The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

That's French for "the ancient system," as in the ancient system of feudal privileges and the exercise of autocratic power over the peasants. The ancien regime never goes away, like vampires and dinosaur bones they are always hidden in the earth, exercising a mysterious influence. It is not paranoia to believe that the elites scheme against the common man. Inform yourself about their schemes here.

Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

Postby admin » Wed Apr 28, 2021 12:21 am


1. The sun's passage from one sign of the zodiac, to another;

2. The two equinoctial points;

3. The two solstitial points particularly;

4. The (Yoga) Vyatîpâta;

5. The constellation under which (the sacrificer himself, or his wife, or his son) is born;

6. A time of rejoicing (as, when a son has been born, or another happy event happened):

7. These occasions for a Srâddha the lord of creatures has pronounced optional; a Srâddha which is performed on these occasions gives infinite satisfaction (to the manes).

8. No Srâddha must be performed in the twilight or at night by an intelligent man. A Srâddha may be performed at those times also when an eclipse (of the sun or of the moon) takes place.

9. For a Srâddha which is offered them at the time of an eclipse satisfies the manes, as long as the moon and the stars exist, and procures immense advantages and the satisfaction of all his desires to the sacrificer.

[LXXVII. 1-6, 9. Y. I, 217, 218.--6. Âsv. IV, 7, 1; Sânkh. IV, 4.--8. M. III, 280; Âpast, II, 7, 17, 23, 25.

4. This is the seventeenth among the twenty-seven Yogas or astrological divisions of the zodiac. (Nand.)

7. The meaning is, that the Srâddhas mentioned in the chapter are naimittika, 'occasional.' (Nand.)]

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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

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1. By performing a Srâddha on Sunday he procures everlasting freedom from disease.

2. (By performing a Srâddha) on Monday he becomes beloved[1].

3. (By performing it) on Tuesday (he procures) success in battle.

4. (By performing it) on Wednesday (he enjoys) all his desires.

5. (By performing it) on Thursday (he acquires) such religious knowledge as he desires.

6. (By performing it) on Friday (he acquires) wealth.

7. (By performing it) on Saturday (he procures) longevity.

8. (By performing it under the Nakshatra or constellation) Krittikâs (he gains) heaven.

[LXXVIII. 8-35. M. III, 277; Y. I, 264-267.--36-50. M. III, 276; Y. I, 261-263; Âpast. II, 7, 16, 8-22; Gaut. XV, 4.--52, 53. M. III, 273, 274. Regarding Sûtras 1-7, see the Introduction.

1. Nand. states that the Srâddhas mentioned in this chapter are of the kâmya sort, i.e. 'offered for the gratification of a special desire.'

2. 1 This is Nand.'s interpretation of the term saubhâgyam. It might also be taken in its usual acceptation, as meaning 'happiness.'

8-35. Those names of the twenty-eight Nakshatras or lunar asterisms, which I have included in parentheses, are from Nand.'s Commentary. Most of the objects which are said to be gained by the Srâddhas mentioned in Sûtras 8-35 are connected etymologically, or through their import, with the names of the particular Nakshatras under which they are performed. Thus the term pushti, 'prosperity,' in Sûtra 13, is etymologically connected with Pushya; the term mitra, 'friend,' in 22, is connected with Maitra; the term râgyam, 'royalty,' in 23, is connected with Sâkra, the name of that Nakshatra being derived from Sakra, a name of Indra, the king of the gods, &c.]

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9. (By performing it under the constellation) Rohinî (he obtains) progeny.

10. (By performing it under the constellation) Saumya (or Mrigasiras he procures) the superhuman power of a pious Brâhmana.

11. (By performing it under the constellation) Raudra (or Ârdrâ he reaps) the fruit of his labours.

12. (By performing it under the constellation) Punarvasu (he procures) land.

13. (By performing it under the constellation) Pushya (or Tishya he procures) prosperity.

14. (By performing it under the constellation) Sârpa (or Âsleshâs he obtains) beauty.

15. (By performing it under the constellation) Paitrya (or Maghâ he enjoys) all his desires.

16. (By performing it under the constellation) Bhâgya (or Pûrvaphâlgunî) he becomes beloved[1].

17. (By performing it under the constellation) Âryamana (or Uttaraphâlgunî he procures) wealth.

18. (By performing it under the constellation) Hasta (he acquires) superiority among his kindred.

19. (By performing it under the constellation) Tvâshtra (or Kitrâ he procures) handsome sons.

20. (By performing it under the constellation) Svâti (he procures) success in trade.

