1955, as described in NARA RG 263, box 1, 762A.00/2-1555 AmConGen Munich, "Memorandum of Conversation."

Another meeting took place in May 1955, as per NARA RG 263, box 1, 760.00/5-2655, 26 May 1955, AmConGen Munich, "Conversation with a German Official Regarding Refugees."

5. The Key to the Third World

65 Pilgrimage to Mecca: The trip is recounted in Time magazine, 27 September 1954, and in the New York Times, 15 September 1954. Accessed through online archive; no page numbers. Also, interview with Rusi Nasar, 10 May 2006, Falls Church, VA.

66 The real action took place elsewhere: John Lewis Gaddis, We Now Know: Rethinking Cold War History, Chapter 6.

68 "The traditional Arab mind": DDEL NSC Registry Series, 1947-62, box 16, PSB Documents. Master Book of -- Vol. III (8), 6 February 1953, "Psychological Strategy Program for the Middle East," annex B, p. 4.

Natural barrier to communism: Ibid., p. 15.

69 The CIA received a report: NARA RG 263, RC 2002/A/11/6, box 73, folder 2, April 1951, "Subject: [illegible] exile groups from Soviet-dominated Moslem areas."

"The Religious Factor": DDEL PSB Central Files Series, box 9, PSB 1953(3) file, 21 July 1953, "Subject: The Religious Factor."

The great Wesleyan Christian revival: DDEL OCB Secretariat Series, box 5, Moral Factor (4) file, 19 February 1953, "Conversation with Mr. Lockard. PSB."

The U.S. Air Force: DDEL OCB Secretariat Series, box 5, Moral Factor (4) file, 4 September 1953,"Your memo of August 31- Mecca Pilgrimage."

Sent to the National Security Council: DDEL, papers of Edward P. Lilly, box 55, 3 March 1954, "Subject: The Religious Factor and OCB."

71 Became known as the Bandung Conference: DDEL OCB Central File Series. box 85, file 9 (International Affairs - Conferences and Boards, January 1954-April 1955), 11 January 1955. "Terms of Reference for Working Group on Proposed Afro-Asian Conference."

"The Afro-Asian Conference": DDEL OCB Central File Series. box 85, file 9, 21 January 1955, "Subject: Exposing the Nature of the Afro-Asian Conference."

72 Distribute covert propaganda: DDEL OCB Central File Series, box 85, file 9, 7 February 1955, "Subject: Afro-Asian Conference in April."

"Some 'Machiavellian'" engineering: NARA RG 59, box 2668, folder 670.901/2-1055, 16 February 1955, memorandum from Mr. Dumont to Mr. Jones.

Working for the newspaper: NARA RG 59, box 69, folder 670.901/4-1155, 18 April 1955, from Jakarta to Secretary of State.

A survey of the newspaper's coverage of Bandung shows that Nasar did not write for the newspaper. Along with Said Shamil (spelled "Schamyl" in the article), Nasar was, however, interviewed by the newspaper, and accused the Soviets of colonialism. Homer Bigart, "Coney Islander Assails Red Crimes at Bandung," New York Herald Tribune.

The Soviet newspaper Trud: NARA RG 59, box 2669, folder 670.901/4-1955, 20 April 1955, from Moscow to Secretary of State.

73 The National Turkestani Unity Committee: NARA RG 59, box 2669, folder 670.901/4-155, "To the Government Representatives of the Participating States of the Asia-Africa Conference."

Nasar's role in the Muslim propaganda: Interview with Nasar. On his position as a community leader, see http://www.sunshineuzbekistan.org/wordpress/ archives/241.

In interviews, James Critchlow (3 February 2006, Cambridge, MA), Gaither "Jack" Stewart (1 October 2005, Rome), and Edward A. Allworth (7 January 2006, New York City) said that Nasar was widely known in the 1950Sto be working for the CIA. In addition, Crane (Chapters 2, 3, and 4) describes a CIA agent whose anonymity was protected by the pseudonym "Safi Oraz." In correspondence, Crane said he believes Oraz was Nasar.

74 Nasar might have looked down: The private nature of Amcomlib is mentioned in the Time magazine article.

A "damn good man": Georgetown, Kelley papers, box 5, folder 5, 1 December 1959, "Memorandum for the Record."

75 The April 29 cabinet meeting: DDEL, Papers of the President, Cabinet Series, box 5, file "Cabinet Meeting of April 29, 1955." 2 May 1955, "The Cabinet, Record of Action, " p. 3.

Analyses of the conference: At this crucial phase, Hayit was recruited by French intelligence. Hayit was contacted by a former lieutenant in the 782nd Turkestani Volunteers Battalion, who was now living in the French sector near Baden- Baden. He suggested that Hayit travel to Bandung for France, which would pick up all the costs. Hayit turned him down and dutifully reported the offer to von Mende. AAPA ZA 105783 Band 61, 30 March 1955, "Aktenvermerk."

Nasar had claimed to represent: AAPA ZA 105783 Band 61, letter of 1 June 1955, Hayit to "Sehr geehrter Herr Professor."

"Prof. von Mende said that": NARA RG 263, box 1, folder 760.00/5-2655, NN3- 263-02-008, 25 May 1955, "Memorandum of Conversation Professor G. von Mende Buro fur Heimatvertriebene Auslander."

6. Learning Their Lesson

76 "Homo barrackensis": Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 1952. Cited in Friedrich Prinz and Marita Krauss, eds., Trummerleben. Texte, Dokumente, Bilder aus den Munchener Nachkriegsjahren, p. 160.

The southern Munich suburb: BayHstA LafluVerw 2199, 17 May 1960, Balagija to Stein.

77 When Gacaoglu formed the group: BayHStA MK 49638, 20 June 1953, "An das Bayer: Staatsministerium fur Unterricht und Kultus."

Gacaoglu was handing out: BayHStA LafluVerw 1900, letter of 23 May 1959, Kurbah Bayba to Oberlander.

Goods from the Tolstoy Foundation: Ibid.

Bairam, a major event: Suddeutsche Zeitung, 30 July 1955.

A Chechen who taught at the CIA school: This was Abdurakhman Artorkhanovo Interview with Sultan, 9 March 2005.

78 Melbardis was impressed: Interview with Alex Melbardis, 6 September 2005, Pfaffing, Germany.

Gacaoglu's payments were also confirmed in my interview with Will Klump, deputy head of emigre relations for Amcomlib during the latter half of the 1950s; he became head in 1962.

79 B. Eric Kuniholm: For Kuniholm's personal history, see Georgetown, Kelley papers, box 5, folder 5, "Confidential: Report of Mr. B. E. Kuniholm on His Trip to the Middle East." Also, telephone interview with his son Bruce Kuniholm, 18 April 2006.

Kuniholm as a "splittist": AAPA ZA 105774 Band 36, 20 October 1954, "Betr. Veranderungen und andere Vorgange im American Committee for Liberation from Bolshevism (AMCOMLIB)."

79 Dreher was Kuniholm's opposite: Biographical details taken from CIA and Amcomlib applications and Dreher papers.

80 Dreher was detained: This is according to Dreher's own account in the newsletter of the Central Intelligence Retiree Association (CIRA), 9-15, date uncertain, Dreher papers.

The incident was front-page news: "Espionage Denied," New York Times, 16 August 1948, and subsequent coverage.

81 "I had more direct, intimate contact": Taken from "Manuscript on Russia," an unpublished and unfinished book Dreher wrote after he left the USSR in 1948. Dreher papers.

Eight years in the gulag: An account of Dreher's reunion with the medical student was published in People magazine, 31 October 1994.

On his CIA application: Dreher papers.

82 She bore him a daughter: According to interviews with Chuck and Helen Oerkvitz (7 February 2006, Gwynedd, PA), Klump, Karin West (27 March 2006, Munich), and Melbardis.

The salary was also generous: Hoover, Radio Liberty Corporate Minutes Vol. I, 1951-54, "Minutes of the Political and Management Committees Joint Meeting, March 26, 1953."

83 A "WASPish bank": Interview with Sosin.

Especially Kuniholm and Dreher: Ibid. Both men attended all board meetings. Dreher stopped attending when he left for Munich.

Dreher was firmly in the latter: Interview with David E. Murphy, 7 May 2006, Punta Gorda, FL. Murphy said Dreher worked for the head of OPC's Munich operations, Walpole Davis.

84 "Pining to get back": Peter Sichel, cited in Evan Thomas, The Very Best Men: The Early Years of the CIA, p. 24. Thomas Schmitt, Moscheen in Deutschland: Konflikte um ihre Errichtung und Nutzung, p. 24.

"Bunch of old washerwomen": Cited in John Ranelagh, The Agency: The Rise and Decline of the CIA, p. 135.

85 "It was prankster stuff": The veteran was Tom Braden, cited in Ranelagh, p. 221.

The night train to Ankara: For Kuniholm's trip to Turkey, Germany, riots, and meetings with Muslim leaders, see "Confidential Report."

87 One such key leader: Interview with Melbardis; Kuniholm report. Participation in Nazi-era emigre policies, von zur Muhlen, p. 71. Work with pan-Islamic causes, Schulze, p. 232. Schulze transliterates his name as Samil. Other documents have Schamyl.

Shamil provided information: NARA RG 263, Al-86, box 22, "Kedia, Michael," 17 February 1954, "Subject: Ali Kahn Kantemir."

88 Contacts with U.S. intelligence: Ibid.

Another key person whom Kuniholm met was Edige Kirimal, an old Tatar leader who had worked closely with Garip Sultan during the war. A couple of weeks before Germany's capitulation, von Mende had signed an Ostministerium paper giving Kirmal a fanciful title: president of the Crimean-Tatar National Central Committee, a position that got him a travel permit out of Berlin and down to safety in Munich. "His trip lies in the most pressing interest of the Reich and is important for the defense of the Reich," von Mende said. Koblenz, T-454, 15/1207, 22 April 1945.

After the war, Kirimal relaunched his life as a quasi academic. He wrote a book on the Tatars' national struggle, and von Mende added an introduction. Judging from the location of the tiny publishing house, located near von Mende's office at the time in the Westphalian countryside, von Mende also helped him get it published.

Kuniholm was unimpressed. He described Kirimal as "on the make" and dismissed his ideas for starting a newspaper and moving the Munich emigres to Istanbul. Kirimal also pitched the notion that Amcomlib could do more to support his old friend Gacaoglu's religious society. Kuniholm: "Confidential Report," p. 25.

Gacaoglu was next on Kuniholm's list: Kuniholm, "Confidential Report," p. 27.

Munich's Bayerischer Hofhotel: Based on photos and interview with Melbardis; also von Mende's description in AAPA ZA 105762, letter of 10 January 1957, von Mende to Wolfrum.

89 Important Munich newspapers: "Die Trinkgelder der roten Pilger in Mekka," Munchener Merkur, 13 August 1956, p. 3; "Sowjetunion und Islam," Suddeutsche Zeitung, 13 August 1956, p. 5. The Merkur's article was the long feature.

The Turkish article was published on 2 August 1956 in Milliyet. Translation in AAPA ZA 105783, "Sowjetpilger fahren nach Mekka und Machen Propaganda fur die Sowjets."

Sultan and Zunnun had been interviewed: "Meeting with the Turkestanian Pilgrims," four pages, by Veli Zunnun, and "Report on the Pilgrimage to Mecca," twenty pages, by Garip Sultan, Sultan papers.

Von Mende's office also received a detailed report on the pilgrimage: AAPA ZA 105792, 4 November 1955. The four-page report's presumed author, Hayit, emphasized the Soviet pilgrims' efforts to discredit the main Turkestani emigre group, the National Turkestani Unity Committee (known by its German acronym, NTEK). Again, von Mende's disadvantage is highlighted in the late arrival of the report, compared to when reports reached Sultan and Zunnun.

Happy with Sultan's performance: Letter of 3 October 1956, Robert F. Kelley to Garip Sultan, Sultan papers.

90 "The notion of a simple, old Arab": Sultan report, p. 15.

Didn't look like a religious leader: Ibid., p. 14.

Amcomlib's "Special Projects" department: Interviews with Sultan.

7. ''A Politically Smart Act": The Mosque Is Conceived

91 A memo from Theodor Oberlander: BayHStA LafluVerw 1894, 6 August 1956, "Grundsatze fur die Betreuung nichtdeutscher Fluchtlinge." Thanks to Stefan Meining for pointing out this document.

Home to thousands of emigres: See list of refugee flows on the website of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees: http://www.unhcr.org/static/publ/sowr2000/ toceng.htm.

92 Oberlander was the chief: For a more-or-less sympathetic account of Oberlander's life, see Philipp-Christian Wachs, Der Fall Theodor Oberlander (1905-1998): Ein Lehrstuck Deutscher Geschichte.

93 One of the first Wehrmacht units: Its name was Sonderverband Bergmann.

94 Discussed how to evacuate: Memo, United States Information Agency Confidential Issue Date: 17 August 1954; date declassified: 17 October 1996; reproduced in Declassified Documents Reference System. Gale Group, 2006, document number CK3100109821.

"They are not Nazis in the sense": NARA RG 263, RC 2002/ A/11/6, box 73, folder 2, 17 January 1956, "S): Target: Gerhard von Mende, Amt fur Heimatlose Auslander," attachment A, "Important Persons with Whom von Mende Maintains Operational Relations."

"Their chief agent is": Ibid.

The State Department was also concerned about von Mende. See Declassified Documents Reference System, Document Number CK3100109821, United States Information Agency, 17 August 1954, "Germany and the FEC," p. 11.

Aid Society of Former Volunteer Units: "Hilfswerk der ehemaligen Freiwilligenverbande e.V.." Amtsgericht Munchen VR Nr. 5469. The group was discussed by the CIA in NARA RG 263, RC 2002/A/11/6, box 73, folder 2, 7 January 1955, "Ref: Congen Dispatch No. 144, December 7, 1954."

95 Von Mende did have close ties: NARA RG 263, RC 2002/ A/11/6, box 73, folder 2, 23 September 1955, "Subject: Talk with Professor von Mende."

"Quite a small connection file": NARA RG 263, RC 2002/A/11/6, box 73, folder 2, 23 November 1955, "SJ: Gerhard von Mende and His Buddies."

"Try to recruit him": NARA RG 263, RC 2002/A/11/6, box 73, folder 2, 17 January 1956, "SJ: Target: Gerhard von Mende, Amt fur Heimatlose Auslander."

Kayum had outed Rusi Nasar: NARA RG 263, RC 2002/A/11/6, box 73, folder 2, attachment A, "Important Persons with Whom von Mende Maintains Operational Relations."

96 Seeking a map of his office: NARA RG 263, RC 2002/A/11/6, box 73, folder 2, 14 March 1956, "Subject: Gerhard v. Mende."

Again proposing von Mende: NARA RG 263, RC 2002/A/11/6, box 73, folder 2, 11 January 1957, "Investigative Aid -- Possible RIS Exploitation of ex-Agents of the German Intelligence Services."

Nurredin Namangani landed: Crane's narrator, Narzikul, calls him "Nuridin [Namangani] Qari," Crane, p. 83.

In most postwar German documents he is referred to as Nurredin Namangani, which is the name I use throughout. In some documents he is given the middle name Nakibhodscha. This is at least partially an honorific. Hodscha, or hodja, is Turkish for "an educated person" and Nakib could be a given name or refer to a Sunni sect in Turkey, the Nakshbendi. The name is used, for example, in BayHStA LafluVerw 1900, 8 May 1957, Nentwig to Wolfrum, "Berufung einese religosen Oberhauptes fur die mohammedanischen Fluchtlinge."

