The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

That's French for "the ancient system," as in the ancient system of feudal privileges and the exercise of autocratic power over the peasants. The ancien regime never goes away, like vampires and dinosaur bones they are always hidden in the earth, exercising a mysterious influence. It is not paranoia to believe that the elites scheme against the common man. Inform yourself about their schemes here.

Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

Postby admin » Wed Apr 28, 2021 12:28 am


1. Now on the day of full moon in the month Vaisâkha he must spread out upon a woollen blanket the skin of a black antelope (together with the horns and hoofs), after having adorned the former with gold and the latter with silver, and after having ornamented the tail with a string of pearls.

2. After that, he must cover (that part of the blanket which is not covered by the skin) with sesamum.

3. And he must adorn the navel with gold.

4. He must cover (the skin) with a couple of new garments.

5. He must place all sorts of perfumes and jewels upon it.

[LXXXVII. 1, The particle atha, 'now,' indicates the beginning of a new section, treating of gifts. It comprises Chapters LXXXVII-XCIII. (Nand.) The commentator infers from a corresponding passage of the Matsya-purâna, that the following further rules are implied in this Sûtra. The ceremony may also take place on the full moon days in the months Mâgha, Kârttika, and Âshâdha, on the twelfth day after the summer solstice, and during an eclipse of the sun or moon. The silver on the hoofs must weigh five Palas, And the gold on the horns ten Suvarnas (or two Palas and a half). The place must be pure, smeared with cow-dung, and covered with Kusa grass.

3. 'The Skânda-purâna states that the eyes must be adorned with jewels.' (Nand.)

5. 'And garlands of flowers and other objects must be placed upon it, as ka indicates.' (Nand.)]

p. 264

6. After having placed on its four sides (beginning with the eastern side) four metallic dishes (of copper, silver, white copper, and gold respectively) filled with milk, sour milk, honey, and clarified butter respectively, (and having poured out water) he must give (the skin, seizing it by the tail), to a Brâhmana, who is an Agnihotrin[1], decked with ornaments, and clad in two garments.

7. There are (the following) stanzas in regard to this subject:

8. 'He who bestows (upon a pious Brâhmana) the skin of a black antelope, together with the hoofs and horns, after having covered it with seeds of sesamum and garments, and adorned it with all sorts of jewels:

9. 'That man doubtless obtains the same reward as if he were to bestow the whole earth on him, bordered as it is on every side (by the oceans), together with the oceans and caverns, and with rocks, groves, and forests.

10. 'He who places sesamum, gold, honey, and butter on the skin of a black antelope and gives the whole to a Brâhmana, annihilates the consequences of all his own evil actions.'
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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

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1. A cow in the act of bringing forth a young one is (comparable to) the earth.

2. By bestowing such a cow upon a Brâhmana, after having decked her with ornaments, he obtains the same reward as if he were to bestow the earth (upon him),

[6. 1 See LXVIII, 6, note. LXXXVIII. 1. Y. I, 207.--4. Y. I, 206.]

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3. There is a stanza in regard to this subject:

4. 'One who full of faith and with intense application of mind gives away a pregnant cow, enters heaven for as many Yugas (or ages of the world) as that cow and her calf together have hairs on their bodies.'
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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

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1. The month Kârttika is sacred to the god Agni.

2. Agni is the first of all gods.

3. Therefore is that man purified from every sin committed during the past year, who persists during the month Kârttika in bathing (daily) out of the village, in muttering the Gâyatrî, and in taking a single meal each day, consisting of food fit for oblations.

4. He who bathes (at the prescribed time, early in the morning) constantly, during the whole month Kârttika, who keeps his organs of sense under control, who mutters (the Gâyatrî), who eats food fit for oblations only, and who governs his passions, is purified from every sin.
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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

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1. If on the fifteenth of the bright half of the month Mârgasîrsha the moon enters the lunar asterism. Mrigasiras, he must give at the time when the moon rises (a vessel with) a golden centre, containing a Prastha of ground salt, to a Brâhmana.