21. (By performing it under the constellation) Visâkhâs (he acquires) gold.

22. (By performing it under the constellation) Maitra (or Anurâdhâ he procures) friends.

23. (By performing it under the constellation) Sâkra (or Gyeshthâ he procures) royalty.

24. (By performing it' under the constellation) Mûla (he procures good results in) agriculture.

[16. 1 See 2, note. 2]

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25. (By performing it under the constellation) Âpya (or Pûrvâshâdhâs he procures) success in sea-voyages.

26. (By performing it under the constellation) Vaisvadeva (or Uttarâshâdhâs he enjoys) all his desires.

27. (By performing it under the constellation) Abhigit (he procures) superiority.[1]

28. (By performing it under the constellation) Sravana (he enjoys) all his desires.

29. (By performing it under the constellation) Vâsava (or Dhanishthâs he procures success in preparing) salt[1].

30. (By performing it under the constellation) Vâruna (or Satabhishâ he obtains) freedom from disease.

31. (By performing it under the constellation) Âga ( or Pûrvabhâdrapadâ he obtains) copper vessels.

32. (By performing it under the constellation) Âhirbudhnya (or Uttarabhâdrapadâ he obtains) a house.

33. (By performing it under the constellation) Paushna (or Revatî he acquires) cows.

34. (By performing it under the constellation) Âsvina (or Asvinî he obtains) a horse.

35. (By performing it under the constellation) Yâmya (or Bharanî he procures) longevity,

36. (By offering it) on the first day of a lunar fortnight (he procures) a house and handsome wives.

[29. 1 Lavanam means either 'salt' or beauty' or 'medicinal herbs and fruits.' (Nand.)]

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37. (By offering it) on the second day (he procures) a beautiful daughter (and sons-in-law).

38. (By offering it) on the third day (he enjoys) all his desires.

39. (By offering it) on the fourth day (he procures) cattle.

40. (By offering it) on the fifth day (he procures) handsome sons.

41. (By offering it) on the sixth day (he obtains) success in gaming.

42. (By offering it) on the seventh day (he procures good results in) agriculture.

43. (By offering it) on. the eighth day (he procures success in) trade.

44. (By offering it) on the ninth day (he procures) cattle[1].

45. (By offering it) on the tenth day (he procures) horses.

46. (By offering it) on the eleventh day (he procures) sons endowed with the superhuman power of a pious Brâhmana.

47. (By offering it) on the twelfth day (he procures) gold and silver.

48. (By offering it) on the thirteenth day he becomes beloved.

49. (By offering it) on the fifteenth day (he enjoys) all his desires.

[44. 1 Nand. infers from a passage of Yâgñavalkya (I, 266) that the term 'cattle' here refers to horses and other one-hoofed animals. See, however, the next Sûtra.

48. The term saubhâgyam is stated by Nand. (with reference to Y. I, 2 64) to denote 'superiority among his kindred,' in this Sûtra. But there is no cogent reason for deviating here from that interpretation of the term which he proposes in his Commentary on Sûtras 2 and 16. See above.]

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50. For Srâddhas for those who have been killed in battle the fourteenth day is ordained.

51. There are two stanzas on this subject recited by the manes.

52. 'May that excellent man be born to our race, whosoever he may be, who attentively offers a Srâddha in the rainy season[1] on the thirteenth of the dark half,

53. 'With milk profusely mixed with honey; and (he who offers such Srâddhas) during the whole month Kârttika and (in the afternoon) when the shadow of an elephant falls towards the east.'
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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

Postby admin » Wed Apr 28, 2021 12:22 am


1. He must not perform a Srâddha with water collected at night.

2. On failure of Kusa grass he must employ Kâsa or Dûrvâ grass instead.

3. Instead of a garment (he may give) cotton thread.

4. He must avoid (giving) the fringe of cloth, though it be of cloth not yet used.

5. And (he must not give) flowers having a nasty odour, or no odour at all, the blossoms of thorny plants, and red flowers.

[52. 1 The term prâvritkâle, 'in the rainy season,' probably refers to one month only of the rainy season, the month Bhâdrapada or Praushthapada. See above, LXXVI, 1, and M. III, 273, 274, with Kullûka's Commentary; Y. I, 260, with Vigñânesvara's Comment.

LXXIX. 8, 16. M. III, 226, 227, 235, 257; Âpast. II, 8, 19, 19-22.--19-21, M. III, 229.

5. The use of the particle ka implies, according to Nand., who quotes a text in support of his assertion, that the leaves of the Kadamba, Bèl, Ketaka, and Bakula trees, as well as those of the Barbara plant and of the thorn-apple tree, are also included in this prohibition.]