The variation in names can probably be explained by the fact that many Uzbeks were flexible with surnames and sometimes used a form of their hometown in place of it -- in this case, for the city Namangan in Uzbekistan. It may also be that Namangani wanted to hide his identity after the war and dropped Qari in favor of Namangani.

Von Mende had invited Namangani: Letter of 1 August 1956, Kayum to von Mende, von Mende papers.

One of von Mende's men: Details of Namangani's career from BayHStA LafluVerw 1900, letter of 5 November 1958, Namangani to Burmeister.

The only unclear details about Namangani's life concern his time in Turkey. In his CV he wrote that he went to Turkey from 1947 to 1950 to study. In BayHStA LafluVerw 1900, 17 April 1957, Wolfrum to Nentwig, Wolfrum writes that Namangani went to Adana in Turkey in 1954, returning only at von Mende's beckoning in 1956. The dates can be reconciled -- accounting for two stays in Turkey -- but this is speculation.

Namangani retired to Adana and died in 2002, drawing a West German, then a German pension, per interview with Hayit.

His long service to Germany: BayHStA LafluVerw 1900, 17 April 1957, Wolfrum to Nentwig.

97 "The majority of the Mohammedans": BayHStA LafluVerw 2027, 14 July 1955, "Beihilfe fur die Religiose Gemeinschaft 'Islam.'"

"Create a favorable echo": AAPA ZA 105762, 10 January 1956, von Mende to Luder, "Unterstutzung der Mohammedanischen Religiosen Gesellschaft 'Islam:"

Von Mende and Namagani: Interview with Erling von Mende. Also, the letter from Wolfrum to Nentwig states that they knew each other during the war.

98 Strict and humorless: Hayit, who was married to a Christian, recalled that Namangani criticized him for having a Christmas tree. Anecdote from Narzikul; also Crane, p. 83.

"Denunciations" in Munich: Letter of 1 August 1956, Veli Kayum to von Mende. Oberlander himself was brought: See Wachs.

The Stasi was taking aim: BStU, MfS HA 11/5B, Reg. Nr. 2293/60.

99 Baymirza Hayit: AAPA ZA 195783. The broadcast is translated as "Inhalt der Sendung Radio Taschkent vom 20.7.1956, 19 Uhr."

How to knock out Gacaoglu: AAPA ZA 105762, letter of 28 December 1956, Gacaoglu to "Sehr geehrter Herr Bundesminister."

"Because no German office": AAPA ZA 105762, letter of 10 January 1957, von Mende to Wolfrum, opposing Gacaoglu and Sultan.

100 "The unwanted American influence": BayHStA LafluVerw 1900, 17 April 1957, "Einfuhrung des Hauptimams Namangani als Oberhaupt der mohammedanischen Gemeinde heimatloser Auslander in der Bundesrepublik."

"I find it unbearable": BayHStA LafluVerw 1900, letter of 17April 1957, Wolfrum to Nentwig, no subject.

"Mr. Kelley from the local office": BayHStA LafluVerw 1900, 9 November 1957, "Seelsorgerische Betreuung der moh, Fluchtlinge."

In Munich's Lowenbraukeller: BayHStA LafluVerw 1900, 9 March 1958, "Einladung" and "Protokoll."

101 Created the Ecclesiastical Administration: Amtsgericht Munchen Registerakten, VR 5991, 7 May 1958, "Protokoll."

Namangani got 650 marks: Ibid. Namangani received 650 marks per month plus 150 marks for travel costs. His deputy, Ibrahim Salih Sabanovic, received 250 marks. Namangani also oversaw a small social fund of 250 marks per month to help Muslims with a variety of needs.

The conversion is based on tables found at http://www.history.ucsb.edu/ faculty/marcuse/index.html. Thanks to Professor Harold Marcuse at University of California at Santa Barbara.

101 Gacaoglu's response to the new: BayHStA LafluVerw 1900, letter of 3 April 1958, Gacaoglu to Oberlander.

A central place of worship: BayHStA LafluVerw 1900, 27 November 1957, "Betreuung der mohammedanischen Fluchtlinge."

102 Raschid wrote a letter: BayHStA MK 49638, 18 February 1959.

103 Namangani called a meeting: BayHStA LafluVerw 1900, 22 December 1958, "Protokoll Nr. 5."

8. Dr. Ramadan Arrives

104 The visitor was Said Ramadan: Interview with Gerhard Kegel, 25 October 2004. Cologne. The meeting happened on or shortly after 6 March 1956, when Kegel wrote a letter to an assistant or university official, following up on his meeting. Letter in Kegel papers.

Shy of his thirtieth birthday: Ramadan was born on 13 April 1926. making him twenty-nine at the time of the meeting.

105 A time of profound crisis: History of the Brotherhood drawn from Richard P. Mitchell, The Society of the Muslim Brothers; Brynjar Lia, The Society of the Muslim Brothers in Egypt: The Rise of an Islamic Mass Movement, 1928-1942; and Gilles Kepel, The Prophet and Pharaoh; Muslim Extremism in Egypt.

108 Banna's works contained: Lia. p. 28.

"Wasn't like other sheikhs": Interview with Farid Abdel Khalek, 13 September 2004, Cairo.

109 New members were recruited: Muslim Brotherhood organizing methods drawn from Mitchell, pp. 14-32.

The first split in the movement: Lia, pp. 66-67.

Money from Nazi agents: NAWO 208/502, 23 October 1939. "Note on Wilhelm Stellborgen," p. 2. First cited in Lia.

Having a military wing: Banna's thoughts on politics and religion drawn from Lia, pp. 199, 202.

110 Attacked shops owned by Jews: Ibid., p. 244.

"You and your idols": Quotation from The Koran, translated by N. J. Dawood, 21:96, p. 233.

Christians "are not like the Jews": Translation from Andrew Bostom, ed., The Legacy of Islamic Antisemitism: From Sacred Texts to Solemn History, p. 37.

Karen Armstrong, in Islam: A Short History (p. 21), takes the opposite view, stating flatly that anti-Semitism was unknown among Muslims until the Nazi period, but she provides no evidence to back up this claim.

111 Why Islam is less accepting: See Matthias Kuntzel, Djihad und Judenhaß: Ober den neuen antijudischen Krieg.

Nazi propaganda added fuel: See Jeffrey Herf, Nazi Propaganda for the Middle East.

A haven for ex-Nazis: Kuntzel, pp. 26, 50.

Could not accept all Nazi ideas: See Klaus-Michael Mallmann and Martin Clippers. Halbmond und Hakenkreuz: Das "Dritte Reich," die Araber, und Palastina, p. 43, and Kuntzel, p. 39.

112 Some biographers have glossed over: For example, Philip Mattar (The Mufti of Jerusalem) seems to purposely leave out most details of the Mufti's contacts with the Nazis. The best treatment by far of the Mufti's links with the National Socialists is Klaus Gensicke, Der Mufti von Jerusalem, Amin el-Husseini, und die Nationalsozialisten, but this book is written in German and untranslated. His main conclusions are found in Mallmann and Cuppers. See also Kuntzel, especially his epilogue.

His career in the 1930s and '40s: Biographical details drawn from Mattar and Zvi Elpeleg, Grand Mufti: Haj Amin al-Hussaini. On Hussaini's anti-Semitism, see Gensicke, pp. 149-59. A number of the Mufti's speeches, such as his radio address of 8 January 1943, are collected in Hopp, Mufti Papiere, and demonstrate this.

He contacted the Nazis: German Foreign Office records, cited in Gensicke, p. 45.

113 The propagandist Johann von Leers: AAPA ZA 105783, 18 February 1960, "Verbindungen Amin Lahar aus Kairo nach Bundesrepublik."

"The Mufti told him": Interview with Khalek.

Banna turned to one: Taken from Ramadan's obituary on the website of the Islamic Center of Geneva, http://www.cige.org/historique.htm. and as recounted to Dawud Salahuddin. Telephone interview with Salahuddin, 28 February 2006.

114 "Physically he was enormously strong": Interview with Salahuddin.

Concerning his work in Palestine: On his playing a crucial role in the defense of Palestine, see the Islamic Center of Geneva's account of his life on its website. On establishing the Brotherhood's branch in Jordan, carrying a passport, and German and Swiss police records, see "History of the Jordanian Muslim Brotherhood, Part One," http://www.aawsat.com/english/news.asp?section= 3&id=3204.

115 Ramadan went to Pakistan: Biographical sketch in NARA RG 59, Decimal Files, 1950-1954, 511.80/7-2753, United States Embassy, Egypt Dispatch from Jefferson Caffery to the Department of State, "Colloquium on Islamic Culture and Saeed Ramadhan," 27 July 1953.

"If the Brotherhood had ministries": Interview with Gamal el-Banna, 13 September 2004, Cairo.

Ramadan and the Grand Mufti: Reinhard Schulze, Islamischer lnternationalismus im 20. Jahrhundert, pp. 110, 111, 210.

The "World Muslim Congress" is how Ramadan, in his official correspondence (see Kegel papers; for example, Ramadan CV), renders mu'tamar al-alam al-islami, the Karachi conference held in 1951 of which he was elected secretary, and al-mu'tamar al-islami al-amm li-l-Quds, the Jerusalem-based conference of which he was elected secretary general in 1956. To distinguish one from the other, I have added "Jerusalem" when referring to the latter. Neither of these should be confused with the current Saudi-controlled Muslim World League, or rabitat al-alam al-islami, which Ramadan helped found in Mecca on 18 May 1962. See Schulze. Internationalismus.

116 "Source states that the Mufti": NARA RG 263. ZZ-18. box 96. Amin El-Hussaini. Vol. 1, 11 March 1946. "Views of the Jerusalem Mufti."

"Hoped-for result": DDEL Central Files, Official File. box 737, file 144-B-4, "Islamic & Moslem Religion," 24 August 1953, "Memo to: C. D. Jackson, from: Abbott Washburn."

117 "These individuals can exert": DDEL Central Files, Official File, box 737, file 144-B-4, "Islamic & Moslem Religion," 8 September 1953."Subject: Islamic leaders."

The president's appointment book: DDEL, President's Appointments, 23 September 1953, Vol. July-December 1953, Eisenhower, Dwight D.: Records as President, Daily Appointments, 1953-1961. Thanks to David Haight at the Eisenhower Presidential Library for pointing out this document.

"On the surface, the conference": NARA RG 59, Decimal Files, 1950-1954, 511.80/4-3053.30 April 1953, "Colloquium on Islamic Culture" and attached briefing paper. Thanks to the National Security Archives for drawing attention to this document.

Private sponsors stepped in: NARA RG 59, Decimal Files, 1950-1954, 511.8012- 253, Princeton University, letter of 2 February 1953, Bayard Dodge to Richard H. Sanger [Colloquium on Islamic Culture].

Paying for two Princeton professors: NARA RG 59. Decimal Files, 1950-1954. 511.80/5-853. "Colloquium on Islamic Culture." letter of 8 May 1953, Helen M. Anderson to Richard H. Sanger.

118 Sanitized version of his career: NARA RG 59, Records of the Department of State, Decimal Files, 511.80/7-2753, United States Embassy, Egypt Dispatch from Jefferson Caffery to the Department of State. "Colloquium on Islamic Culture and Saeed Ramadhan," 27 July 1953.

The resulting photo op: Thanks to Robert Dreyfuss, who generously provided a copy of the official Princeton program, including photos.

"Ramadan was invited": CIA RDP83-00423R001300710001, "Comments on the Islamic Colloquium."

119 U.S. officials in Rabat: NARA RG 59, Records of the Department of State, Decimal Files, 880.413/2-856, 8 February 1956, "Press Conference in Rabat of Said Ramadan of Islamic Congress in Jerusalem" and accompanying memo from Gerald Little.

A tough anticommunist battle: Associated Press report, printed in The Lincoln Star, 28 September 1956, p. 3. The report calls the group the Jerusalem Moslem Conference.

Nasser cracked down: Mitchell, pp. 141, 142, 153.

Five months after Kegel: Letter of 14 August 1956, Kegel papers.

The forty-four-year-old scholar: Kegel was born 26 June 1912, according to the Deutsche Dienststelle, and died in February 2006. An account of his remarkable legal career can be found in German at www.uni-koeln.de/jur-fak/instipr/ leitung/Nachruf_Krueger.doc.
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Re: A Mosque in Munich: Nazis, the CIA, and the Rise of the

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120 He wrote a telegram: 13 November 1956, Kegel papers.

In June 1958, Ramadan wrote: 21 June 1958, Kegel papers.

He was off to the Hajj: 28 August 1958, Kegel papers.

During this Hajj the exiled: Interview with Fouad Allam, 15 September 2004, Cairo. Allam was the former head of Egyptian domestic security.

Swiss officials seemed unaware: BAR Ramadan, 3 March 1966, interrogation of Ramadan, "Abhorungsprotokoll."

121 "Intelligent if also fanatical": Interview with Kegel.

122 Braving a snowstorm: Interview with Faisal I. Yazdani, 13 December 2005, Munich.

Printed in German and Turkish: BayHStA LafluVerw 1900, "Protokoll Nr. 5Am 22.12.58 hate eine Sitzung des 'Dini Idare'" and attached invitation flyers. Also, interviews with Yazdani, 28 January and 13 December 2005, Munich.

123 Syrian student, Ghaleb Himmat: Telephone interview with Himmat, 1 June 2005. Himmat did not say if he had invited Ramadan.

"Himmat invited him to take over": Interview with Mogaddedi.

124 "The students were all well educated": Interview with Muhammad Abdul Karim Grimm, 21 October 2004, Hamburg.

Von Mende's tiny card file: AAPA ZA 105731, 23 March 1959, "Aktenvermerk, Betr.: Said Muhammed Ramadan, Genf."

9. Marriage of Convenience

125 "Received my Kodachromes": Letter of 6 August 1957, "Dear Folks," Dreher papers. Thanks to Helen and Chuck Oerkvitz, Dreher's sister and brother-in-law, for access to his personal papers.

"Not a one-woman man": Interview with West.

126 "Deep down inside I realize": Letter of 19 May 1953, Dreher to Helen and Chuck Oerkvitz, Dreher papers.

On his CIA application: Ibid. Dreher attended all board meetings until he left for Munich.

He spoke broken German: See Chapter 12 for description of his farewell speech, which he delivered in poor German.

Show off to bewildered emigres: Interview with Klump.

127 Church leader Edward Elson: Letter of 31 July 1958, "White House Letter from Dwight D. Eisenhower to Edward 1. R. Elson," document 133 in the online archive "Documentation on Early Cold War U.S. Propaganda Activities in the Middle East." published by the National Security Archive of George Washington University, Washington, DC: http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/ NSAEBB78/docs.htm.

"The 'holy war' aspect": 7 September 1957, Goodpaster "Memorandum of Conference with the President," retrieved from Declassified Documents Reference Service.

Ad Hoc Working Group on Islam: DDEL OCB Central Files Series, box 2, file January-May 1957, 5 February 1957, "Informal Memorandum of Meeting: Ad Hoc Working Group on Islam."

128 "Strengthen the reformist groups": This was in specific reference to NSC 5428, "U.S. Objectives and Policies with Respect to the Near East."

In May, the coordination board: DDEL OCB Secretariat Series, box 4, file "Islamic Organizations," 3 May 1957, "Inventory of U.S. Government and Private Organization Activity Regarding Islamic Organizations as an Aspect of Overseas Operations."

129 "We all thought the Soviet": Interview with Klump.

"Offensive" and "defensive": Letter of 7 November 1961, Dreher to Howland H. Sargeant, Amcomlib president, Dreher papers. In the letter, Dreher reviews tactics used in Munich.