2. By (performing) this rite he obtains beauty and good fortune in a future birth.

[XC. 3, 5. Âpast. II, 8, 18, 19; II, 8, 19, 1.--7. M. IV, 232.

1. One Prastha = sixteen Palas. (Nand.)]

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3. If on the full moon day of the month Pausha the moon enters the lunar asterism Pushya, he must rub over his body with a dough prepared with white mustard-seeds, anoint himself with a kumbha[1] of clarified butter made of cow-milk, wash himself with (water and with) all sorts of medicinal herbs, all sorts of perfumes, and all sorts of seeds, wash (an image of) Bhagavat Vâsudeva (Vishnu) with clarified butter, and worship him with perfumes, flowers, incense, with a lamp, with eatables, and the like[2], offer an oblation in the fire with Mantras tending to the praise of Vishnu (such as Rig-veda I, 22, 17, and others), Mantras tending to the praise of Indra (such as Rig-veda VI, 47, 11, and others), Mantras tending to the praise of Brihaspati (such as Rig-veda II, 23, 15, and others, and with one Mantra tending to the praise of Agni Svishtakrit), and cause three Brâhmanas to pronounce the benediction, after having bestowed clarified butter and gold upon them[3].

4. To the priest (who has performed the burnt-oblation for him) he must give a pair of garments.

5. By (performing) this rite he obtains prosperity (pushyate)[1].

6. If on the full moon day in the month Mâgha the moon enters the lunar asterism Maghâ and he performs a Srâddha with sesamum on that day, he is purified.

[3. 1 See V, 12, note.--2 'And the like' means 'betel.' (Nand.).--3 The rite described in this Sûtra appears to be identical with the ceremony called Yugâdya, 'the beginning of the present age of the world,' in later works. See Wilson, On the Religious Festivals of the Hindus, in the Royal Asiatic Society's journal, IX, 89.

5. 1 This is a play upon words. See LXXVIII, 8, note, and below, Sûtra 9; XCII, 141 &c.]

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7. If on the full moon day in the month Phâlguna the moon enters the lunar asterism Uttaraphâlgunî, and he gives on that day a bedstead, quite complete and covered with good rugs, to a Brâhmana, he obtains an amiable, handsome, and wealthy wife.

8. A woman who does the same, (obtains) a husband (possessing those qualities).

9. If on the full moon day of the month Kaitra the moon enters the lunar asterism Kitrâ, and he gives a variegated (kitra) garment (to a Brâhmana) on that day, he obtains good fortune.

10. If on the full moon day of the month Vaisâkha the moon enters the lunar asterism Visâkhâ, and he feeds on that day seven Brâhmanas with sesamum. mixed with honey, in order to please king Dharma, he is purified from his sins.

11. If on the full moon day of the month Gyaishtha the moon enters the lunar asterism Gyeshtha and he gives on that day an umbrella and a pair of shoes (to a Brâhmana), he becomes possessed of many cows.

12. If on the full moon day of the month Âshâdha the moon is seen in conjunction with the lunar asterism Uttarâshâdhâ and he gives food and drink (to a Brâhmana) on that day, he renders (the satisfaction effected by) them imperishable.

13. If on the full moon day of the month Srâvana the moon is seen in conjunction with the lunar asterism Sravana and he gives a milch cow covered with two garments, together with food (to a Brâhmana), he attains heaven.

14. If on the full moon day of the month Praushthapada

[7. Susamskrita, 'quite complete,' means 'provided with curtains and the like.' (Nand.)]

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(or Bhâdrapada) the moon is seen in conjunction with the lunar asterism Uttaraproshthapadâ (or Uttarabhâdrapadâ), and he gives a cow (to a Brâhmana) on that day, he is cleansed from every sin.

15. If on the full moon day of the month Âsvayuga (or Âsvina) the moon is seen in conjunction with the lunar asterism Asvinî, and he gives a vessel filled with clarified butter, and gold (to a Brâhmana) on that day, he obtains an excellent digestive faculty.