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6. He may give white and sweet-smelling flowers, even though grown on thorny plants, and aquatic flowers, even though they be red.

7. He must not give marrow or fat instead of a lamp.

S. He may give clarified butter or sesamum-oil.

9. He must not give (the nails or horns) of animals instead of the incense of all kinds (prescribed for a Srâddha).

10. He may give bdellium mixed up with honey and clarified butter.

11. He may give sandal, saffron, camphor, aloe wood, or Padmaka wood instead of an ointment.

12. He must not salt (the dishes) publicly (after they have been cooked).

13. He must not give clarified butter, condiments, or the like (i. e. sour milk, milk, &c.) with his hands.

14. He must use metallic vessels;

15. Especially vessels made of silver.

16. He must place (on the sacrificial ground) vessels made of the horn of the rhinoceros, blankets made of the hair of the mountain-goat, the skin of a black antelope, sesamum, white mustard, unbroken grains, (silver and copper vessels and other) purificatory objects, and (a goat and other animals or objects), by which the demons are kept aloof.

[7. 'Or mustard-oil or any other such substance, as ka indicates.' (Nand.)

8. 'Or the juice of plants, as mentioned by Sankha, on account of vâ.' (Nand.)

13. He must give those liquids with a spoon or similar implement. (Nand.)

14. According to Nand., the particle ka refers to other purificatory things, viz. the following seven, 'milk, water from the Ganges, honey, silken cloth, a grandson, blankets made of the hair of the {footnote p. 248} mountain-goat, and sesamum.' The last two are, however, already contained in the above enumeration.]

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17. He must avoid to use pepper, (the onion called) Mukundaka, (the pot-herb called) Bhûstrina, (the leaves, blossoms, or roots of) the Sigru tree, mustard-seeds, (the plant) Nirgundî, (the fruit or leaves of) the Sâl tree, the plant Suvarkalâ, the (pumpkin-gourd called) Kûshmânda, the bottle-gourd, the egg-plant, (the plants or pot-herbs called) Pâlakyâ, Upotakî, and Tandulîyaka, the herbs of the safflower, the Pindâluka (root), and the milk of female buffalos.

18. And (he must not use the bean called) Râgamâsha, (the lentil called) Masûra, stale food, and factitious salt.

19. Let him avoid wrath.

20. He must not shed a tear.

21. He must not be in a hurry.

22. In offering the clarified butter and other (liquids, such as condiments, sour milk, milk, and the like) he must use metallic vessels, vessels made of the horn of the rhinoceros, and vessels made of the wood of the Phalgu tree.

23. There is a Sloka on this subject:

24. 'That which has been offered in vessels made of gold, or of silver, or of the horn of the rhinoceros, or of copper, or of Phalgu wood, becomes imperishable (and brings infinite reward to the sacrificer).'

[17. The term buffalo's milk' includes here, according to a text quoted by Nand., the milk of sheep, of antelopes, of camels, and of all one-hoofed animals.

18. 'As shown by ka, chick-peas and other grains and herbs mentioned in a Smriti must also be avoided.' (Nand.)

19. 'This rule applies both to the sacrificer and to the guests at a Srâddha.' (Nand.)]

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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

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1. Sesamum, rice, barley, beans, water, roots, fruits, vegetables, Syâmâka grain, millet, wild rice, kidney-beans, and wheat satisfy (the manes) for a month;

2. The flesh of fishes (excepting those species that are forbidden), for two months;

3. The flesh of the common deer, for three months;

4. The flesh of sheep, for four months;

5. The flesh of birds (of those kinds that may be eaten), for five months;

6. The flesh of goats, for six months;

7. The flesh of the spotted deer, for seven months;

8. The flesh of the spotted antelope, for eight months;

9. Beef, for nine months;

10. Buffalo's meat, for ten months;

11. The meat of a hornless goat, for eleven months;

12. The milk of a cow, or preparations from it, for a year.

13. On this subject there exists a stanza, which the manes utter:

14. '(The pot-herb) Kâlasâka (sacred basil), (the prawn) Mahâsalka, and the flesh of the (crane called) Vârdhrînasa[1], (and of) a rhinoceros having no horn, is food which we always accept.'

[LXXX. 1-14. M. III, 267-272; Y. I, 257-259; Âpast. II, 7, 16, 23-II, 7, 17, 3; II, 8, 18, 13; Gaut. XV, 19.