130 Dreher's boss, Walpole Davis: Interview with Murphy.

Most emigres were eager: See, for example, Burds.

Automatic payments: Interview with Klump.

Might have been unsavory: See, for example, Win magazine. An antiwar publication prominent during the Vietnam War, it had an amazingly accurate description of Operation Ohio, a U.S. intelligence program to back emigre groups that had killed opponents in displaced persons camps after the war. The magazine lists Dreher and other Amcomlib employees as having been aware that they were funding people involved in the postwar killings. The allegations are impossible to prove, but based on subsequently released information (see, for example, Loftus, The Belarus Secret), they are highly plausible.

Washington's fears seem overblown: NARA RG 59, Decimal File 670.901/1-2158, 21 January 1958. "AmEmbassy. Cairo to Department of State. Subject: Talks with Members of Dipomatic Corps Regarding Afro-Asian People's Solidarity Conference."

U.S. diplomats spent: See, for example, cable traffic, such as NARA RG 59. Decimal File 670.901/10-457, 4 October 1957, State Department circular on how to prepare for the conference.

Such as Said Shamil: NARA RG 59. Decimal File 670.901/5-2059, 23 May 1959. "Subject: Document on Soviet Colonialism Addressed to AA Solidarity Council."

Dreher was trying to make use: On the conference, see NARA RG 59, Decimal File 670.901/1-2558, 25 January 1958, "Soviet and Egyptian Statements at Asian- African Solidarity Conference."

On Nasar's role, see Georgetown, Kelley papers, box 5, folder 5, 1 December 1959, "Political Affairs Discussion with Kelley."

131 "Rusi Nasar tried": Interview with Allworth.

A Jordanian passport: A BND official wrote to von Mende making this claim. Letter of 19 May 1961, Maurer to von Mende, "Sehr verehrter Herr Professor!," von Mende papers.

Swiss intelligence claimed: BAR Ramadan, 29 June 1967, "Note pour Monsieur Gelzer."

Ahmet Magoma: Georgetown, Kelley papers, box 5, folder 5, "Confidential Report of Mr. B. E. Kuniholm on His Trip to the Middle East," pp. 27-28.

Von Mende was outraged: AAPA ZA 105731, 3 February 1959, "Aktennotiz Betr. Besuch von Shamil and Magoma."

No influence in the Muslim world: In fact, Ramadan was at this time a key Islamist figure, receiving visits from, for example. King Hussein of Jordan. BAR Ramadan, Index entry C.11.88, 24 November 1958, "Erw. im Bewachungsbericht Konig HUSSEIN's von Jordanien, Dieser hat am 20.11.59 nachtmittags R. besucht."

132 West Germany's Foreign Office: AAPA ZA B12 Band 411, 2 February 1959, "Betr. Besuch von Vertretern des Nordkaukasischen Komitees in Deutschland."

One of von Mende's key men: AAPA ZA 105731, 29 June 1959, "Auszug aus einem Schreiben von Dr. Hayit vom 24.06.59."

His own covert operation: AAPA ZA 105707, 16 April 1959, "Ausnutzung der turkestanischen Exilgruppen fur politsiche Aufklarungsarbeit."

133 Namangani reported to his boss: AAPA ZA 105731, 22 September 1959, "Reisebericht von Haupt-Imam Namangani." The men had arrived back in Germany in July and Namangani was paid one thousand marks on August 26.

A resounding success: Details in Schulze, Internationalismus, pp. 149-51.

134 The institute's Arabic Review: Hoover, Radio Liberty Collection, box 214, letter of 16 March 1960, Ramadan to Kantemir.

Decided to move his family: Letter of 10 April 1959, Ramadan to Kegel, Kegel papers.

The European congress: BayHStA LafluVerw 1900, 30 April 1959, "Betreff: Errich tung einer Moschee in Munchen durch."

Gacaoglu wrote a letter: The text, including the quotation "The mosque to be built, "from BayHStA LafluVerw 1900, letter of 27 April 1959, Gacaoglu to Stain.

135 Ramadan was the chairman: Amtsgericht Munchen, Registerakten, VR 6256, 29 March 1960, "Betreff: Moscheebau-Kommission e.V."

Bring back money: BayHStA LaFluVerw 1900, 13June 1960, "Betreff: Bau einer Moschee in Munchen."

Their old intelligence contact: BayHStA LaFluVerw 1900, 8 March 1960, "Betreff: Religiose Betreuung der mohammedanischen Fluchtlinge; hier: Bau einer Moschee in Munchen."

"Germany is a gate": AAPA ZA 105783, 8 March 1960, untitled rough draft of report from Hayit to von Mende.

136 "One comes to the conviction": AAPA ZA 105783, 14 April 1960, "Bemerkungen zu den Tatigkeit des Geistlichesamt."

The mufti of Turkestan: AAPA ZA 105707, 2 November 1960, "Betr. Abteilung fur die Propaganda des Islams in der SU beim ZK der KP Iraqs."

Advised him to see Ramadan: Letter of 27 May 1961, von Mende to Ungermann, "Betr.: Kartothek Dr. Said RAMADAN," von Mende papers.

Von Mende reluctantly agreed: Ibid.

137 Break into Ramadan's office: Ibid., as well as 8 May 1961, Aktennotiz "Betr.: Said RAMADAN." and letter of 19 May 1961, Maurer to von Mende, "Sehr verehrter Herr Professor!." von Mende papers.

138 The burglary was called off: This is an assumption based on von Mende's seeming agreement that the files wouldn't be valuable and on a lack of further correspondence. It's not impossible, however, that the burglary went ahead, but that details were arranged over the phone; alternatively the written record may have been destroyed or lost.

138 "It is astounding": AAPA ZA 105784, letter of 5 June 1961, to von Mende, "Sehr geehrter Professor!," von Mende papers.

10. The Novelist's Tale

139 A charity called Jami'at al Islam: Jami'at al Islam should not be confused with the famous Pakistani political group of a similar name, Jamaat-e-Islamiya.

Moving their operations: BayHStA LanfluVerw 2199, 9 January 1960, "Betreff: Aufnahme der Tatigkeit einer JAl-Zweigstelle in Deutschland."

"I hardly think it's possible": BayHStA LafluVerw 1900, 20 February 1960, "Betr. Bau einer Moschee in Munchen."

140 "Jami'at al Islam was founded": Ibid., attached document, "Jami'at al Islam, Geschichte -- Richtlinien -- Programm," Wien, 1959.

141 The U.S. Escapee Program: See, for example, Susan L. Carruthers, "Between Camps: Eastern Bloc 'Escapees' and Cold War Borderlands," American Quarterly, p. 934.

Afoul of Catholic agencies: Interview with Touhami Louahala, 30 July 2006, Montelimar, France.

Office of Refugee and Migration Affairs: Jami'at al Islam newsletter, No. 2, 1960, p. 2.

Photographed in front of a shack: About Kamal's visit to the camp, BayHStA LafluVerw 2199, letter of 17 May 1960, Balagija to Stain, with accompanying photos.

American Council of Voluntary Agencies: That the council did not vet Kamal's group is explicitly confirmed in a letter from the council to Bavarian officials. BayHStA LafluVerw 2199, letter of 5 January 1962, "Strictly Confidential: Ms. Ella V. Laursen."

Field Marshal Ayub Khan: BayHStA LafluVerw 2199, article in Munchener Merkur, 24 January 1961, page number unclear.

A large conference in Munich: BayHStA LafluVerw 2199, Munchener Merkur, 6 June 1961.

142 His Ecclesiastical Administration: BayHStA LafluVerw 2199, 27 February 1960 memo to members, "Lieber Bruder in Islam."

"The Bavarian capital has recently": BayHStA LafluVerw 1900, "Synagoge neben Moschee," Munchener Merkur, 26 March 1961.

Citing Jami'at's move: Munchener Merkur, 24 June 1960, "Spenden aus Mekka fur Munchen," p. 14.

Kamal's public life: Kamal's biography can be found on the back cover of all his reprinted works, available through the publishing-on-demand company toExcel. The copyright was renewed in 2000 and the packaging prepared by his son, Turan, a classical guitarist who wanted to keep up his father's legacy, according to Kamal's daughter, Tura. Interview with Tura Kamal-Haller, 16 June 2006. Munich.

143 Kamal's Federal Bureau of Investigation file: FBI Ahmad Kamal FOIA, 8 May 1956, "Ahmad Kamal, also known as Cimarron Hathaway, Ahmad Kamal Hathaway, Ahmed Kamal," p. 1.

He listed his father as Qara Yusuf: Ibid., p. 6.

He had left Kamal's mother: Ibid., p. 1.

144 Arrested by Chinese authorities: West German intelligence believed this was true. AAPA ZA 105792, 25 July 1955, "Betr.: Lage in Indonesien."

145 "I'm crying for what wasn't": Interview with Kamal-Haller.

Write-up in the New York Times: "A Picaresque Tale of Adventure," 31 March 1940. The Times also reviewed Full Fathom Five and One-Dog Man.

146 Kamal told the Los Angeles Times: "Prison 'Koran' Tricked Japs," 11November 1945, p. 7.

147 The Sacred Journey: Author's note, pp. xiii-xv, toExcel edition.

Kamal tried to describe: According to a small notice in Jami'at al Islam, No. 2, 1960. In the author's possession.

The Saturday Evening Post: 26 September 1953, p. 19.

To work for the U.S. government: FBI Kamal FOIA, 4 May 1956, "Re: New York Air-Tel to Los Angeles, 4/30/56," p. 2.

A debt of $1, 877.40: Ibid.

The view of West German intelligence: AAPA ZA 105792, 25 July 1955, "Betr.: Lage in Indonesien."

148 His son took music lessons: Kamal's son is in fact an accomplished guitarist. See http://www.classicalguitar.nl/ShowPost.aspx?PostID=9649. for example. Recordings of his music circulate among aficionados.

149 Touhami Louahala grew up: Interview with Louahala. The suicide of Dubois was widely reported in Swiss and foreign newspapers.

In Jami'at publications, Louahala's name is spelled Tuhami Ibn Ahmad El Wahla. See Jami'at al Islam, No. 2, 1960, p. 5.

150 The much more famous Pakistani group: Serge Bromberger, Les rebelles algeriens, p. 222.

"What is fact and what is fiction": Nevill Barbour, review of Les rebelles algeriens, International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944-), p. 113.

151 "That was Mr. James Price": For Price's ties to Amcomlib, see Hoover RFE/RL, Corp. Records, box 350, folder 5, 1 September 1971, "Memorandum of Conversation (by phone) with James Price, Library of Congress."

Almost blown through the roof: NARA RG 59, Decimal File 862A-411/10-1760, 17 October 1960, cable from Munich, "No. 156, October 17."

152 Louahala says he had nothing: Interview with Louahala.

Jami'at pulled out of Jordan: NARA RG 59, Decimal File 885.46/8-1161, 11 August 1961, "Subject: Letter from Jami'at al Islam (JAI)."

Mahmoud K. Muftic: Letters of 30 March, 17April, and 19 April 1961, von Mende papers.

153 The Germans trusted Balagija: For Balagija's wartime service, see WASt, Schriftverkehrsakte.

An audit of Jami'at's management: NARA RG 59, Decimal File 862A.411/4-242, 24 April 1962, "Subject: Jami'at al Islam audit."

Concerned officials in Munich: BayHStA LafluVerw 2199, 7 November 1961, "Betr. Forderung von zwei Projekten des Jami'at al Islam."

Charges that Balagija had: BayHStA LafluVerw 2199, 4 December 1961, "Betreff: Zusammenarbeit mit der mohammedanischen Hilfsorganisation Jami'at al Islam."

153 More loyal to the Germans: Letters recounting meetings with Balagija, Sahkul, 27 December 1961 and 2 January 1962, von Mende papers.

154 Jami'at was closing all offices: BayHStA LafluVerw 2199, 1 March 1962, "Jami'at al Islam beendet Fluechtlingsprogramme in Europa."

Council of Voluntary Agencies: BayHStA LafluVerw 2199, copy of letter of 6 December 1961, "Strictly Confidential: Attn Mrs. Charlotte B. Owen, Executive Director."

The council was later subsumed by the U.S. Agency for International Development. Its archives are incomplete and do not contain this exchange.

"We've been spared a common worry": BayHStA LafluVerw 2199, 7 March 1962, "Sehr geehrter Dr. Burmeister."

The Burmese opposition leader: Telephone interview with U Kyaw Win, 31 July 2007·

U Kyaw Win, a veteran Burmese opposition figure, was with U Nu when Kamal made the offer in 1969. Kamal later traveled widely in Burma and told U Kyaw Win that he was in regular contact with Burmese opposition leaders.

Plans for a grandiose mosque: BayHStA LafluVerw 1900, 4 October 1961, "Betreff: Bau einer Moschee in Munchen."

11. Winning the Mosque

155 Kantemir was almost blind: Von Mende's description is in AAPA ZA 105706, 7 July 1961, "Betr.: Alichan Kantemir -- Nordkaukas, Komitee."

"Dear Professor Kegel": Letter of 16 July 1960, Kegel papers.

Finding his way to Turkey and Pakistan: Ramadan's travels detailed in letter of 18 September 1960, Kegel papers.

His fund-raising success: For Ramadan's activities during the Hajj and while raising Saudi money, Kassajep's concerns, and the quotation "Our task is to build a mosque," see BayHStA LafluVerw 1900, 21 August 1960, "ProtoKoll Nr. 5."

156 An old battalion commander: WAst records.

Kassajep met with Bavarian officials: BayHStA LafluVerw 1900, 6 February 1961, "Betreff: Moscheebau in Munchen."

157 Only 78, 890 marks: BayHStA LafluVerw 1900, letter of 17 February 1961, Kassajep to Burmeister.

Kayum started the trouble: AAPA ZA 105783, 27 March 1961, "Aktenvermerk Betr.: Dr. Hayit/BND."

Less clear is whether Hayit really was a BND informant. In his letter to the BND, von Mende did not dispute this assertion or any of the facts. He only seemed angry that Kayum was aware of them. In addition, it certainly fits with previous French intelligence efforts to recruit Hayit (see notes for Chapter 5). Still, this evidence is only anecdotal. Clearly Hayit thought of himself as a scholar and produced a fairly sizable body of academic work. I asked Hayit if von Mende's offices were affiliated with intelligence services, and he answered, "Not to my knowledge." Because I had not completed my research at the time, I was not aware of these letters and could not ask Hayit directly about Kayum. Hayit has since died.

Salary was another concern: Letter of 23 February 1961, "Lieber Rolf," von Mende files.

A monthly salary of 450 marks: AAPA ZA 105706, 7 July 1961, "Betr.: Veli Kayum-Chan."

158 Implying that Himmat had: AAPA ZA 105707, 12 September 1960, ''Arabische-Kommunistiche Ring im Ausland."

His own international ties: BayHStA LafluVerw 1900, letter of 27 July 1961, Ramadan to Stain.

Ramadan repeated the figure: Ibid.

He wrote back offering: Ibid.

Namangani had had enough: BayHStA LafluVerw 1900, letter of 7 November 1961, Namangani to Ramadan.

159 Commission finally met: BayHStA LafluVerw 1900, 30 November 1961, "Betr.: Information uber den Moscheebau in Munchen."

160 Jordan withdraws passport: This happened no latter than 1965. Swiss records contain a letter from the Jordanian embassy saying Ramada's passport had been revoked. Swiss Ramadan file, 1 October 1965, "Notiz. Said Ramadan."