116. If on the full moon day of the month Kârttika the moon enters the lunar asterism. Krittikâ, and he bestows on that day, at the time of moonrise, upon a Brâhmana, a white bull, or one of a different colour, together with all sorts of grains, all sorts of jewels, and all sorts of perfumes, after having lighted lamps on both sides (of the bull), he will meet with no danger on perilous roads.

17- If on the third day of the bright half of the month Vaisâkha he worships, after having fasted, Vâsudeva (Vishnu) with (one thousand and eight, or one hundred) unbroken grains (of barley, while muttering the Mantra, Om namo bhagavate, vâsudevâya[1]), and offers up the same in fire, and gives them (to a Brâhmana), he is purified from every sin.

18. And whatever he gives on that day becomes imperishable.

19. If on the twelfth day of the dark half following on the full moon day of the month Pausha, he washes himself, after having kept a fast, with sesamum-seeds, gives water mixed with sesamum

[17. 1 See XLIX, 1, note.

19. This is evidently the ceremony which is called Shattiladâna {footnote p. 269} in later works; see Wilson loc. cit. The name of the latter is derived from the fact that it consists, precisely like the ceremony described in the present Sûtra, of six acts, in all of which Tila, i. e. sesamum-seeds, forms an essential ingredient.]

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(to the manes), worships Vâsudeva with sesamum, offers up (part of) the same in fire, gives to Brâhmanas of it, and eats (the remainder himself) he is purified from his sins.

20. (If) on the twelfth day of the (the dark half following on the full moon day of the month Mâgha, moon enters Sravana), he must keep a fast till the moon has entered that asterism, and place two lamps with two large wicks near (an image of) Vâsudeva;

21. Placing on the right hand (of the. image of Vâsudeva, and kindling, a lamp) containing one hundred and eight Palas of clarified butter, with an entire piece of cloth (together with the fringes) dyed with saffron (as wick) in it;

22. (And placing) on its left, (and kindling, a lamp) containing one hundred and eight Palas of sesamum oil, with an entire piece of white cloth (as wick) in it.

23. He who has performed this rite obtains exquisite happiness, in whatever kingdom, in whatever province, and in whatever race he may be born again.

24. He who gives daily during the whole month Âsvina clarified butter to Brâhmanas, in order to please the two Asvins, obtains beauty.

25. He who feeds daily during; that mouth (three) Brâhmanas with (milk and other) bovine productions, obtains a kingdom.

26. He who feeds on the Revatâ day of every month (three) Brâhmanas with rice boiled in milk

p. 270

with sugar and mixed with honey and clarified butter, in order to please .(the goddess) Revatî, obtains beauty.

27. He who daily throughout the month Mâgha offers sesamum-seeds in fire and feeds (three) Brâhmanas with sour rice-gruel mixed with clarified butter, obtains an excellent digestive power.

28. He who bathes in a river and worships king Dharma on the fourteenth of both halves of every month, is purified from every sin.

29. One desirous of obtaining the manifold advantages attending an eclipse of the sun or moon must constantly bathe in the mornings during the two months Mâgha and Phâlguna.
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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

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1. The digger of a well has (the consequences of) the half of his evil acts taken from him as soon as the water comes forth from it.

2. A digger of pools is for ever freed from thirst, and attains the world of Varuna.

3. A giver of water shall never stiffer from thirst (in heaven, for a hundred Yugas or ages of the world).

4. He who plants trees will have those trees for his sons in a future existence.

5. A giver of trees gladdens the gods by (offering up) their blossoms to them.

6. (He gladdens) his guests by (giving) their fruits to them;

7. (He gladdens) travellers with their shade;

[XCI. 14. Y. I, 211.--15, 16. M. IV, 229.--17, 18. Y. I, 209.]

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8. (He gladdens) the manes with the water (trickling down from their leaves) when it rains.

9. A maker of dikes attains heaven.

10. A builder of temples enters the dwelling-place of that deity to whom he has erected a temple.

11. He who causes (a temple erected by another) to be whitewashed acquires brilliant fame.

12. He who causes (such a temple) to be painted with (a different) colour (such as blue, yellow, and others) attains the world of the Gandharvas.