14. 1 This is the first of the two interpretations which Nand. proposes of the term Vârdhrînasa. It is supported by Âpastamba's {footnote p. 250} commentator, Haradatta, and by Âpastamba himself (I, 5, 17, 36). Nand.'s second interpretation, 'an old white goat,' is probably wrong, although it is supported by the authority of Kullûka and Vigñânesvara.]

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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

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1. He must not place the food upon a chair.

2. He must not touch it with his foot.

3. He must not sneeze upon it.

4. He must drive the Yâtudhânas away by means of sesamum or mustard-seeds.

5. Let him perform the Srâddha in an enclosed place.

6. He must not look at a woman in her courses;

7. Nor at a dog; 8. Nor at a tame pig;

9. Nor at a tame cock.

10. Let him strive to perform the Srâddha in sight of a goat.

11. The Brâhmanas must eat in silence.

12. They must not eat with their heads covered

13. Nor with shoes on their feet;

14. Nor with their feet placed upon a stool.

15. Let not men with a limb too little, or with a limb too much, look at a Srâddha;

16. Nor Sûdras; 17. Nor outcasts.

[LXXXI. 2, 6-9, 11-13, 15, 16, 19. M. III, 229, 236-242.--4, 5. Gaut. XV, 25, 26.--7, 16, 17. Âpast. II, 7, 17, 20; Gaut. XV, 24.--18. M. III, 243.--20. M. III, 237.--21-23. M. III, 244-246.

4. Nand, quotes the following Mantra, which has to be recited on this occasion, 'The Asuras, the Râkshasas, and the Pisâkas have been driven away.' A similar Mantra occurs in the Vâgasan. Samh. II, 29.

5. 'Ka indicates that it must be a place inclining to the south, as stated in a Smriti.' (Nand.)

6. This and the following Sûtras refer both to the host at a Srâddha and to the guests invited by him. (Nand.)]

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18. If at the time of a Srâddha a Brâhmana or an ascetic (has come to his house), he must feed him, if (the invited) Brâhmanas permit it.

19. The Brâhmanas must not declare the qualities of the sacrificial dishes, even though asked to do so by their host.

20. As long as the dishes remain warm, as long as (the Brâhmanas) eat in silence, as long as the qualities of the sacrificial food are not declared by them, so long the manes enjoy it.

21. Having brought together (the remainder of) all the sorts of substantial food and (of the vegetables and) the like, he must sprinkle it with water, and place it before the Brâhmanas, who have taken their meal, strewing it on the ground.

22. The leavings (that have remained in the dishes) and what has been strewn (in the manner just mentioned) upon the blades of Kusa grass (spread on the ground) is the share of such (Brâhmanas) as have died before they were initiated, and of husbands who have deserted wives descended from good families.

23. What has dropped on the ground from the dishes, at a sacrifice addressed to the manes, they declare to be the share of servants, provided they be not dishonest or depraved.
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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

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1. At a (Srâddha) offering to the Visvedevâs let him not enquire (into the qualities or descent of) a Brâhmana (whom he means to invite).

[LXXXII. 1, 2. M. III, 149.--3-29. M. III, 150 166; Y. I, 222-224; Âpast. II, 7, 17, 21; Gaut. XV, 16-18.]

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2. But at a (Srâddha offering) to the manes he must enquire as closely as possible (into the qualities and descent of a Brâhmana, whom he means to invite).

3. He must not invite (to a Srâddha) such as have a limb too little, or a limb too much;

4. Nor such as follow an occupation forbidden (by the Veda or by the traditional law)[1].

5. Nor those who act (deceitfully) like cats;

6. Nor those wearing the insignia of some particular order, without having a claim to them;

7. Nor astrologers;

8. Nor Brâhmanas who subsist upon the offerings made to an idol which they attend;

9. Nor physicians;

10. Nor sons of an unmarried woman;

11. Nor sons of the son of an unmarried woman;

12. Nor those who sacrifice for a multitude of persons;

13. Nor those who offer sacrifices for a whole village;

14. Nor those who offer sacrifices for Sûdras;

15. Nor those who offer sacrifices for those for whom it is forbidden to sacrifice (such as outcasts and others);

16. Nor those for whom the ceremony of initiation has not been performed;

17. Nor those who sacrifice for such;

[4. 1 The particle ka, according to Nand., in this Sûtra, refers to other categories, mentioned by Atri, viz. persons belonging to the same Gotra, or descended from the same Rishi ancestors as the sacrificer, and unknown persons.