Enough votes to block Kantemir: Ibid., handwritten note. Decision confirmed in BayHStA LafluVerw 1900, 11 January 1962, "Betreff: Bau einer Moschee in Munchen."

161 Council of Islamic Communities and Societies: AAPA ZA 105784, 3 April 1962, "Betr.: Islamischer Rat Deutschlands." Partially also described in Al-Islam, No. 5, 1962, "Gelebter Islam -- Bruderschaft und Einigkeit." p. 1, and "Rat Islamischer Gemeinden und Gemeinschaften." p. 7.

162 The Muslim World League: On Schmiede's participation on the trip to Mecca, ibid. Schmiede is still alive but refused to be interviewed.

On the conference as a whole, the most reliable description, including a list of key participants and an analysis of coalitions, is found in Schulze, Internationalismus, pp. 181-212.

Muslims in West Germany: For this, and the Saudi visit to West Germany, see AAPA ZA 105706, 6 July 1962, "Islamische Weltkongresse."

163 His ally Mahmoud K. Muftic: Letter of 29 May 1962, von Mende to Ungermann, von Mende papers.

The most dangerous time: BAR Ramadan, 26 October 1962, "Attentatsplans gegen Dr. Said Ramadan."

A concealable handgun: BAR Ramadan, 15 August 1962, interrogation of Gailan Ramiz.

One of its best Muslim agitators: Interview with Sultan, 28 March 2006.

Philadelphia's venerable International House: "Modern Forms of Colonialism." Sultan papers. The talk is also on the house's list of events for March 1961.

164 "The report fulfilled its objective": Paper, no date, To: Mr. I. Patch. From: G. Sultan. Subject: Report on "The Modern Forms of Colonialism." International House, Philadelphia.

Sultan went to Cairo: Copy of speech in Sultan papers.

165 Mailed Ahmad a $200 check: Letter of 5 April 1962, Sultan to Ahmad, "My dear Dr. Ahmad." Sultan papers.

Committee for Self-Determination: Technically, Sultan shouldn't have done this. According to an agreement between Amcomlib and the National Committee for a Free Europe, Amcomlib was supposed to focus on Muslim parts of the world; but for whatever reason, Sultan claimed to be working for the other group. 2 October 1961, "Memorandum to: Director, Special Projects Division. From: Garip Sultan. Subject: Talk with Mr. Pavlovich of the Free Europe Committee." Sultan papers.

Getting Sultan an invitation: For Ahmad's offer to help arrange the invitation, see letter of 22 March 1962, Ahmet to Sultan, "My dear Garip." Sultan papers.

But he promised to lobby: Letter of 18 April 1961, Ahmad to Sultan, "My dear Garip Sultan." Sultan papers.

Sultan then contacted Ramadan: Interviews with Sultan.

The sole U.S. representative: Official list of delegates, Sultan papers.

West Germany should go ahead: For von Mende's thoughts and suggestions about the mosque, see AAPA ZA 105735, 14 December 1961, "Betr.: Moscheebau-Kommission in Munchen."

166 West Germany's generosity: BayHStA LafluVerw 1900, 22 March 1962, "Betreff: Bau einer Moschee in Munchen, Zu Ihrem Schreiben vom 11.3-1962."

St. Paul's Church-where the whole idea: BayHStA LafluVerw 1900, 10 September 1963, "Betreff: Religiose Betreuung der mohammedanischen Fluchtlinge."

The old SS imam finally: BayHStA LafluVerw 1900, 19 March 1962, Namangani's one-page cover letter to Burmeister, "Sehr geehrter Herr Regierungsdirektor." and accompanying seven-page "Erklarung."

Namangani's letter was cast in perfect bureaucratic German and likely was written by Margaret Kassajep, Hassan Kassajep's wife. She wrote much of the men's correspondence but could not remember the specifics of this letter. Interview with Margaret Kassajep, 17 August 2004, Munich.

167 Some surviving students: For example, the interview with Mogaddedi. He said Namangani was initially respected not for his training in Islam but because he was von Mende's man, and the students knew how influential von Mende was.

Gacaoglu reminded the community: BayHStA LafluVerw 1900, letter of 14 June 1963, Gacaoglu to Hergl, "Sehr geehrter Herr Regierungsdirektor!"

12. Losing Control

169 A bit of doggerel: Interview with West. Karin West also tape-recorded the speeches and toasts. The citations are taken from this recording. Thanks to Denis Johnson for making the poetry scan.

171 Letter to Arthur Schlesinger Jr.: NARA RG 59, Decimal File 885.41311-1762, cover letter of 17 January 1962, Schlesinger to Talbot, including two-page letter of 24 November 1961, Ramadan to Schlesinger, as well as original and translation of Ramadan's article "Choice for the Middle East: Communism or Islam?," undated, from La Tribune de Geneve.

172 Lose contact with Ramadan: Interview with Klump.

Deployed to Vietnam: I am indebted to Professor Richard H. Shultz Jr. of the Fletcher School at Tufts University for a copy of his interview with Dreher. Shultz wrote an analysis of MACVSOG based on interviews and access to CIA papers. Dreher says in the interview that he and his U.S. team had little idea of what the South Vietnamese were broadcasting or its value.

173 In 1972 Dreher retired: Taken from Dreher resume, Dreher papers.

Von Mende wrote to Sultan: Letter of 6 September 1962, von Mende to Sultan, "Lieber Herr Sultan!," Sultan papers.

174 "He was known as a Nazi": Interview with Richard Pipes, 25 October 2006, Cambridge, MA.

In early 1963, the ex-soldiers: For changes in the mosque project, see Amtsgericht Munchen, Registerakten (Sonderband) VR 6256, Islamische Gemeinschaft in Deutschland e.V. List of members "Erganzung Nr. 1zum Protokoll der Generalversammlung v. 3.2.1963." For the commission's name change, see "Erganzung Nr. 2 zum Protokoll der Generalversamlung v. 3.2.1963."

Ali Kantemir: For von Mende's attempt to erase evidence of their relationship, see AAPA ZA 105730, 24 July 1963, "Betr.: Nachlass von Herm Alichan Kantemir."

Von Mende's impotence: Letter of 23 October 1963, "Sehr verehrter Herr Professor!," von Mende papers.

175 Infiltrated a Muslim student group: The group was the Islamische Studentengemeinde in K61n. It received six thousand marks, and von Mende had planned another payment, this time of four thousand marks, but he died before he could arrange it. His successors recommended not paying the balance. AAPA ZA 105708, 24 December 1963, "Betr.: Ubersicht der vorhandenen Mittel des Forschungdienstes Osteuropa."

The Stasi seemed to take: BStU, MfS HA I1/5B, Reg. Nr. 2293/60, 16 January 1962.

Told him to tone down: AAPA ZA 105730, letter of 12 December 1963, von Mende to Hayit, "Lieber Baymirza!"

Ordered him to stop smoking: Interview with Erling von Mende.

A massive heart attack: AAPA ZA 105706, 13 January 1964, "Betr.: Beerdigungskosten fur Herm Professor von Mende."

176 The foreign ministry agreed: AAPA ZA 105706, 15 January 1964, "Betr.: Beerdigungskosten des am 16.12.1963 verstorbenen Leiters des Forschungsdienstes Osteuropa, Professor von Mende."

Siegfried Ungermann: AA B40 Band 51, 21 January 1964, "Lieber Herr Wickert!

Decided to close the operation: AA B40 Band 51, 12 June 1964, "Betr.: Auflosung des Forschungsdienstes Osteuropa, Hier: Raumung der Parterrewohnung in der Cecilienallee 52."

Precipitated an ugly scene: Ibid.

Asked if she could use the name: AA B40 Band 52, letter of 2 June 1965, Unglaube to Dr. Lane, "Sehr geehrter Herr Dr. Lane!"

Officials worried that the mass: AA B40 Band 51, 9 October 1964, "Betr.: Sicherungsmaßnahmen des Buros in Dusseldorf."

177 Von Mende's use of Muslims: Alexei, Soviet Nationalities in German Wartime Strategy, 1941-1945, p. iii.

13. The Brotherhood Triumphant

181 The sixth in all of West Germany: By 1973, Berlin had two mosques, Hamburg one, Frankfurt one, and Aachen one. Of course, the country had numerous prayer rooms.

Something appealing but affordable: Interview with Yazdani, 28 January 2005.

182 Ramadan was so influential: From the memoirs of Yusuf al-Qaradawi, according to Mshari Al-Zaydi: "History of the Jordanian Muslim Brotherhood, Part One." Asharq Alawsat. Online English edition: http://www.aawsat.com/english/ news.asp?section=3&id=3204.

The Muslim World League asked: Schulze, Internationalismus, pp. 247-48.

Held a diplomatic passport: BAR Ramadan, 23 September 1970, untitled interview with Ramadan.

Traveled on a Pakistani passport: Swiss police records show he began using a Pakistani passport no later than 1980. Swiss Ramadan file, 21 February 1980, "Rapport de Wanner -- inspecteur."

183 "Maybe some new members": Interview with Kamal al-Helbawy, 20 October 2005, London.

"The [students] disgusted him": Interview with Mogaddedi. Mogaddedi also believed that Himmat tried to bring Attar to Munich.

184 "He was in a few meetings": Interview with Himmat.

"What the Arabs are like": Interview with Yazdani, 28 January 2005. This is Yazdani's recollection of Ramadan's words.

Yazdani stepped in to help: Interviews with Yazdani, 28 January and 13 December 2005.

Protests from these embassies: Memo from West German embassy in Baghdad: BayHStA MK 49638, 12 January 1965, "Betr.: Errichtung einer Moschee in Munchen." The Muslim World League and the Turkish embassy in Bonn also complained about the tax status.

185 The cornerstone was laid: See, for example, "Der Muezzin ruft zum Moscheebau," Suddeutsche Zeitung, No. 241, 9 October 1967, p. 13.

186 Yazdani, however, was not present: Amtsgericht Munchen, Registerakten (Sonderband) VR 6256, Islamische Gemeinschaft in Deutschland e.V., 3 November 1973, "Protokoll."

A whispering campaign: Apparently Ibrahim Gacaoglu and his wife were behind these allegations of corruption. The dispute is described from Yazdani's perspective in a letter of 21 July 1970 to the Bavarian social ministry. It seems that the charges went nowhere and, given Gacaoglu's weak credibility, it seems likely that they were not accurate. Copy of letter courtesy of Islam-Archiv Deutschland.

"I have to say that I'm happy": Interview with Yazdani, 28 January 2005.

Turkish guest workers: Amtsgericht Munchen, Registerakten, registered letter of 1 October 1974, "Sehr geehrte Bruder in Islam."

187 In 1975 the Turks tried: Amtsgericht Munchen, Registerakten (Sonderband) VR 6256, Islamische Gemeinschaft in Deutschland e.V., 18 January 1975, "Protokoll."

188 Nada was his opposite: Details of Nada's friendship with Himmat, arrest, and flight to Austria, Tripoli, and Switzerland from interview with Youssef Nada, 2 June 2004, Campione d'Italia. Quotation about torture in prison from interview of Nada on 16 November 2003 by Glenn Simpson of the Wall Street Journal. Thanks to Simpson for making his notes available.

190 Ramadan was officially kicked out: Amtsgericht Munchen, Registerakten (Sonderband) VR 6256, Islamische Gemeinschaft in Deutschland e.V., 3 November 1973, "Protokoll."

14. Beyond Munich

192 Brotherhood's "supreme guide": Interview with Mahdi Akef, 14 September 2004, Cairo.

194 "Neo-Muslim Brotherhood": See Kepel, The Prophet and Pharaoh, especially Chapter 4.

Islamic Cultural Centres and Bodies: See Impact International, issue of 25 May-7 June 1973, p. 3.

195 The Swiss lakeside resort: Muhammad Shafiq, The Growth of Islamic Thought in North America: Focus on Ismail Raji al Faruqi, pp. 27-28. "Hosted by Mahmoud Abu Sa'ud, it was attended by such well-known figures as Isma'il al Faruqi, Abdul Hamid AbuSulayman, Taha al'Alwani, Yusuf al-Qaradawi, Muhammad al Mubarak, Jamaluddin Atia, Abdul Halim M. Ahmad, al Mahdi Ben Abbud, Ahmad Totonji, Mahmud Rashdan, Khurshid Ahmad, Jamal Barzinji, Ahmad al Assai, Ja'far Shaikh Idris, and many others."

Some reports state that the meeting was held in Nada's own home. In June 2003, for example, Soliman Biheri, an Egyptian businessman, told U.S. customs agents that "he had heard of a famous Islamic conference in Lugano, Switzerland." Mr. Biheri said the conference took place in Nada's home and that it "provided a 'blueprint' for much of the worldwide Islamic movements in the 1980s." Department of the Treasury, U.S. Customs Service Report of Investigation, case number dc02pu02dc0005. In an interview (2 June 2004), Nada denied that the meeting took place in his home.

Met in Saudi Arabia: Shafiq, p. 28.

Instructed to open the center: Ibid.

196 Barzinji signed the papers: Ibid.

Barzinji was an officer: Liechtenstein corporate registration, Asat Trust, "Zeichnungerklaerung" of 30 January 1978, "Beschluss."

Barzinji's work for Nada in Saudi Arabia from Glenn Simpson's interview of Nada on 16 November 2003.

He worked for Nada's companies: Ibid. Altalib and Barzinji joined and left the company at the same time.

Nada sponsored him: Amtsgericht Munchen, Registerakten, 3 April 1978, "Protokoll," p. 4. It is not clear if Altalib joined.

Totonji, Barzinji, and Altalib: All three went to Britain to study engineering.

On Totonji, see his Ph.D. dissertation: "Displacement Efficiency in Alcohol Flooding in Relation to Ternary System Phase Behavior." Department of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, 1970. Shelving location: aa 900000009624 Thesis 1970 Totonji, A.

On Altalib, see Hisham Altalib, Training Guide for Islamic Workers.

On Barzinji, see "Islamic Trust to Build Mosque," Indianapolis Star, 5 May 1977.

196 Totonji and others helped found: See http://web.archive.org/web/200302171435 ... story.html.

Three of his children: Italian intelligence report, The Intelligence and Democratic Security Service SISDE Counterterrorism Division 96ter, 6396-187-A, Re: "B.J.." Operation Rome, 6 April 1996. In author's possession. Nada confirmed that his children were born in the United States, saying he had "business interests there." Interview with Nada.

Nada apparently helped: Ibid. Also, John Mintz and Douglas Farah, "In Search of Friends Among the Foes," Washington Post, 11 September 2004, p. A01.

The forty-two-acre site: Plans announced by Barzinji in "Islamic Trust to Build Mosque." For size and cost of mosque, see "Proposed Islamic Center Near Plainfield OK'd." Indianapolis Star, 5 March 1978. As headquarters of groups, see William D. Dalton, "Islamic Society of North America." in Encyclopedia of Indianapolis.

It formed the headquarters: For a detailed history of these founders and the Brotherhood's growth, see Steve Merley, "The Muslim Brotherhood in Belgium."