13. By giving flowers he becomes fortunate.

14. By giving ointments he acquires renown.

15. By giving a lamp he obtains an excellent eyesight and exquisite happiness.

16. By giving food he obtains strength.

17. By removing the remains of an offering to a deity he obtains the same reward as for giving a cow.

18. The same reward is also obtained by scouring a temple, by smearing it (with cow-dung and the like), by removing the leavings of the food of a Brâhmana, by washing his feet, and by nursing him when sick.

19. He who consecrates anew a well, or a park, or a pool, or a temple (when they have been soiled) obtains the same reward as he who first made them.
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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

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1. Protecting (one attacked by robbers, or by tigers, or otherwise in danger) is more meritorious than any (other) gift.

[XCII. 1, 2. M. IV, 232; Y. I, 211.--3. M. IV, 230-5. M. {footnote p. 272} IV, 231; Y. I, 208.--8, 9. Y. I, 204, 205.--10. Y. I, 210.--10-12. M. IV, 231.--12, 13. Y. I, 210.--13, 14. M. IV, 230.--19, 20. M. IV, 232; Y. I, 211.--21-23. M. IV, 229, 232.--21. Y. I, 210.--27. M. IV, 232; Y. I, 211.--28-32. Y. I, 211.--31. M. IV, 230.]

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2. By doing so he obtains that place of abode (after death) which he desires himself.

3. By giving land he obtains the same (heavenly reward).

4. By giving land to the extent of a bull's hide only he is purified from every sin.

5. By giving a cow he attains heaven.

6. A giver of ten milch cows (obtains) the mansion of cows (after death).

7. A giver of a hundred milch cows enters the mansions of Brahman (after death).

8. He who gives (a milch cow) with gilt horns, with hoofs covered with silver, with a tail wound with a string of pearls, with a milk-pail of white copper, and with a cover of cloth, shall reside in heaven for as many years as the cow has hairs on her body;

9. Particularly, if it is a brown cow.

10. He who has given a tamed bull is (equal in virtue to) a giver of ten milch cows.

[4. Nand. define., 'a bull's hide' as a measure of surface 300 Hastas (see X, 2, note) long by ten Hastas broad. See, however, V, 183.

8. According to a Smriti quoted by Nand., the gold upon the horns of the cow shall weigh ten Suvarnas, the silver on her hoofs ten Palas, the white copper of which the milk-pail is made fifty Palas, and she shall have copper on her back, which must also weigh fifty Palas.

9. 'The meaning is, that a brown cow sends even his ancestors as far as the seventh degree to heaven, as Yâgñavalkya (I, 205) says.' (Nand.)]

p. 273

11. The giver of a horse attains the mansion of Sûrya (the sun-god).

12. The giver of a garment (attains) the mansion of Kandra (the god of the moon).

13. By giving gold (he attains) the mansion of Agni (the god of fire).

14. By giving silver (rûpya, he obtains) beauty (rûpa).

15. By giving dishes (pâtra) made of (gold or silver or other) metal he renders himself worthy (pâtra) to obtain everything he may desire.

16. By giving clarified butter, honey, or oil (he acquires) freedom from disease;

17. The same by giving (boiled or otherwise dressed) drugs.

18. By giving salt (lavana, he obtains) personal charms (lâvanya).

19. By giving grain (produced in the rainy season, such as Syâmâka grain, he acquires) satiation;

20. The same (effect is obtained) by giving grain (produced in winter or spring, such as wild turmeric or wheat).

21. A giver of food (obtains) all the rewards (enumerated above).

22. By giving grain (of any of the kinds not mentioned before, such as Kulattha or Kodrava grain, he obtains) good fortune.

23. A giver of sesamum (obtains) such offspring as he desires.

24. A giver of fuel (obtains) an excellent digestive power;

25. And he obtains victory in every fight.

26. By giving a seat (he obtains) high rank.

27. By giving a bed.(of the kind declared above,

p. 274

XC, 7, he procures) a wife (possessed of the qualities mentioned above).