8. 'Ka indicates here that thieves and wicked persons are also intended, as stated in a Smriti.' (Nand.)]

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18. Nor those who do work on holidays;

19. Nor malignant informers;

20. Nor those who teach (the Veda) for a fee;

21. Nor those who have been taught (the Veda) for a fee;

22. Nor those who subsist on food given to them by a Sûdra;

23. Nor those who have intercourse with an outcast;

24. Nor those who neglect their daily study of the Veda;

25. Nor those who neglect their morning and evening prayers;

26. Nor those who are in the king's service;

27. Nor 'naked' persons;

29. Nor those who quarrel with their father;

29. Nor those who have forsaken their father, mother, Guru, holy fire, or sacred study.

30. All those persons are said to defile a company, because they have been expelled from the community of Brâhmanas. Let a wise man avoid carefully, therefore, to entertain them at a Srâddha.
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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

Postby admin » Wed Apr 28, 2021 12:27 am


1. The following persons sanctify a company:

2. A Trinâkiketa;

[27. See LXIV, 5, note.

29. The particle ka here refers to the following further persons mentioned in a Smriti, a shepherd, one who lives by the prostitution of his own wife, the husband of a woman who had another husband before, and one employed to carry out dead bodies. (Nand.)

LXXXIII. 1-19. M. III, 128-148, 183-146; Y. I, 219-221; Âpast. II, 7, 17, 22; Gaut. XV, 28.

2. Nand. has two explanations of the term Trinâkiketa: 1. One who has thrice kindled the Nâkiketa fire. 2. One who has studied, {footnote p. 254} in consequence of a vow, the portion of the Yagur-veda called Trinâkiketa. See Âpast. II, 7, 17, 22, with Dr. Bühler's note, and the Petersburg Dictionary.]

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3. One who keeps five fires;

4. One who can sing the Sâmans called Gyeshtha;

5. One who has studied the whole Veda;

6. One who has studied one Vedânga;

7. One who has studied either the Purânas (Legends), or the Itihâsas (Epics), or grammar;

8. One who has studied one of the Dharmasâstras (Institutes of the Sacred Law);

9. One purified by visiting sacred places of pilgrimage;

10. One purified by offering sacrifices;

11. One purified by austere devotion;

12. One purified by veracity;

13. One purified by (constantly muttering) Mantras;

14. One intent upon muttering the Gâyatrî;

15. One in whose family the study and teaching of the Veda are hereditary.

16. One who knows the Trisuparna (the text which thrice contains the word Suparna).

[4. Sâma-veda II, 209-211, &c.

7. Grammar is again mentioned here, although it forms part of the Vedângas mentioned in Sûtra 6. But there the Prâtisâkhyas are meant. (Nand.)

8. The number of the Smritis or Dharmasâstras, according to Nand., amounts to fifty-seven. The now current tradition gives thirty-six as their number; but upwards of a hundred works of this description must have been actually in existence. See Dr. Bühler's Introduction to the Bombay Digest, p. xii seq.

16. See above, LVI, 22 3, and Dr. Bühler's note on Âpast. loc. cit. Nand. proposes another interpretation also of the term Trisuparna, 6 one who has thrice kindled a fire in honour of Suparna.']

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17. A son-in-law;

18. And a grandson. All these persons are worthy (to be fed at a Srâddha);

19. And, particularly, devotees.

20, There is a stanza recited by the manes, which refers to this subject:

21. 'May that man be born to our race, who feeds a Brâhmana devotee assiduously at a Srâddha, by which repast we are satisfied ourselves.'
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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

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1. He must not offer a Srâddha in a country inhabited by barbarians.

2. He must not visit a country, inhabited by barbarians (excepting on a pilgrimage).

3. By (constantly) drinking water from (or bathing in) a pool situated in a foreign (barbarous) country, he becomes equal to its inhabitants.

4. Those countries are called barbarous (mlekkha) where the system of the four castes does not exist; the others are denoted Âryâvarta, (the abode of the Âryans).

[18. According to Nand., the particles ka and iti refer to the sister's son and other relatives, as enumerated by Yâgñavalkya I, 220, 221.

19. Nand. thinks that ka here refers to ascetics.

LXXXIV. 2. Nand. quotes a stanza of Devala to the effect that one who has visited the countries of Sindh, of the Sauvîras, Surât, and the adjacent parts, Bengal proper, Kalinga, South Bihâr, and Malwa requires to be initiated a second time.