It is interesting to note that Totonji and Barzinji's U.S. Muslim Student Association was a founding member of the Saudi-run International Islamic Federation of Student Organizations (IIFSO). Totonji became the group's general secretary (see http://domino.un.org/unispal.nsf/0/2aa9 ... enDocument) and was succeeded by Altalib (see Training Guide for Islamic Workers). Over time, IIFSO morphed into one of the world's most important Muslim groups, the World Assembly of Muslim Youth. Headquartered in Saudi Arabia, it aims to inculcate in young Muslims the ideology of the Saudi Muslim Brotherhood. As the IIFSO website explains, "It was out of the IIFSO's experience of success that the WAMY was born. WAMY was founded in 1972 in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, at an international meeting of Islamic workers involved in youth activities and representatives of youth organizations. It was established to help youth organizations around the world implement their planned projects" (http://web.archive.org/web/199902020928 ... g/hist.htm). Totonji and Barzinji were both key players in WAMY. Totonji served as deputy to the first secretary general (http://web.archive.org/web/20030314125221/http:// www.wamy.org/english/conferences/speech6.htm), while Barzinji was listed as a board member, with an address in Saudi Arabia (http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/ humanrelations/crisis_in_the_muslim_mind/author.html).

197 Issam al-Attar, the charismatic head: Amtsgericht Munchen, Registerakten (Sonderband) VR 6256, Islamische Gemeinschaft in Deutschland e.V., 4 December 1982, "Protokoll."

198 Its chief, Ahmed al-Rawi: Interview with Ahmed al-Rawi, 21 July 2004, Markfield, UK. Rawi has since retired. See also Ian Johnson, "How Islamic Group's Ties Reveal Europe's Challengem" Wall Street Journal, p. A1. Rawi has subsequently left the FIOE.

199 The "big circle": Rawi identified the countries as Britain, Italy, France, Germany, Spain, and Yugoslavia; two of the countries had two organizations. The federation was made up of organizations from those countries plus Austria, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Rumania, and Switzerland, as well as the single organization that represented the Scandinavian countries. Individuals were not allowed to register.

15. Defining the Debate

202 "Many of you are going": Theodor Marquard, head of the German Liaison Office, cited in Helmut Frangenberg, "Kleine Migrationsgeschichte der Turken nach Koln" in Der Moscheestreit: Eine exemplarische Debatte uber Einwanderung und Integration, p. 72.

In all cases the "guest workers": For a general history of this immigration to West Germany, as well as Europe in general, see Robert J. Pauly Jr., Islam in Europe: Integration or Marginalization? and Jorgen Nielsen, Muslims in Western Europe.

203 A sizable number of Muslims: For estimates on the number of Muslims living in western Europe, see Robert S. Leiken, "Europe's Mujahideen," Center for Immigration Studies newsletter, April 2005, p. 5.

206 On the edge of London: I attended the meeting of the European Council for Fatwa and Research, 8-12 July 2004, and heard Hawari's talk. Later, I obtained a transcript and all the working papers. The citations are from the written version of the text.

207 "We should seek to collapse morals": Protocols of the Elders of Zion, as cited by Hawari in "Sex and Sexual Education Under the Light of Islamic Shariah." Translation by Mandi Fahmy. The complete paper is available at www.iandjohnson.com.

208 Available online and published: For online sources, see www.ecfr.org or www.islamonline.org. For books, see two collections of fatwas available for download at http://www.e-cfr.org/en/index.php?cat_id=336. On the council's use of these in training, interview with Amir Zaidan, 18 March 2005, Berlin. See also Alexandre Caeiro, "Transnational 'Ulama,' European Fatwas, and Islamic Authority: A Case Study of the European Council for Fatwa and Research," in Production and Dissemination of Islamic Knowledge in Western Europe.

209 The current head of the organization: For Mahdi Akef's denial of the Holocaust, see the BBC interview at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/4554986.stm.

210 Mourad Amriou slowly warmed: Interviews with Mourad Amriou, 10 September, 1 November, and 3 November 2004, Paris.

212 The charismatic preacher Hassan Iquioussen: Interview with Amriou, 10 September 2004. Anti-Semitic tape, "Palestine, Histoire d'une injustice." Thanks to Cecilia Gabizon of Le Figaro for a copy of the tape.

213 Office for Protection of the Constitution: Communication with the office, 25 August 2005.

Influenced by Khurshid Ahmad: For von Denffer's studies and early influences, interview with Ahmad von Denffer, 9 December 2004, Munich.

213 He cofounded a charity: Its name is Muslim Helfen e.V., founded on 5 April 1985 in Lutzelbach, a small town near Frankfurt that is home to another organization, Haus des Islams, with personnel ties to the Munich mosque. See Verfassungsschutzbericht Hessen vom 24.05.2007, S.38. Muslim Helfen's files were later moved to Munich. Amtsgericht Michelstadt, 13 AR 6078/97.

Channeled money to Afghanistan: Ahmad von Denffer, ABC der Zeitschrift al- Islam: Stichwortregister 1958-1992, 1988/5, p. 29, or 198912, p. 3.

214 Expert on Islam alleged: Mohammad Salim Abdullah of the Islam Archiv in Soest, cited in Al-Islam, 1990/7, pp. 3-4. The article implied that Abdullah wasn't a real Muslim.

A conference in Sudan: Al-Islam, 1992/5, p. 2.

The Orient-Institut in Hamburg: Al-Islam, 1997/2, p. 18.

Mahmoud Abouhalima: Denials that Abouhalima and Salim had significant links to the mosque are found in Al-Islam, 2001/6, pp. 16-18.

Mamdouh Mahmud Salim: See Ian Johnson and Alfred Kueppers, "Missed Link," Wall Street Journal.

215 Washington declared Nada and Himmat: http://www.ustreas.gov/press/ releases/p03380.htm.

Lost its status as a charity: Communication with Bavarian officials. Islamic Community of Germany officials confirm that they lost the status but deny it had to do with bookkeeping. They also refused to say why they lost it. Interview with Ibrahim el-Zayat, 19 April 2005, Cologne.

Himmat resigned in early 2002: Registerakten, 13 January 2002, no title on document. Himmat gave the explanation about the frozen accounts in a telephone interview.

16. 1950s Redux

217 Nada sits in regal splendor: Description of his home based on interview with Nada.

218 In hindsight, the charges of terrorism: Some charged that Nada had worked with the Nazis, which is extremely unlikely, given that he was born in 1931. For his date of birth, see http://www.treas.gov/offices/enforcemen ... 1cum.shtml.

Charges that Nada financed: See 31May 2005 press release by Swiss prosecutor's office: "Ordonnance de suspension des recherches."

Nada has relished the role: See Nada's website, http://www.youssefnada.ch/.

219 Herve Terrel strides briskly: This is the only pseudonym in this book. Terrel is a senior official in the French interior ministry. He publishes papers under the name Terrel. Interview with Herve Terrel, 14 May 2004, Paris.

220 The UOIF began to organize: The most direct link is through the AEIF (Association of Islamic Students in France), a group founded by Muhammed C. K. Hamidullah, a cofounder of Ramadan's Geneva center. The AEIF was also close to Issam al-Attar, the former head of the Syrian Muslim Brotherhood who settled in the German city of Aachen. According to people familiar with the AEIF's history, such as Mohamed Lahaty (interview, 2 September 2004, Paris), the AEIF was primarily a locally focused group, while the UOIF had international contacts and funding. The AEIF exists in name but is inactive.

Suddenly was thrust into a position: In subsequent elections, the UOIF lost some of its council seats when other groups copied its strategy and mobilized more mosques. But the group remains very influential, holding the vice chairmanship of the central council.

221 Dounia Bouzar: Interview with Dounia Bouzar, 4 September 2004, Paris.

223 A State Department-sponsored conference: Described on the State Department's website: http://usinfo.state.gov/xarchives/displ ... washfile-e nglish&y=2006&m=April&x=2006040716241SMVyelwarCo.9064295&t=live feeds/wf-latest.html.

Thought so highly of ISNA: The group claims it co-organized the event. See http://www.isna.net/index.php?id=35&bac ... t_news=460.

Michael Privot: See http://www.enar-eu.orglen/info/staff.shtml.

Federation of Islamic Organizations: According to its own website, the youth organization was founded through the direct efforts of the Federation of Islamic Organizations in Europe: http://P9445.typo3server.info/20.0.html. The Federation of Islamic Organizations in Europe is the umbrella group for Muslim Brotherhood organizations in Europe; see Chapter 14.

224 The State Department helped: See http://usinfo.state.gov/xarchives/displ ... atest.html.

U.S. ambassador to Belgium: See http://foreign.senate.gov/testimony/2006/ KorologosTestimony060405.pdf.

"Belgium's internal affairs": Unclassified cable sent 12 December 2006, "From: Amembassy Brussels, Subject: Muslim engagement strategy 2006-2007 for Belgium." Reviewed by author.

An Islamic academy: U.S. government involvement was widely reported in the German media and on the website of the U.S. consulate, for example, http://munich.usconsulate.gov/speeches- ... 52007.html.

225 "Using American Muslims to reach out": Cable of 17 February 2006, ''Amembassy Berlin" to "Ruehc/Secstate Washdc," ''Assistant Secretary Fried's meetings in Germany."

The prominent political scientist: Robert S. Leiken and Steven Brooke, "The Moderate Muslim Brotherhood," Foreign Affairs.

227 The CIA issued reports: "Muslim Brotherhood: Pivotal Actor in European Political Islam," 10 May 2006, and "Muslim Brotherhood Rhetoric in Europe: Deception, Division, or Confusion?," 29 January 200S. Reviewed by the author.

Called "Muslim Brotherhood": CIA Political Islam Strategic Analysis Program, "Muslim Brotherhood Rhetoric in Europe: Deception, Division or Confusion?" 29 January 2008. Quote from CIA Political Islam Strategic Analysis Program, "Muslim Brotherhood: Pivotal Actor in European Political Islam," p. 2. Documents in the author's possession.

Mazen Asbahi: For details, see www.globalmbreport.com. or Glenn R. Simpson and Amy Chozick, "Obama's Muslim-Outreach Adviser Resigns," Wall Street Journal.

227 International Institute of Islamic Thought: "German Muslim Delegation Visits IIIT," http://www.iiit.org/NewsEvents/News/tab ... on-Visits- IIIT.aspx.

Head of SLM: Details from Cologne corporate records office, UR. Nr. 1154/1997.

230 It issued a retraction: "Correction: Ibrahim el-Zayat is not a member of the MB," 20 February 2007, http://www.ikhwanweb.com/Article.asp?ID ... tionID=121.

231 It's hard to see how Zayat: Oberlandesgericht Munchen, case number 18 U 5181/05.

233 German federal government's Islamkonferenz: "Trojanisches Pferd," Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 8 May 2007, accessed online at http://www.faz.net/s/ RubCF3AEB154CE64960822FA5429AI82360/Doc~E1EA28B0BA6D54481ACE 6C941FB9A167D~ATpl~Ecommon~Scontent.html.

Tarnishing his reputation: "Bundesweite Razzia bei Islamisten," Suddeutsche Zeitung, 11 March 2009, p. 5.

Wired money to the Taibah: BAO-USA report "Underground Banking" by the Federal Police Agency (BKA), UA ZVE /ST 44.

234 Served as a friendly witness: See Oberverwaltungsgericht Rheinland-Pfalz, & A 10953/04.0VG. He wrote a report on behalf of a member of Milli Gorus.

The room exploded in anger: Society of Muslim Social Scientists Annual Meeting' 17 January 2004. Witnessed by author.

Epilogue: Inside the Mosque

236 Ahmad von Denffer: Biographical notes from interview with von Denffer.

237 Khurram Murad: For biographical details, see, for example, http://www.youngmuslims.ca/biographies/ ... .asp?ID=11.

238 The "affaire des Freres Musulmans": BAR Ramadan, 12 October 1965, "Said Ramadan." For public discussion, see "Des 'Freres musulmans' accuses de complot contre Nasser," La Tribune de Geneve, 11 February 1966, p. 19.

"Said Ramadan is, among others": Quote from BAR Ramadan, 29 June 1967, "Note pour Monsieur Gelzer."

Cooperated closely with Swiss federal police: BAR Ramadan, 17 August 1966, "Notice pour Monsieur Probst."

He got a letter: See http://www.messageonline.org/malcolmxlcover6.htm.

Soviet newspapers alleged: Aziya i Afrika Segodnya, No. 8, August 1966. Translated in CIA Foreign Documents Division, SP-1256, 27 September 1966, CIA declassified files, approved for release: CIA-RDP75-00001 R000300580002-0.

239 American convert, Dawud Salah uddin: Interview with Salahuddin.

A touching essay: Islam, the West, and the Challenges of Modernity, p. vii.

Kayum led the Turkestanis: See BayHStA LafluVerw 1900, 5 October 1967, "Vormerkung."

Attacks in the Soviet press: Izvestia, 29 September 1968. Along with a nine-page rebuttal by Hayit. Narzikul personal papers, courtesy of Crane.

240 His deputy, Walter Schenk: Schenk, pp. 341ff.

He and Gacaoglu continued: BayStA LafluVerw 1909, 7 July 1969, "Betreff: Religionsgemeinschaft Islam e.V."
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Re: A Mosque in Munich: Nazis, the CIA, and the Rise of the

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Abduh, Muhammad, 106, 108
Abdullah, Professor, 132
ABN (Anti-Bolshevik Bloc of Nations),
59-60, 73-74
Abouhalima, Mahmoud, 214
Abwehr, Wehrmacht, 9
Acheson, Dean, 84
Adenauer, Konrad, 93
Ad Hoc Working Group on Islam, U.S.,
Adolf-Hitler-Schule, Sonthofen, 19
AEIF (Association of Islamic Students in
France), 294-95n
Afghani, Jamal ai-Din al-, 106, 108
Afghanistan, See Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
Ahmad, Khurshid
background, 195
Islamic Community of Germany, 197
Jamaat-e-Islamiya, 213, 237
Ahmad, Manzooruddin, 165
Aid Society of Former Volunteer Units,
Akber, Ismail, 63
Akef, Mahdi
about, xii
background, 194, 199
description, 192-93
Islamic Center of Munich, 194
Muslim Brotherhood, 192-93, 194,
209-10, 230
Al-Aqsa Foundation, 223-24
Al-Da'wa (journal), 193
Alexiev, Alex, 177
colonialism and, 149, 150, 151-52
decolonization/effects, 204
FLN resistance group, 149, 150, 154
insurgencies, 149, 150, 151-52
pro-French terrorists, 151-52
Al-Islam (magazine), 161, 213, 214, 215
Allworth, Edward A., 130-31
Al-Mujtamah (newspaper), 158
Al-Muslimoon (magazine), 182
Al Qaeda, xv, 178, 188, 214, 237
Al-Quds mosque, 214-15
Alshibaya, Mikhael, 48, 56, 57
Altalib, Hisham, 196
Arabic Review, 134, 155
budget, 43, 267n
competition with von Mende, 60, 75,
90, 91, 93, 94-95, 96, 99-100, 157,
creation, 41
criticism of, 52
dropping Ramadan, 172
emigre relations department, 43
front organizations, 164
functions, 41, 42-43
Institute for the Study of the USSR
and, 42-43, 133-34, 164
Munich headquarters, 83
Muslim use plan, 64, 127-28
name changes, 41, 42
New York headquarters, 82-83
1954 Soviet hajjis, 65-66
operation branches, 79
"political action" and, 88
"Special Projects" and, 90, 164
See also Radio Liberty; specific individuals
American Committee (for Liberation),
37, 42
See also Amcomlib
American Committee for Freedom for
the Peoples of the USSR
U.S. intelligence and, 41
See also Amcomlib
American Council of Voluntary Agencies,
Amish people, 208
Amriou, Mourad, 210-12
Anti-Komintern, 19-20
Germany/World War II, 22, 26-29,
79, 111, 173-74
Hassan Iquioussen, 212
Hussaini (Grand Mufti of Jerusalem),
12, 31, 112-13
"Jewish plot" myth, 207
Kristallnacht, 79
Muslim Brotherhood, 111-12, 193, 208,
209, 211-12, 226
Oberlander, 93, 98
Protocols of the Elders of Zion, The,
112, 207, 209
UOIF, 212
von Mende, 19-21, 28-29, 56
Arabic Review, 134, 155
Aramco, 117
Armenia, 7
Attack, The (newspaper), 26
Atta, Mohammed, 214-15
Attar, Issam al-, 183, 197
Austria and Soviet Union, 94
Austro- Hungarian Empire, 11
Azerbaijan, 7