28. By giving a pair of shoes (he obtains) a carriage yoked with mules.

29. By giving an umbrella (he attains) heaven.

30. By giving a fan or a chowrie (he obtains) prosperity in travelling.

31. By giving a house (he receives) the post of governor of a town.

32. Whatever a man is most fond of in this world (himself) and what his family like best, all that he must bestow upon a virtuous (Brâhmana), if he wishes it to become imperishable.
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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

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1. What is given to another than a Brâhmana produces the same fruit in the world to come.

2. (What is given) to one who calls himself a Brâhmana (because he was born and initiated as such, but who does not perform his daily duties) produces twice the same fruit.

3. (What is given) to one who has studied the main portions of the Veda produces a thousand times the same fruit.

[XCIII. 1-4. M. VII, 85; Gaut. V, 20.--7. M. IV, 192.--8. M. IV, 195.--9-13. M. IV, 196-200.

1. 'The term abrâhmana (one not a Brâhmana) refers to Kshatriyas and the like. Kullûka on M. VII, 85. Dr. Bühler's rendering of Gautama V, 20 agrees with this interpretation. Nand., on the other hand, refers the term abrâhmana to six kinds of Brâhmanas enumerated by Sâtâtapa, who have infringed the rule of their caste by taking their substance from a king, or by selling or buying forbidden articles, or by sacrificing for a multitude of persons, &c. The term 'the same fruit' means that a person shall receive in a future world what he has given in this. (Nand.)]

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4. (What is given) to one who has mastered the whole Veda, produces infinite fruit.

5. A domestic priest may claim gifts from his own employer (but from no one else).

6. And so may a sister, a daughter and sons-in-law (or other connections claim gifts from their. brother, father, &c., but not from a stranger).

7. One who knows his duty must not give even water to a twice-born man who acts like a cat, or to a Brâhmana who acts like a crane, or to one who has not studied the Veda.

8. One who constantly hoists the flag of religion, and who is avaricious, crafty, deceitful, pitiless, and a calumniator of everybody, such a man is said to act like a cat.

9. One who hangs his head, who is bent upon, injuring others and upon his own gain, artful, and falsely demure, such a man is said to act like, a crane.

10. Those who act like cranes in this world, and those who act like cats, fall into (the hell called) Andhatâmisra[1] on account . of their wickedness.

11. If a man has committed an offence and does penance for it, he must not do so under pretext of performing an act of piety, covering his crime under a (fictitious) vow, and imposing on women and Sûdras.

12. A Brâhmana who acts thus, is despised in the next life and in this by those who know the Veda, and the penance performed by him under such false pretence goes to the (demons called) Râkshasas.

[10. 1 See XLIII, 3.]

p. 176

13. One who gains his subsistence by wearing (a lock on the crown of the head or other) distinguishing marks of a caste or religious order, to which he does not belong, takes upon himself the (consequences of the) sins committed by those who have a right to those marks, and enters in a future birth the womb of an animal.

14. He must not give (to a panegyrist) from vain-glory, or from fear, or to a friend (from whom he hopes to obtain benefit), nor (must he bestow gifts), with a view to acquire religious merit, upon dancers or singers:, that is a fixed rule.
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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

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1. A householder, when he sees his skin has become wrinkled and his hair turned grey, must go to live in a forest.

2. Or (he must do so) when he sees the son of his son.

3. Let him (before going into the forest) entrust the care of his wife to his sons, or let her accompany him.

4. Let him keep the sacred fires in his new abode as before.

5. He must not omit to perform the five sacrifices,

[XCIV. 1, 2. M. VI, 2.--3, 4. M. VI, 3, 4; Y. III, 4; Âpast. II, 9, 22, 8, 9.--5. M. VI, 5, 16; Y. III, 46; Gaut. III, 29.--6. M. VI. 8; Y. III, 48.--7. M. VI. 26; Y. III, 45; Âpast. II, 9, 21, 19.--8. M. VI, 6; Âpast. II, 9, 22, 1; Gaut. VI, 34.--9, 10. M. VI, 6; Y. III, 46, 48.--9, 11. Gaut III, 34, 35.--11. M. VI, 18; Y. III, 47.--12. M. VI, 15; Y. III, 47; Âpast. II, 9, 22, 24.--13. M. VI. 28; Y. III, 55. 'The duties of a householder having been declared, he now goes on to expound the duties of an hermit.' (Nand.)