3. 1 Ka refers to pools belonging to Kandâlas or other degraded castes.' (Nand.)

4. Âryâvarta is the name of the whole tract of land which extends from the eastern to the western ocean, and is bounded by the Himalayas and by the Vindhya mountains in the north and south. See Manu II, 21, 22.]

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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

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1. A Srâddha offered at the (Tîrtha or place of pilgrimage called) Pushkaras confers eternal bliss upon the giver;

2. And so does the muttering of prayers, the offering of burnt-oblations, and the practice of austerities in that place.

3. Even by merely bathing at Pushkara he is purified from all his sins.

4. The same effect may be produced at Gayâsîrsha;

5. And near Vata (Akshayavata);

6. And on the Amarakantaka mountain;

7. And on the Varâha mountain;

[LXXXV. 1. Pushkara, according to the common acceptation of the term, is the name of a celebrated place of pilgrimage near Agmîr, the modern Pokur. See Lassen, Indian Antiquities, I, 113. Nand. quotes a Smriti passage to the effect that there are three Pushkaras, and a passage of the Mahâbhârata, in which it is stated that one Pushkara is sacred to Brahman, another to Vishnu, and a third to Rudra.

3. Nand. asserts with regard to the use of the name Pushkara in the singular number in this Sûtra, that it means even a single bath has the consequence here mentioned.

4. Gayâsîrsha is the name of a mountain near Gayâ in Bihâr, a celebrated place of pilgrimage. Compare Yâgñavalkya I, 260.

5. There exists one Akshayavata in Bihâr (Nand.) and another in Prayâga (Allahabad). The 'undecaying banyan-tree' (Aksbay Bat) is an object of worship at Allahabad even now, and was so already in the times of Hwen Thsang. See Cunningham, Ancient Geography of India, p. 389; St. Julien, Voyages des Pèlerins Bouddhistes, II, 278.

6. Nand. states that both the Tîrtha called Amarakantaka on the Mekalâ mountain in the Vindhya range and the whole mountain of that name are meant.

7. 'This is a certain boar shaped mountain.' (Nand.) It seems very probable that the Tîrtha of Bâramûla, the ancient Varâhamûla {footnote p. 257} in Kasmîr, is meant. See Bühler, Kasmîr Report, p. 12, where a 'Varâha hill' is mentioned as adjacent to that town.]

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8. And anywhere on the bank of the Narmadâ (Nerbudda) river;

9. And on the bank of the Yamunâ (Jumna);

10. And, particularly, on the Gangâ;

11. And at Kusâvarta;

12. And at Binduka; 13. And upon the Nîlgiri hills; 14. And at Kanakhala; 15. And at Kubgâmra; 16. And on the Bhrigutunga (mountain); 17. And at Kedâra; 18. And on the Mahâlaya (mountain); 19. And on the Nadantikâ (river); 20. And on the Sugandhâ (river); 21. And at Sâkambharî; 22. And at Phalgutîrtha; 23. And on the

[11. This Tîrtha 'is situated upon the mountain called Tryambaka, where the Godâvarî river takes its rise.' (Nand.) Tryambaka is the modern Trimbak (the name of a place of pilgrimage situated near Nâsik).

12. 'Binduka is the name of a Tîrtha in the Dekhan. Bilvaka, as other texts read (the MS. on which the two Calcutta editions are based among the number), is the name of another Tîrtha in the Dekhan.' (Nand.)

14. There is one Kanakhala in the Himâlayas, and another near Trimbak. (Nand.)

15. There is one plain of that name in Orissa, and another in Haridvâr. (Nand.)

16. This is the name of a sacred mountain near the Amarakantaka range, according to Nand.; in the Himâlayas, according to others. See the Petersburg Dictionary.

17. Kedâra (the Kedâr mountains?) is in the Himâlayas. (Nand.)

18, 19. These two names are not defined by Nand.

20. This is a river in the vicinity of the Saugandhika mountain. (Nand.)

21. Sâkambharî is the modern Shâmbar, which lies 'in the desert of Marudesa, on the salt lake.' (Nand.)

22. 'Phalgutîrtha is a Tîrtha in Gayâ.' (Nand.)