Bairam, 77
Balagija, Ahmet, 152, 153, 154
Ballis, Professor, 62, 63
Bandung Conference
in 1955, 70-73, 74-75
in 1958, 130
Bandung, Indonesia, history, 70-71
Banna, Gamal el-, 115
Banna, Hasan elanti-
Semitism, 111-12
assassination, 115, 189
background/description, 107-8, 113,
114, 189, 199
influence, 124, 193
Muslim Brotherhood, 107-9
Ramadan and, 113-14, 115, 183
views, 107-8, 109-10, 111-12
Barzinji, Jamal, 196, 228
Basmaci rebellion (1920s), 143, 144, 239
Bavarian State Orchestra, 36
BBC and World War II, 39
Beisner, Wilhelm, 151-52
Berdimurat, Aman, 49
before/after World War II, 36
Berlin (cont.)
as "Germania," 22
Jewish families and, 22
Berlin University, 15-16, 17, 18-19
bin Laden, Osama, 167, 214
Black Stone, 66
Blue Mosque, Istanbul, xiii
BND, West Germany, 138, 157, 175, 176
Board for International Broadcasting,
Bonn, West Germany, 36
Bouzar, Dounia, 221
Brautigam, Otto, 94, 266n
ex-Ostministerium collaborators, 49
"Londonistan," xiii
London terrorist attacks, 215-16, 222
MI6 (foreign-intelligence agency), 49
mosques, 205
Muslim Association of Britain, 210
Muslim demographics, 204
Yalta Conference (1945), 45, 46
Bromberger, Serge, 150
Brooke, Steven, 225-26
Buddhist pilgrimage sites, 13
Burckhardt, Carl, 53
Burdimurat, Amin, 74
Bush, George W., 225

caliphate institution, 105, 106, 115, 203
CARE packages, 77
Caucasus, 6-7
Caucasus Mountains, 7
Central Asia (Russian Empire), 6
Central Institute for the Study of Islam,
Central Intelligence Agency. See CIA
Charles, Prince, 198
Charlottenburg Palace, Germany, 24
Chechnya/Chechens, 7
Bandung Conferences, 71, 75, 130
Muslim soldiers following war, 46-47
"self-strengthening movement,"
Chokay, Mustafa, 25, 73
creation/role, 40
factions of, 83, 85
Muslims and, xv, 26, 127-28, 148, 151
NSC and, 84
Office of Special Operations (OSO),
Vietnam and, 173
See also specific organizations
CIC (Counter Intelligence Corps), 47, 48
Cold War
media importance, 37, 39, 78
third world and, 66-69, 71-73, 75
See also specific agencies; specific
description (nineteenth century), 105
Islamism/lslamists and, 105-6, 107
third world, 67
See also Algeria
Committee for a Free Europe, 165
Committee for Self-Determination, Inc.,
165, 287-88n
Cossacks, 9
Council of Islamic Communities and Societies
in Germany, 161-62
Counter Intelligence Corps (Cle), 47, 48
Critchlow, Jim
Radio Liberty, 38, 43, 44, 50
Russian language and, 38
World War II and, 38
czar of Russia, 6

Dagestanis, 7
Dallin, Alexander, 28
Dar al-Harb (House of Infidels), 206
Dar al-Islam (House of Islam), 206
Darkazanli, Mamoun, 214-15
Davis, Walpole, 130
Denffer, Ahmad von
background, 236-37
ideology, 231, 232, 237
Islam conversion/studies, 237
Islamic Center of Munich, 213, 214,
236, 237-38, 241
Muslim Brotherhood, 214, 231
on Ramadan, 238-39
Destruction of the European Jews, The
(Hilberg), 173
developing world, 67
See also third world
dhimmi status, 111
Ditib, 205
Diyanet, 205
Dollinger, Margaret, vii
Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem, xiii
Dreher, Robert
about, xi
Amcomlib and, 78-79, 81-82, 83, 125-
arrest, 80-81
background, 79-82
description, 78, 78-79, 81, 82
Kuniholm and, 79
language skills, 81
lifestyle, 79, 82, 125-26
Munich farewell party, 169-70
Munich work summary, 170-72, 173
Muslim Brotherhood, 128
Radio Liberty, 125-26, 128-29
Radio Liberty Muslims and, 129-31,
retirement/death, 173
Russia and, 78-79
Soviet Union and, 80-81
strategies, 129-30
Vietnam and, 172-73
Dulles, Allen, 83-84
Dulles, John Foster, 75, 117, 127
Dusseldorf, 61

East Germany
Arab scholarships and, 132
Berlin and, 36
1953 uprising, 66
Oder/Neisse rivers, 92
Stasi, 96, 98, 99, 175
East Turkestani Armed Formation, 11
Ecclesiastical Administration of Moslem
Refugees in the German Federal
creation, 101
mosque and, 103, 122-23, 134, 135
Namangani and, 101, 103, 122-23, 131,
135, 240
payments, 277-78n
rival groups, 139, 142
colonialism and, 107
early Jewish community, 111
ex-Nazis and, 111, 113
human rights and, 230
Muslim Brotherhood and, 115, 189,
192-94, 230
1956 invasion of, 150
Eichmann, Adolf, 173
Eisenhower Doctrine, 127
Eisenhower, Dwight D.
conference with Ramadan, 116-18
Islam and, 69-70, 72, 127-28
psychological warfare, 40-41
Radio Free Europe and, 52
repatriation and, 47
World War II and, 40
Elson, Edward, 127
"engineer Islam," 199
Erbakan, Mehmet, 230
Erbakan, Necmettin, 205, 230
Espeseth, Karo
description, 16
English language and, 55, 62, 176
marriage, 17, 18, 24, 55, 62, 63, 176
meeting von Mende/courtship, 16-17
Espeseth, Karo (cont.)
memoir writings, 18, 19, 53
See also von Mende, Gerhard
European Council for Fatwa and
disconnection of, 209, 226
establishment, 200
European Muslim meeting, 206-10
Federation of Islamic Organizations
in Europe and, 200, 208
Muslim Brotherhood activists and,
European Mosque Construction and
Support Community, 229
European Muslims
Al-Aqsa Foundation and, 223-24
Arab/Pakistani connections, 223
demographics, 203, 204, 208
disconnection of, 206-10, 219-20,
divorce and, 209
European Council for Fatwa and Research
meeting, 206-10
fatwas and, 206-10, 211
Forum of Muslim Youth and Organizations,
Muslim Communities Participating
in Society conference, 223-24
Muslim world and, 205-6
rallies, 210-12
terrorism and, 213-16
welfare and, 223
See also Muslim guest workers; specific
European Trust, 229, 235
Excommunicated, The (Kamal), 147

Faruqi, Ismail, 195
Fatalibey, Abdul, 49, 63
Federal Center for Political Education,
Germany, 233
Federation of Islamic Organizations in
location, 198
Munich mosque and, 208
Muslim Brotherhood and, 200
organizations established by, 200
Rawi and, 198, 200, 201
views, 208
Zayat and, 229
FLN resistance group, 149, 150, 154
Foreign Affairs article (Leiken and
Brooke), 225-26
Forum of European Muslim Youth and
Student Organizations, 229
Forum of Muslim Youth and Student Organizations,
AEIF, 294-95n
Dien Bien Phu, 68
Islamic dress code and, 220
Islamic/non-Islamic divide, 222
Muslim demographics, 204, 219
Muslim disconnection, 219-20, 221-
Muslim riots, 219, 220
"using" Muslim Brotherhood, 221
See also Algeria; UOIF
French Council of the Muslim Faith
elections, 220, 221
role, 220
UOIF and, 220, 221, 295n

Gacaoglu, Ibrahim
about, xi
Amcomlib and, n 88, 164, 221
description, 76-78, 88, 90
Germans and, 76
Islam: The Moslem Religious Society
in Western Europe, 77, 88, 139
on Munich mosque, 134
Munich Muslims, 76-78, 89, 97, 99,
100, 101
Muslim refugees and, 167-68
Namangani and, 160, 168, 240
U.S. and, 78
Yazdani and, 290n
Galil, Musa, 27
Genghis Khan, 3
Georgia/Georgians, 7
German Muslims
police raids, 233
as "victims," 234
See also European Muslims; Munich
Muslims; specific individuals; specific
German Rule in Russia (Dallin), 28
dialogue with Muslims, 232-33
Federal Center for Political Education,
history, 13
intellectuals of, 13-14
1990s Islamic terrorism and, 178
the "Orient" and, 13-14
World War I, 5, 14, 15
Germany/after World War II
dealing with Nazi era, 98, 173-74
displaced Muslims and, 76-77
displaced persons and, 45-46, 61, 76
ethnic Germans and, 92-93
"expellees," 92-93
lost territories, 92
Muslim soldiers, 46-47, 48
repatriation of DPs, 46-48
See also East Germany; Soviet Nazi
collaborators; West Germany
Germany/World War II
anti-Semitism, 22, 26-29, 79, 111, 173-
Caucasus oil and, 7
end of war, 32
"liaison" offices, 26-27
prisoner-of-war camps, 8
racial theories of, 9
Soviet minorities, promises to, 7, 8,
23-24, 26, 27, 30, 31, 32
Soviet minorities, use of, 7, 8-11
war actions, 21, 29, 39
See also Holocaust; Soviet Nazi collaborators;
specific individuals;
von Mende, Gerhard/Nazi use of
Soviet minorities
Gestapo, 30
Grande Mosquee de Paris, 205
Grand Mosque, Mecca, xiii
Grand Mufti of Jerusalem. See Hussaini,
Amin al- (Grand Mufti of Jerusalem)
Great Depression, 79-80
Greece/Greeks, 7, 11
Grimm, Muhammad Abdul, 124

anti-communism and, 65-66
description, 65
1953problems, 69
1954 Soviet hajjis, 65-66
1959 season, 132-33
Sacred Journey, The (Kamal), 147
Soviet support for, 70
funding, 218, 223-24
members, 192
terrorism, 198
Hathaway, Caroline (Kamal), 143, 145
Hathaway, Cimarron, 143-44
See also Kamal, Ahmad
Hathaway, James Worth, 143
Haus des Islams, 294n
Hawari, Mohammad
anti -Semitism, 207, 209
background, 206-7
European Council for Fatwa and Research
meeting, 206-10
Muslim integration, 206-10
Hayit, Baymirza
about, xii
academics and, 59
after Munich mosque work, 239
following war, 47
Hayit, Baymirza (cont.)
French intelligence and, 273n, 286n
as historian, 47
Kayum and, 157, 286n
Nasar and, 74
Soviet attacks on, 99
von Mende and, 58-59, 132-33, 135-
36, 137-38, 157, 175
Washington meeting (1962), 173
World War II and, 9
Helbawy, Kamal al-, 183
Hemingway, Ernest, 145
Heuss, Theodor, 102
Hilberg, Raul, 173
Himmat, Ghaleb
about, xii
Al Qaeda and, 188
communism and, 158
Islamic Center of Munich, 188, 191,
195, 219, 228, 231
Munich mosque, 123, 157-58, 159, 166,
183, 185, 186
Muslim Brotherhood, 123, 194, 215,
Nada and, 189, 190, 191, 196
personality, 188
Ramadan and, 123, 158, 183-84
in retirement, 219
violence/terrorism and, 183, 188, 215,
Himmler, Heinrich, 25
Hintersatz, Wilhelm, 102
Hitler, Adolf
beer-hall putsch (1923), 93
Czechoslovakia and, 37
empire vision, 23
"Germany's India," 23
Hussaini and, 31
invasion of Yugoslavia, 23
Munich and, 37, 38
Muslims and, 11
SA and, 18
Soviet non-Russians and, 24
World War I, 11
See also Germany/World War II
HLM System, 211
Hoetzsch, Otto, 15-16
definition of Jews, 28-29
denial of, 209
Hussaini and, 112
Karainen ("Tats"/"Mountain Jews"),
Schenk and, 60
sensitivity to, 209
talking about, 173-74
von Mende, 28-29
Wannsee Conference and, 27-28
"homo barrackensis," 76
homosexuals and Islam, 210, 234
House of Infidels (Dar al-Harb), 206
House of Islam (Dar al-Islam), 206
Human Ecology Fund, 45
Humboldt, Alexander von, 13
1956 uprising, 66, 129
Radio Free Europe and, 129
Hussaini, Amin al- (Grand Mufti of Jerusalem)
about, xii, 113
anticommunism, 116
anti-Semitism, 12, 31, 112-13
arrest, 112
Banna and, 113
Holocaust and, 112
Islamic General Congress of Jerusalem,
115, 119
Islam in Munich and, 31
as Islamist, 113
Israel and, 31
Kamal and, 152
mufti for Crimea and, 31
Muslim Brotherhood, 113, 115-16
Nazis and, 112-13, 116, 177
Palestine and, 31
Ramadan and, 162
von Mende and, 31, 113

IIA (International Information Agency),
IIIT. See International Institute of Islamic
Thought (IIIT)
Ikhwanweb, 230
India and Muslims, 204
Indianapolis Islamist center, 196
Kamal and, 147-48
pro-/anticommunist groups, 148
See also Bandung Conference
Infidels, House of Infidels (Dar al-Harb),
Inssan e.v. group, 235
Institute for the Study of Human Sciences,
Institute for the Study of the USSR, 42-
43, 133-34, 164
International House, Philadelphia, 163-
International Institute of Islamic
Thought (IIIT)
German Muslim leaders and, 227-28
government raids, 228
Islamism spread and, 195, 196
Islamist organizations and, 228
International Islamic Federation of Student
Organizations (IIFSO), 292n
Iquioussen, Hassan, 212
Iran's Islamic revolution, 239
Iron Cross, 97
Islam: The Moslem Religious Society in
Western Europe, 77, 88, 139
Islamic Center of Munich
about, xiii-xiv
growth, 196-97
Islamism and, 191
location, 185, 194
name change, 197
opening, 181-82
police raids, 237
von Denffer and, 213, 214, 236, 237-38,
See also Islamic Community of Germany;
Munich mosque; specific
Islamic Community of Germany
Al-Islam and, 213
anniversary, 234
Arabs and, 184, 185, 186-88
exclusionary nature of, 184, 185, 186-
88, 201, 237
excusing the past, 233-34
financial crisis, 215
influence of, 190, 210
Muslim brotherhood and, 187, 188, 199
name change, 197
non-Arabs and, 197
Ramadan and, 174
Said Ramadan Prize, 234
tax status, 184-85
terrorism and, 188
Turkish guest workers and, 186-88,
Zayat, 228, 231
See also Islamic Center of Munich;
Mosque Construction Commission;
Munich mosque
Islamic Community of Southern Germany.
See Islamic Community of
Islamic Cultural Centres and Bodies in
Europe, 194-95
Islamic dress code, 107, 208, 220
Islamic Education Institute, 229
Islamic Foundation, 198, 213
Islamic General Congress of Jerusalem,
115, 119
Islamic Law: Its Scope and Equity (Ramadan),
Islamic Society of North America (ISNA)
creation/headquarters, 196
Muslim Communities Participating
in Society conference, 223, 224
Islamische Studentengemeinde, 289n
beginnings, 105, 106
beliefs, 106, 107
colonialism and, 105-6, 107
description, xv-xvi
Islamic Center of Munich, 191
Koran interpretation, 107
as literalists, 107
Munich Muslims and (summary),
9/11 attacks, xvi, 106, 213, 214-15
spread to West, xvi, 195-96, 197-98,
200-201, 206-10, 212-13
terrorism and, xvi, 106, 213, 214-15
women and, 107
See also specific individuals; specific
Christianity and, 110, 111
divisions of people, 206, 216
education and, 199
"engineer Islam," 199
era of conquests/effects, 203
first histories of, 14
German academics (early twentieth
century), 14
Hajj and, 65
homosexuals and, 210, 234
Jews/Judaism and, 110-12
Koran history, 14
mosque building and, 101-2, 235
Nation of Islam and, 70
polytheists and, 110
secrecy in building mosques, 235
Shia-Sunni split, 32
state/religion and, 109-10
as "the answer," 108, 222
tithe (zakat), 218
views on, 203-4
See also Munich Muslims; specific individuals;
specific organizations
Islamrat, 232
ISNA. See Islamic Society of North
America (ISNA)