5. See LIX, 20 seq.]

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but (he must perform them) with (fruits, herbs, or roots) growing wild.

6. He must not relinquish the private recitation of the Veda.

7. He must preserve his chastity.

8. He must wear a dress made of skins or bark.

9. He must suffer the hairs of his head, of his beard, and of his body, and his nails to grow.

10. He must bathe at morning. noon, and evening.

11. He must either collect provisions, after the manner of the pigeon, for a month, or he must collect them for a year.

12. He who has collected provisions for a year, must throw away what he has collected on the day of full moon in the month Âsvina.

13. Or an hermit may bring food from a village, placing it in a dish made of leaves, or in a single leaf, or in his hand, or in a potsherd, and eat eight mouthfuls of it.
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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

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1. An hermit must dry up his frame by the practice of austerities.

2. In summer he must expose himself to five fires.

[6. The use of the particle ka implies, according to Nand., that the practice of distributing gifts should likewise be continued.

11. The particle vâ here refers, according to Nand., to a third alternative mentioned by Manu (VI, 18), that he should gather provisions sufficient for six months.

XCV. 1. M. VI, 24.--2-4. M. VI, 23; Y. III, 52.--5, 6. M. VI, 19; Y. III, 50.--7-11. M. VI, 5, 21; Y. III, 46; Âpast. II, 9, 22, 2; Gaut. III, 26.--12, 13. M. VI, 20; Y. III, 50.--14, 15. M. VI, 17; Y. III, 49.--16, 17. M. XI, 235, 239.]

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3. During the season of the rains he must sleep in the open air.

4. In winter he must wear wet clothes.

5. He must eat at night.

6. He may eat after having fasted entirely for one day, or for two days, or for three days.

7. He may eat flowers. 8. He may eat fruits.

9. He may eat vegetables.

10. He may eat leaves. 11. He may eat roots.

12. Or he may eat boiled barley once at the close of a half-month.

13. Or he may eat according to the rules of the Kândrâyana.

14. He shall break his food with stones.

15. Or he shall use his teeth as a pestle.

16. This whole world of deities and of men has devotion for its root, devotion for its middle, devotion for its end, and is supported by devotion.

17, What is hard to follow[1], hard to reach, remote, or hard to do, all that may be accomplished by devotion; since there is nothing that may not be effected by devotion.

[6. Nand. considers the particle vâ to refer to the precept of Yâgñavalkya (III, 50), that the fast may also extend over a half-month or an entire month.

13. The particle vâ, according to Nand., implies that he may also perform Krikkhras, as ordained -by Yâgñavalkya (III, 50). Regarding the Kândrâyana, see XLVII.

17. 'Duskara has been translated according to the usual acceptation of this term. Nand. interprets it by 'hard to understand.' This proverb is also found Subhâshitârnava 109, Vriddhakânakhya's Proverbs XVII, 3. See Böhtlingk, Ind. Sprüche, 5265.]
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Re: The Institutes of Vishnu, translated by Julius Jolly

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1. After having passed through the first three orders and annihilated passion, he must offer an oblation to Pragâpati, in which he bestows all his wealth (upon priests) as fee for the performance of the sacrifice, and enter the order of ascetics.

2. Having reposited the fires in his own mind, he must enter the village, in order to collect alms, (but never for any other purpose).

3. He must beg food at seven houses.

4. If he does not get food (at one house), he must not grieve.

5, He must not beg of another ascetic.

6. When the servants have had their meal, when the dishes have been removed, let him beg food (consisting of the leavings).