23. Mahâgangâ, 'the great Gangâ,' is the Alakânandâ river {footnote p. 258} (Nand.), which takes its rise in the Himâlayas and falls into the Ganges.]

p. 258

Mahâgangâ; 24. And at Trihalikâgrâma; 25. And at Kumâradhârâ; 26. And at Prabhâsa; 2 7. And particularly anywhere on (the bank of) the Sarasvatî;

28. At Gangâdvâra (Haridvâr), at Prayâga (Allahabad), where the Gangâ falls into the ocean, constantly in the Naimisha forest, and especially at Benares;

29. And at Agastyâsrama;

30. And at Kanvâsrama (on the Mâlinî river);

31. And on the Kausikî (Kosi river);

32. And on the bank of the Sarayû (Surju river in Oudh);

33. And on the confluence of the Sona (Sone) and Gyotisha rivers;

34. And on the Srîparvata (mountain);

[24. 'Trihalikâgrâma means Sâlagrâma. There is another reading, Tandulikâsrama.' (Nand.)

25. This is the name of a lake in Kasmîr, which the god Kumâra by a mighty stroke caused to stream forth from the Krauñka mountain (see Vâyu-purâna); or Kumâradhârâ is situated near the southern ocean in the plain of Ishupâta. (Nand.)

26. Prabhâsa is the name of a Tîrtha near Dvârakâ, on the western point of Kattivar. (Nand.)

27. Regarding the river Sarasvatî and its reputed holiness, see particularly Cunningham, Ancient Geography of India, I, 331 seq., and Manu II, 17.

28. The Naimisha forest is in the northern country. (Nand.)

29. 'Agastyâsrama is situated near Pushkara (Sûtra 1), on the bank of the Sarasvatî. There is another Agastyâsrama in the south, near Svâmisthâna.' (Nand.)

33. The confluence of those two rivers is in the centre of the Vindhya range. For the name of the second, another reading is Gyotîratha. (Nand.)

34. The Srîparvata or Srîsaila, where the Mallikârguna (symbol of Siva) is worshipped, is in the Dekhan. (Nand.)]

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35. And at (the Tîrtha situated on the Yamunâ, which is called) Kâlodaka.

36. And at Uttaramânasa (in the Kedâr mountains, in the Himâlayas).

37. And at Vadavâ (in the Dekhan).

38. And at Matangavâpî (in the southern part of Gayâ);

39. And at Saptârsha; 40. And at Vishnupada;

41. And at Svargamârgapada (or Rathamârga);

42. And on the Godâvarî river (in the Dekhan);

43. And on the Gomatî (river);

44. And on the Vetravatî (river);

45. And on the Vipâsâ (river);

46. And on the Vitastâ (river);

47. And on the banks of the Satadru (river);

48. And on the Kandrabhâgâ (river);

49. And on the Îrâvati (river);

50. And on the banks of the Indus;

51. And on the southern Pañkanada;

52. And at Ausaga (?);

53. And at other such Tîrthas;

[39. Saptârsha, 'the Tîrtha of the seven Rishis' (Nand.), is perhaps the present Satara, in the country of the Mahrattas.

40. Nand. places this Tîrtha in the centre of Gayâ. There is another of the same name, which is placed on the Kailâsa mountain.

43. The Gomatî (the Gunti, near Lucknow) rises in the Naimisha forest. (Nand.) See 28.

44: The Vetravatî (the modern Betwah, near Bhilsah) is situated in Ahikkhattra. (Nand.)

45-49. The Vipâsâ (Beas), Vitastâ (Jhelum or Behut), Satadru (Sutlej), Kandrabhâgâ (Chenâb), and Îrâvati (Ravee) are the five rivers of the Pañgâb (Pañkanada in Sanskrit).

51. This is the name of the confluence of five rivers in the Dekhan: the Krishnâ, Venâ, Tunga, Bhadrâ, and Kona. (Nand.)

52. 'Ausaga (v. 1. Augasa; read Ausiga?) means Sûrpâraka' (Nand.), which was situated probably on the mouth of the Krishnâ (Kistna).]

p. 260

54. And on the banks of (other) holy rivers;

55. And anywhere at the birth-place of a deity, (such as Râma, Krishna, and others);

56. And on sand-banks; 57. And near waterfalls; 58. And on mountains; 59. And in arbours (the sporting-places of Krishna); 60. And in woods; 61. And in groves; 62. And in houses smeared with cow-dung, 63. And in 'pleasant spots.'

64. There are some stanzas recited by the manes, which refer to this subject:

65. 'May that person be born to our race, who will give us libations of water, taken from streams abounding with water, especially if their floods (coming from the Himâlayas) are cool.

66. 'May that excellent man be born to our race, who offers us a Srâddha attentively at Gayâsîrsha or at Vata.'