Jackson, D. D., 41
JAI (Jami'at al Islam)
about, 138
charity work and, 138, 140, 141, 142,
funding, 141
"history," 140, 147
Kamal and, 138, 139, 141
Munich conference (1961), 141-42
Munich mosque and, 142, 153
Namangani on, 142
publications, 140-41, 147, 152
Ramadan and, 140
refugee poaching, 141
strategy changes, 152-54
U.S. and, 141, 151, 153
von Mende and, 142, 153
weapons and, 150-51, 152
Jamaat-e-Islamiya, 197, 198, 213, 231, 236,
Jami'at al Islam. See JAI (Jami'at al Islam)
Jesus, prophet, 111

Kaaba, 66
Kalmyks, 7, 47
Kamal, Ahmad
about, xi, 139
Amina (wife), 146
Bandung Conference, 75, 148
"biography" of, 142-46, 239
Burma and, 143, 154, 286n
CIA and, 148, 151
as Cimarron Hathaway, 143-44
daughter, 145
description, 142, 146
Hajj and, 147
Indonesia and, 147-48
Munich Muslims and, 139, 149
Palestinian nationalists and, 152
Spain and, 148-49
U.S. government and, 142, 147, 148, 151
writings, 142, 144, 145, 146-47, 152
See also JAI (Jami'at al Islam)
Kamal-Haller, Tura, 146
Kantemir, Ali
about, xii
after war, 155
death, 174
Munich mosque and, 25, 154, 159-60,
Munich Muslims and, 88
Prometheans and, 25
Karainen ("Tats"/"Mountain Jews"), 28-
Kassajep, Hassan
about, xii
background, 156
Margaret (wife), vii, 166, 288n
Munich mosque and, 156-57, 160, 161,
Ramadan and, 156-57
Kayum, Veli
about, xii
after Munich mosque work, 239
background, 8
following war, 47
Hayit and, 157, 286n
"Khan" suffix, xii, 8, 25
Namangani and, 98, 132
Nasar and, 95
National Turkestani Unity Committee,
30, 59, 72, 73, 75
Nazism and, 30, 59-60
Prometheans and, 25
von Mende and, 25, 30, 56, 58, 60, 72,
157, 162, 265n
World Muslim Congress, Jerusalem,
World War II and, 8, 25
Kazakhstan/Kazaks, 6, 7, 17
Kedia, Mikhail, 25
Kegel, Gerhard
background, 121, 280n
Ramadan and, 104, 119-21, 155
Ramadan's thesis and, 104, 119-21
Kelley, Robert E
about, xi
Munich Muslims and, 89
von Mende and, 62-64
Kennan, George E, 16, 39
Kennedy, John E, 171
Kepel, Gilles, 194
KGB, Soviet Union, 81
Khalek, Farid Abel, 108, 113, 114
Khalifa, Ahmed el-, 214, 215
Khan, Ayub, 141
Khan, Inamullah, 165
Kharkov, Ukraine, 3
Kirimal, Edige
Radio Liberty, 49, 63
von Mende and, 63, 274-75n
Klump, Will, 129, 172
Komsomol, 4
history of, 14
Jews and, 110, 111
literalists, 107
Muslim Brotherhood, 69, 200, 210
other religions and, 110
state/religion and, 109-10
Korean War, 85
Korologos, Tom, 224
Kristallnacht, 79
Kuniholm, B. Eric
about, xi
Amcomlib and, 82, 83
background, 79
Kirimal and, 274-75n
Kuniholm, B. Eric (cont.)
Munich Muslims and, 88
recruiting Muslims, 85-88, 93, 131
on Shamil, 87-88
use of non -Russians and, 79
Kyrgyzstan/Kyrgyz, 6, 17

Lake Lugano, Switzerland, meeting, 195-
96, 29m
Land Without Laughter (Kamal), 145
Ie Carre, John, 36, 85
Leers, Johann von (Amin Lahars), 113
Le Figaro (newspaper), 150
Leibbrandt, Georg
in Nazi organization, 19, 21, 24, 25,
von Mende and, 19, 21, 24
Wannsee Conference, 27-28
Leiken, Robert S., 225-26
Levine, Isaac Don, 74
Lightner, E. Alan, Jr., 63, 64
Lilly, Edward P., 69, 116
Los Angeles Times, 146
Louahala, Touhami
Algeria and, 149, 154
background, 149
English language and, 149
Kamal and, 149, 150, 151, 152
Munich Muslims and, 151
Luce, Henry, 41
Lyons, Eugene, 37

Magoma, Ahmet Nabi
background, 88, 131
Munich Muslims and, 88, 131
Malcolm X, 238
March, Werner, 22-23
Marienkirche, Munich, 121, 122
Markfield Conference Centre, 197-98
Grand Mosque, 66
Hajj and, 65, 66
Kaaba, 66
Melbardis, Alex, 78, 87, 89
Mende, Gerhard von
about, xi
anti-Semitism, 19-21, 26-27, 28-29,
50, 56
background, 14, 15, 18
Berlin University, 15, 16, 17, 18-19
evacuation of family, 30
Holocaust, 28-29
languages and, 16
Nazi ideology, 18, 19-21
Ostministerium, 21, 24, 25-26, 28-32
personality, 14, 15, 54, 62
physical appearance, 14-15, 54
political beginnings, 18-21
Russian Bolsheviks and, 15, 18
Russian studies, 16, 17
SA and, 18, 19, 54-55
on Soviet collapse, 17
writings, 17, 18, 19-20, 20
See also Espeseth, Karo
Mende, Gerhard von/after war
academic career and, 21, 29, 55-56
"Capriform" name, 57
CIA/OSS and, 53, 54-57
family home, 62, 176
health problems, 99, 175
image and, 28-29, 54-55
lifestyle, 56-57
Nazism and, 54-55, 56, 173, 174
OSS and, 53, 54-55
prisoner camp, 53
Soviet minorities and, 32, 45, 46-48,
58-59, 60, 94-95
Stasi and, 96, 98-99, 175
U.S. attempts to recruit, 52-54, 95-96,
U.S. intelligence and, 53, 54-55
Mende, Gerhard von/Nazi use of Soviet
"guiding offices," 30
"liaison offices," 26, 27, 29-30
"national committees," 30
Ostministerium position and, 25-26,
planning, 12, 21
recruitment, 24-26
reports on, 177
Mende, Gerhard von/postwar "Ostministerium"
advice for Amcomlib, 62-64
Aid Society of Former Volunteer
Units, 94-95
Amcomlib competition, 60, 75, 90,
91, 93, 94-95, 96, 99-100, 157,
Bandung Conference, 75
death/funeral, 175, 176
end of influence, 173-75
family, 176
funding, 61, 157, 158, 27m
Gacaoglu's group and, n 97, 99, 100,
JAI (Jami'at al Islam), 142, 153
Kamal and, 148
Munich mosque, 90, 122, 124, 133,
135-36, 157-58, 159-60, 165-66,
174-75, 239
Namangani and, 96-97, 100, 124, 131,
132-33, 137, 160, 168
offices/location, 60-62, 77, 270-7In
papers (after death), 176-77
planned burglary, 137-38, 157
Ramadan and, 131-32, 136-38, 140,
re-creating organization, 58-59, 60-
61, 69, 93
reports on, 177
Research Service Eastern Europe and
Bureau for Homeland-less Foreigners,
60-61, 94
role, 61-62
Mendelssohn-Bartholdys family, 22
Mendelssohn, Felix, 22
Mennonites, 208
MGB, Soviet Union, 81
Middle East Institute, Washington, 173
Military Assistance Command, Vietnam,
Studies and Observation Group,
Milli Gorus
advocates of, 234
description, 205, 210, 225, 230, 232
Zayat and, 230
Milli Turkistan (newspaper), 30
Milliyet (newspaper), 89
Ministry for the Occupied Eastern Territories.
See Ostministerium
(Ministry for the Occupied Eastern
Moabit prison, Berlin, 27
Mogaddedi, Obeidullah, 123-24, 183
Mosque Construction Commission
Al-Islam (magazine), 161
chairman election, 159-61
creation, 122-23
fund-raising for, 155-57, 158-59
meetings, 135, 159-61
members, 122-23, 134, 135, 155, 158
name change, 174
registry of, 134-35
See also Islamic Community of Germany;
Munich mosque
Mubarak, Hosni, 193
Muftic, Mahmoud K., 152, 163
mufti for Crimea, 31
Muhammad, prophet
caliphate institution and, 106
Christians and, III
Hajj and, 65
Mecca-Medina flight, 101, III
mosque-building, 101
mujahideen, 178, 190, 213
description, 36-37
diversity in, 36-37
Radio Liberty location, 37-38
reconstruction, 35-36
World War II damage, 35
Munich mosque
as "American" project, 133, 136
building, 185
current status, xiii-xiv
description, xiv, 181
ex-soldiers vs. young students, 159-
61, 165-68, 170-71, 172
fund-raising, 155-57, 158-59, 185-86,
Germans and, 133,135
planning for, 101-3, 122-24
politics and, 156, 158
role, 136
supporters/goals summary, xv
terrorism and, 213-14
West Germany support, 165-66
See also Islamic Center of Munich;
Islamic Community of Germany;
Mosque Construction Commission;
specific individuals
Munich Muslims
Bairam, 77
Bandung Conference, 73, 74-75
CARE packages and, 77
description, 7
following war, 76-77
Islamists' plans for, 7-8
meeting (1956), 88-89, 90
West's plans for, 7
See also specific individuals
Murad, Khurram, 237
Murrow, Edward R., 39
Musazade, Mecid, 63
Museum of Mankind, Berlin, 13
Muslim Association of Britain, 210
Muslim Brotherhood
anticommunism and, 115-16, 127, 193
anti-Semitism of, 111-12, 193, 208,
209, 211-12, 226
Bandung Conference, 75
basic principles, 193
Egypt and, 115, 189, 192-94, 230
European base, 197-98
European organizations, 210
excusing the past, 233-34
founding, 107-8
France "using," 221
functions, 230-31
global jihad and, 225, 226
goals, 200-201, 228
"good" Muslims, 208, 210, 211, 212
ideology, 109-10, 115-16, 119, 208, 210,
211, 212, 231
independence and, 69
Israel and, 109, 110, 198-99, 208, 226
Jamaat-e-Islamiya, 197, 198
Koran and, 69, 200, 210
Lake Lugano, Switzerland, meeting,
195-96, 29m
Muslim Communities Participating
in Society conference and, 223,
Nazi money for, 109
"neo-Muslim Brotherhood," 194
9/11 attacks and, 213, 215, 219
organizing, 200-201
police raids, Germany, 233
politics and, 109, 230-31
Saudi Arabia and, 182, 191, 196, 221
shura, 108, 113
social work of, 108-9
"Special Apparatus," 109
spread to West, xvi, 195-96, 197-98,
200-201, 206-10, 212-13
suicide bombings and, 198-99, 210
terrorism and, 109-10, 198-99, 208-9,
210, 225, 226
United States and, 196, 225-28
UOIF and, 220-21, 230
website, 230
World Muslim Congress (1951), 115
See also Islamism/Islamists; Munich
mosque; specific individuals
Muslim Communities Participating in
Society conference, 223-24
Muslim Congress, 86
Muslim guest workers
demographics and, 203, 204
European democracy and, 205
Islamic Community of Germany,
186-88, 201
overview (Europe), 202-3, 204-6
religion and, 204-5
Muslim Helfen e.V., 294n
Muslim Students Association, 196, 199,
227, 232
Muslim Student Union, 229
Muslim World League
goals, 162
Muslim Brotherhood and, 162
Ramadan and, 162, 163, 185-86
Saudi Arabia, 182
Myth of the Twentieth Century, The
(Rosenberg), 23

Nada, Youssef
about, xii
background, 189
as businessman, 189-91, 218
Himmat and, 189, 190, 191, 196
Islamic Center of Munich, 188, 191
Munich mosque and, 190
Muslim Brotherhood, 188, 189, 190,
194, 215, 218, 219, 228
office, 217
personality, 188
in prison, 189, 195
in retirement, 217-19
terrorism and, 215, 217-18
U.S. and, 196
Namangani, Nurredin
about, xii
after von Mende's death, 240
background, 96, 97, 277n
Ecclesiastical Administration of Moslem
Refugees in the German Federal
Republic. 101, 103, 122-23, 131,
135, 240
Gacaoglu and, 160, 168, 240
imam appointment, 100-103
on JAI (Jami'at al Islam), 142
Munich mosque and, 101-3, 122-23,
132, 156, 158-59
Nazi past and, 98
personality, 98
on Ramadan, 165, 166-67, 183
religious fanaticism, 98, 277n
Soviet gulag and, 96, 97, 167
SS and, 96, 97, 102, 165, 166
von Mende and, 96-97, 100, 124, 131,
132-33, 137, 160, 168
Nasar, Rusi
about, xii
after Soviet collapse, 73
background, 73-74
Bandung Conferences, 72, 73, 86, 130,
Hajj (1954) and, 65-66, n 74, 95
Muslim unity, 131
Soviet hajjis and, 65-66, 70
Nasser, Gamal Abdel
about, 109
assassination attempts on, 119, 238
Muslim Brotherhood, 109, 119, 189,
193, 194
Ramadan and, 119, 137, 162, 163, 189
National Alliance of Russian Solidarists
(NTS), 59
National Committee for a Free Europe,
National-Liberation Revolutionary Organizations
of the Islamic Peoples
of the USSR, 164
National Security Act (1947), 40
National Security Council. See NSC (U.S.
National Security Council)
National Struggle of the Turkic Peoples of
Russia, The (von Mende), 17
National Turkestani Unity Committee
Kayum and, 30, 59, 72, n75
Nasar and, 72, 74, 75
Nation of Islam (U.S.), 70
Neturei Karta, 210
New Leader (magazine), 59-60
New York Times, 66, 74, 80, 145
Niedermayer, Oskar Ritter von, 19
Night of the Long Knives, 18
9/11 attacks
French ghettos and, 219-20
Islamism/Islamists, xvi, 106, 213, 214-
Mohammed Atta, 214-15
Muslim Brotherhood, 213, 215, 219
Nada and, 218
radicalization in Europe, 222
Nixon, Richard, 148
Noah, 6-7
Non-Aligned Movement, 71, 130
North American Islamic Trust, 196
NSC (U.S. National Security Council)
CIA relationship, 84
covert operations, 39
creation of, 40
Kamal and, 148
Paper 162/2, 70
psychological warfare and, 39
role, 40
use of Islam, 69-70
nuclear war, 70
Nuremberg race laws, 28

Obama, Barack, 227
Oberlander, Theodor
anti-Semitism, 93, 98
Gacaoglu group and, 97, 99
goals for Germany, 91, 93, 94, 96
Nazi past and, 93, 99
refugee ministry, 93, 101, 277-78n
Stasi and, 175
von Mende and, 91-92
Oder-Neisse border/rivers, 92-93
Office of Policy Coordination, 84-85
Office of Special Operations (OSO),
Olympic Stadium, Berlin, 22-23
On Islamic Comportment (von Denffer),
Operation Tiger B, 9, 10, 97
Operation Zeppelin, 57, 157
Organization of Muslim Refugees from
the Soviet Union, 164
Orient-Institut, Hamburg, 214
OSS (Office of Strategic Services)
CIA and, 52
end of war, 83
recruiting Nazis, 52-53
X-2 unit, 54
Ossetians, 7
Ostministerium (Ministry for the Occupied
Eastern Territories)
early recruitment for, 11
Hitler and, 23
See also von Mende, Gerhard/Nazi
use of Soviet minorities; von
Mende, Gerhard/postwar "Ostministerium"

British and, 31
charities for, 211
Hussaini (Grand Mufti of Jerusalem),
Israel's creation and, 79
Kamal and, 152
Ramadan and, 114, 119
Patch, Isaac "Ike"
Amcomlib, 164
description, 129
Muslims and, 90, 170
Radio Liberty discord, 52, 62-64, 87,
von Mende and, 62-64, 95
People's Observer (newspaper), 26
Peoples of the Soviet Union, The (von
Mende), 20
"Persil certificates," 58, 270n
Pipes, Richard, 174
polytheists and Islam, 110
Potsdam Agreement (1945), 91, 92
Pravda, 80
Price, James, 149-50, 151
Privot, Michael, 223, 224
British and, 56
description, 24-25, 56
Germany and, 25, 29
Soviet Union and, 24-25
Protocols of the Elders of Zion, The, 112,
207, 209
Psychological Strategy Board (U.S.), 40,
68, 69, 268n
psychological warfare, 39, 40-41, 68

Qaddafi, Muammar al-, 185
Qaradawi, Youssef
about, xii
beliefs/influence, 198-99, 210, 211,
226-27, 231
Muslim Brotherhood and, 193, 195,
198-99, 209-10
Neturei Karta and, 210
suicide bombings and, 198-99, 210
Qassim, Abdul Karim, 163, 165
Qutb, Sayyid, 115, 167, 198, 231

Rabel, Ernst, 121
Radio Free Europe
on Amcomlib, 52
Hungarian uprising and, 129
National Committee for a Free Europe
and, 43
Radio Liberty and, 172
role, 43, 85
Radio Hole-in-the-Head/Radio Liberty
(Critchlow), 43
Radio Liberty
CIA and, 38-39, 43, 44-45, 51
discord, 51-52, 62-64, 86, 87, 127-28
ending Muslim support, 172
ex-Ostministerium collaborators, 49-
founding of, 37
funding Muslims, 130, 132, 134
goal, 38-39
location, 37-38
Muslim independence and, 52
Radio Free Europe vs., 43
Radio Liberty Committee, 172
Ramadan and, 128, 130-31, 136-38,
161,162-63, 172
Soviet Union and, 49, 51
Spain and, 148
staff, 37, 38, 43, 44, 49-51, 63
See also Amcomlib
Radio Tashkent, 99
Ramadan, Said
about, xi
Banna and, 113-14, 115, 183
CIA analysis of, 118, 172
communism and, 120, 172
Council of Islamic Communities and
Societies in Germany, 161-62
description, 113, 114, 124
Eisenhower conference, 116-18
ex-soldiers and, 159-61, 170-71
fund-raising, 155-57, 158-59, 183
independence of, 162-63, 170-71, 182
influence of, 121, 123-24, 133, 136, 137,
238, 282n
Iran and, 239
Islamist views, 161, 167, 172, 182, 183
Israel and, 114, 118, 119, 162
JAI (Jami'at al Islam) and, 140
leaving Munich, 182, 183-84, 190
Munich mosque, 123-24, 134-35, 138,
154, 155-57, 158-61, 165, 228
Muslim World League, 162, 163, 185-
Namangani and, 131,165, 166-67, 183
Nasser and, 119, 137, 162, 163, 189, 238
Ramadan, Said (cont.)
Pakistan and, 115
Palestine and, 114, 119
power and, 172
Radio Liberty, 128, 130-31, 136-38,
161, 162-63, 172
thesis work, 104, 119-21
travels/moves, 104-5, 114-15, 120, 121,
UN "Muslim delegation," 136-37
UOIF and, 220
U.S. connections, 118-19, 128, 133-34,
162-63, 221
U.S. dropping, 172
World Muslim Congress (1951), 115
Ramadan, Tariq
background, 226
on father, 239
Qaradawi's fatwas and, 226-27
Rand Corporation, 177
Raschid, Hamid, 65-66
Rashid, Harun el-, 102
Rawi, Ahmed al-
background, 198, 199
"big circle" (meeting), 199, 293n
description, 199
Federation of Islamic Organizations
in Europe, 198, 200, 201
Islamic Community of Germany, 199
suicide bombings and, 198-99
Red Cross, 46, 53
"Religious Factor, The" (Lilly), 69-70, 116
R.E.M·, 43
Research Service Eastern Europe and
Bureau for Homeland-less Foreigners,
60-61, 94
Rida, Rashid, 106, 108
Riga, Latvia, 14, 236
Rohm, Ernst, 18
Rosenberg, Alfred
background, 23
criticism of, 59
non-Russian minorities and, 23-24,
Ostministerium and, 23-24
"Ruppert" OSS agent, 52-53
Russian Empire, 6

SA (Storm Division), 18
Sacred Journey, The (Kamal), 147, 152
Sad at, Anwar, 193
Salahuddin, Dawud, 239
Salim, Mamdouh Mahmud, 214
Saturday Evening Post, 147
Saudi Arabia
International Islamic Federation of
Student Organizations (IIFSO),
Islam's holy places, 182
Muslim Brotherhood, 182, 191, 196,
Muslim World League, 182
OIF, 220
Ramadan and, 182
World Assembly of Muslim Youth,
229, 292n
Saud, King Ibn, 66, 127, 155, 182
Sauvy, Alfred, 67
Schenk, Walter, 60, 240
Schiffauer, Werner, 234
Schlesinger, Arthur, Jr., 171, 172
Schmiede, Achmed, 161, 166, 185-86, 213
Schub, Boris, 44
Schutte, Ehrenfried, 15
Scottish League for European Freedom,
Scribner's (publisher), 145
Segovia, Andres, 148
Seven Questions of Timur, The (Kamal),
Shamil, Imam, 87
Shamil, Said
about, xii
ancestors, 87
Bandung Conference (1958), 130
lifestyle, 87-88
Munich mosque, 123
Muslim unity and, 87, 133
Nazis and, 87
U.S. and, 12
von Mende and, 131-32
Shia Muslims, 32, 239
Silk Road, 13, 264n
SLM Liegenschaftsmanagement GmbH,
Society of Muslim Social Scientists, 229,
232, 234
Solti, Georg, 36
Somalia, 155
Sores That Still Bleed (Espeseth), 16
Sosin, Gene, 45
"South, the," 67
See also third world
Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
Al Qaeda and, xv
jihad against, 237
Muslim use, 177-78
U.S. arms, xv, 177, 178
Soviet Nazi collaborators
following war, 45-48
New Leader criticism of, 59-60
Radio Liberty and, 49-51
recruiting of, 48
Turkish identity for, 46-47, 48
See also specific individuals; von
Mende, Gerhard/Nazi use of Soviet
Soviet Union
collapse, 7, 66
non-Russians, 3-4, 6-7
Soviet Union/Cold War
description, 127, 129, 132
Munich mosque and, 132
Muslim citizens, 70, 78
religious policies and, 70
Soviet hajjis and, 70, 89
Soviet Union/World War II
gulag prisoners, 5
minorities fighting against, 7, 8-11
soldiers surrendering, 6
use of minorities, 4-5
Yalta Conference (1945), 45, 46
See also von Mende, Gerhard/Nazi
use of Soviet minorities
Madrid terrorist attacks, 215-16, 222
Muslim Umayyad caliphate, 203
U.S. intelligence and, 148-49
Speer, Albert, 22
Spuler, Benno, 32
after war, 32
description, 29-30
non-German troops, 11
power of, 24
Stain, Walter, 142
Stalin, 5
Stasi, 96, 98-99, 175
Stevens, Edmund, 44
Stevens, Leslie, 81, 82
stoning of homosexuals, 210
St. Paul's Church, Munich
history, 121-22
meetings, 122-23, 166
suicide bombings, 198-99, 210
Suleymans, 205
Sultan, Garip
about, xii
Amcomlib work, 163-65, 240
anticolonialism and, 163-64
anticommunism work, 163-65
background, 3-4, 262n
description, 48, 90
as "ethnic Turk," 46-47
fighting for Soviets, 3, 4-5
following war, 46-47, 48-49
German language and, 6, 11-12
Hajj, 90
Sultan, Garip (cont.)
honorific of, 99-100
Munich Muslims and, 88, 89, 90
Ostministerium and, 26-27
as prisoner of war, 8, 11, 25
Radio Liberty, 49
Ramadan and, 165
report on Soviets/Muslims, 89-90
surrender to Germans, 5-6
Unglaube and, 11-12
von Mende's and, 12, 99-100
Washington meeting (1962), 173
World Muslim Congress meeting,
Baghdad, 163
Sunni Muslims, 32, 239, 262-63n

Tabari, Muhammad al-, 10
Tablighi Jamaat, 211
Taibah International Aid Association,
Tajikistan, 6
anti-Nazi cell, 27
background, 3, 262-63n
Nazi/Soviet propaganda, 27
as Soviet Union minority, 3
as "Turks," 17
World War II and, 7, 27
Tehran antimonarchy riots, 79
Terrel, Herve, 219, 220-21
Algeria, 151-52
in Germany (1990S), 178
Hamas, 198
Islamic Community of Germany,
Islamic Foundation, 198
London attacks, 215-16, 222
Madrid attacks, 215-16, 222
Muslim Brotherhood, 109-10, 198-
99, 208-9, 210, 213, 215, 219, 225,
Pakistan-based Afghan charities, 213
suicide bombings, 198-99, 210
World Trade Center (1993), 214
See also 9/11 attacks
third world
Bandung Conference and, 70-73, 75
Cold War and, 66-69, 71-73, 75
colonialism and, 67
definitions/description, 67
Tiergarten, Berlin, 22
Time (magazine), 41, 66, 74
Tolstoy Foundation, 48, 268n
Totonji, Ahmad, 196
Toynbee, Arnold, 55, 269n
Trade Union Courier, 164
Trud (Labor), Soviet newspaper, 72
Truman, Harry
Cold War, 40, 42, 68
political warfare, 42
psychological warfare, 40, 68
use of Islam, 68-69
tuberculosis, 76
Turabi, Hasan al-, 214
Turkestan, 6
Turkestan in the Twentieth Century
(Hayit), 59
anti-Christian protests, 85
anti-Greek protests, 85
Cold War concerns, 86
declaration of war, 32
ideology of, 86
Muslim soldiers after war, 46-47, 48
World War II and, 32, 46
Turkish secret police, 86
Turkish student union, 46-47
Turkmenistan, 6
"Turks," 17

ulema, 108
Ungermann, Siegfried, 176
Unglaube, Heinz, 11-12, 55
Union of French Islamic Organizations
(UOIF), 21O
activist training, 211
anti-Semitism, 212
description, 220
French Council of the Muslim Faith,
220, 221, 295n
funding, 220
"Islam de France," 220
Muslim Brotherhood and, 220-21, 230
Qaradawi and, 226
West embracing, 220-22
Union of Islamic Cultural Centers
(VIKZ), Germany, 205
United Arab Republic, 238
United Nations
aid to Soviet Union, 80
Cold War status, 68
High Commissioner for Refugees, 141
"Muslim delegation," 136-37
Security Council, 67-68
third world and, 67
United Republican and Democratic Voters
Club, 164
United States
colonialism views, 68
Middle East oil and, 68
Yalta Conference (1945) and, 45, 46
United States/Cold War
communications technology and, 39
containment policy, 16, 39
covert operations and, 37, 39, 40
Escapee Program, 141, 153
overt operations and, 40
propaganda and, 39
rollback/liberation policy, 39, 57, 81,
90, 125, 129
See also specific individuals; specific
organizations; specific policies
United States/Cold War use of Muslims
Bandung Conference, 71-73, 74-75
Nation of Islam and, 70
planning, 127-28
"reform" vs. traditional Muslims,
127-28, 221
"Religious Factor, The" memorandum,
Truman administration, 68-69
U.S. Muslim population and, 70, 78
See also specific agencies; specific individuals
United States/Muslims
connecting Muslims, 223-24, 224-26
entry into U.S., 226-27
European Muslims vs., 222-23
Indianapolis, 196
Islamic academy, Penzberg, Germany,
and, 224-25
leadership, 223
Muslim Brotherhood and, 196, 225-28
Muslim Communities Participating
in Society conference, 223-24
1960s to 1980s, 195-96
organizations, 196
violence and, 222-23
See also International Institute of Islamic
Thought (IIIT); Islamic Society
of North America
USIA (U.S. Information Agency)
Bandung Conference, 71
Cold War and, 70, 71
Islam and, 127
Ramadan/Eisenhower conference,
Uzbekistan/Uzbeks, 6, 7, 17

Vietnam, 172-73, 177
Voice of America, 40

War in Our Cities, The, 230
Washburn, Abbott, 116-17
West Germany
area of, 57
governance, 57-58, 92, 94
West Germany (cont.)
guest workers, 174, 202-3, 204, 205
liaison offices/organizing Muslims,
Oder-Neisse border and, 92-93
postwar economy, 36
reunification and, 91-92
Soviet Union and, 94, 95
U.S. and, 93-94
See also Germany/after World War II
West, Karin, 125-26, 169
Wilhelm II, Kaiser, 13-14
Wisner, Frank
background, 83
Muslims and, 127
Office of Policy Coordination, 84-85
recruitment of staff, 84-85
World Assembly of Muslim Youth, 229,
World Muslim Congress, 115, 131, 133, 134,
162, 163
World Trade Center attack (1993), 214
World War I
gulag prisoners and, s
Hitler and, II
jihad, 14
Turkey and, II
U.S. after, 40
World War II
beginnings, 21
citizen repatriation following, 45-48
Czechoslovakia and, 37
Stalingrad, 29
See also specific countries; specific individuals

Yahya, Harun, 198
Yalta Conference (1945), 45, 46
Yassin, Sheikh Ahmed, 192
Yazdani, Faisal
background, 184
Islamic Community of Germany,
184-86, 187, 215, 228, 290n
Ramadan and, 123, 184
Young Pioneers, 4
Yugoslavian embassy, Berlin, 22-23
Yusuf, Qara, 143

Zayat, Ibrahim el-about,
background, 228-30
Federal Center for Political Education,
Islamic Community of Germany, 228,
Islamism and, 229, 230, 231-35
mosques and, 229-30, 235
Muslim Brotherhood and, 230, 231, 233
office, 231-32
secrecy and, 235
terrorism and, 230
Zhou Enlai, 71, 75
Zunnun, Veli
Hajj, 90
Munich Muslims, 89
Radio Liberty, 49, 89
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