67. A man must wish to have many sons, because if only one of them goes to Gayâ (and offers a Srâddha to him after his death), or if he performs a horse-sacrifice, or if he sets a dark-coloured bull at liberty[1], (he will acquire final emancipation through him.)
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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

Postby admin » Wed Apr 28, 2021 12:27 am


1. Now follows the ceremony of setting a bull at liberty, (which should take place)

2. On the days of full moon in Kârttika or Âsvina.

When performing this rite, he must first examine the bull.

[63. The term manogña, 'a pleasant spot,' means 'a place close by the house, where sacred basil is planted,' or other such places. (Nand.)

67. 1 See the next chapter,

LXXXVI. 1-18. Pâr. III, 9; Sânkh. III, 11. Regarding the corresponding section of the Kâthaka Grihya-sûtra, see Introduction.]

p. 261

4. (The bull must be) the offspring of a milch cow having young ones living.

5. He must have all marks.

6. He must be dark-coloured;

7. Or red, but having a white mouth, a white tail.. and white feet and horns.

8. He must be one who protects the herd.

9. Then, after having (kindled) a blazing fire among the cows (in the cow-pen) and strewed Kusa grass around it, let him boil with milk a dish sacred to Pûshan, and offer (two oblations) in the fire with the Mantras, 'May Pûshan follow our cows[1],' and 'Here is pleasure[2].' And let a blacksmith mark the bull.

10. On the one flank (the right), with a discus; on the other flank (the left), with a trident.

11. After he has been marked, let him wash the bull with the four Mantras, (beginning with the words), 'The golden-coloured[1],' and with (the five Mantras, beginning with the words), 'May the divine (waters help and propitiate us')[2].

12. Having washed and adorned the bull, he must bring him near, together with four young cows,

[5. 'I.e. the bull must not be deficient in any limb.' (Nand.) This interpretation is supported by the Grihya-sûtras.

6. Nand. mentions two interpretations of the term nîla, 'dark-coloured:' 1. a bull who is all white, and is therefore said to be of the 'Brâhmana kind;' 2. one whose body is white, whereas his tail, his hoofs, and his face are black, and his horns blue. Cf. L, 25.

8. Nand. interprets yûthasyâkhâdakam by nishektâram, 'one who covers the cows.' My rendering is based upon Devapâla's comment on the corresponding passage of the Kâthaka Grihya-sûtra. See also Pâr. and Sânkh. loc. cit.

9. 1 Rig-veda VI, 54, 5, &c.--2 Vagas. Samh. VIII, 51; Kâth. Âsv. IV, 6, &c.

11. 1 Taitt. Samh. V, 6, 1, 1, 2, &c. Rig-veda X, 9, 4 -8. &c.]

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which must also have been washed and decorated, and he must mutter the Rudras[1], the Purushasûkta, and the Kûshmândîs[2].

13. Then let him pronounce in the bull's right ear the Mantra, 'The father of calves;'

14. And the following (Mantras):

15. 'Holy law is a bull and is declared to have four feet[1]: him I choose for the object of my worship; may he protect me wholly.

16. 'This young (bull) I give you as husband (O ye calves), roam about sportingly with him for your lover. May we not be deficient in progeny, O king Soma, and may we live long, and may we not be oppressed by our enemies.'

17. He must drive away the bull together with the calves in a north-eastern direction and give a pair of garments, gold, and a vessel made of white copper to the officiating priest.

18. The blacksmith shall receive as wages as much as he claims, and food prepared with a great deal of butter, and (three) Brâhmanas shall be fed.

19. Any pool from which the bull drinks after

[12. 'Taitt. Samh. IV, 5, 1-11.--2 See LVI, 7.

13. Nand. states expressly that this Mantra is from the Kâthaka. It is found Kâth. XIII, 9; Taitt. Samh. III, 3, 9, 2; Kâth. Grihya-sûtra XLVII.

15. 1 This term refers perhaps to the 'four feet of a judicial proceeding.' See Nârada I, 11; 2, 9.

16. Taitt. Samh. III, 3, 9, 1, &c. The second half of this Mantra is found in the Kâthaka Grihya-sûtra only.

18. The clause regarding the 'food,' which has been rendered in accordance with Nand.'s Commentary, might also be construed with 'fed,' which would bring the whole into accordance with the precepts of the Kâthaka Grihya-sûtra and of the two other Grihya-sûtras.]

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having been set at liberty) that entire pool will refresh the manes of him who has set the bull at liberty.

20. The earth which is anywhere dug up by the bull exulting in his strength, is converted into delicious food and drink to satisfy the manes.
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