7. (He must receive the food) in an earthen vessel, or in a wooden bowl, or in a vessel made of the bottle-gourd.

8. He must cleanse those vessels with water.

9. He must shun food obtained by humble salutation.

[XCVI. 1. M. VI, 38; Y. III, 56.--2. M. VI; 38, 43; Y. III, 56, 58.--4. M. VI, 57.--6. M. VI, 56; Y. III, 59; Gaut., III, 15.--7, 8. M. VI, 54, 53; Y. III, 60.--9. M. VI, 58.--11. M. VI, 44.--12. Gaut. III, 21.--13. Gaut. III, 18.--14-17. M. VI, 46.--18. M. VI, 45.--19, 20. M. VI, 47.--23. Y. III, 53; Mahâbhârata I, 4605.--24. M. VI, 49; Y. III, 201.--25-42. M. VI, 61-64; Y. III, 63, 64.--43. Y. III, 72.--45-50. M. VI, 76, 77.--51, 54-79. Y. III, 70, 84-90.--80-88. Y. III, 100-104.--80-89, 91. Y. III, 93-95.--92. Y. III, 96-99.--93-95. Y. III, 91, 92.--96. Y. III, 179.--97. M. XII, 12; Y. III, 178.--97, 98. Bhagavad-gîtâ XIII, 1, 2. This chapter treats of ascetics. (Nand.)

4. 'This implies that he must not rejoice if he does get it, as Manu (VI, 67) says.' (Nand.)]

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10. He must live in an empty house.

11. Or (he must) live at the root of a tree.

12. He must not stay for more than one night in one village (except during the rainy season).

13. His only dress must be a small piece of cloth worn over the privities.

14. He must set down his feet purified by looking down.

15. He must drink water purified (by straining it) with a cloth.

16. He must utter speeches purified by truth.

17. He must perform acts purified by his mind.

18. He must neither wish for death nor for (a long) life.

19. He must bear abuse patiently.

20. He must treat no one with contempt.

21. He must not pronounce a benediction.

22. He must not salute any one reverentially.

[10. 'Empty' means 'inhabited by no one else,' and implies that the house in question should be situated in a dark place, difficult of access. (Nand.)

11. 'The article vâ implies that he must live there alone.' (Nand.)

14, 15. Nand. assigns as the reason of both these rules, 'lest he should not kill some insect.' Kullûka (on M. VI, 46) gives the same reason for the second rule, but the looking down, according to him, is ordained in. order that be may not accidentally tread upon a hair or other impure substance.

17. The sense of this Sûtra is, that in doubtful cases he must act as his mind prompts him to do. (Nand.)

21. 'The meaning is, that he must not utter a benediction when he has been reverentially saluted by any one. He must confine himself to saying, "O Nârâyana." Others explain, that he must not utter a benediction in begging food.' (Nand.)

22. 'The sense is, that he must not salute any one reverentially who has reverentially saluted him, nor return his greeting {footnote p. 281} otherwise than by saying, "O Nârâyana." Others explain, that he must not make an obeisance in begging food.' (Nand.)]

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23. Should one man chop his one arm with an axe, and another sprinkle his other arm with sandal, he must neither curse the one in his mind, nor bless the other.

24. He must constantly be intent upon stopping his breath, upon retention of the image formed in his mind, and upon meditation.

25. He must reflect upon the transitoriness of the passage through mundane existence;

26. And upon the impure nature of the body;

27. And upon the destruction of beauty by old age;

28. And upon the pain arising from diseases bodily, mental, or due to an excess (of the bile, &c.)

29. And upon (the pain arising from) the (five) naturally inherent (affections).

30. On his having to dwell in an embryo, covered with everlasting darkness;

[24. Nand. quotes a passage of the Yogasâstra, which states that one Dhâranâ = three Prânâyâmas (stoppings or regulations of the breath). A passage of the Gâruda-purana quoted in the Petersburg Dictionary) states that one Dhâranâ = sixteen Prânâyâmas. I have taken the term dhâranâ in its ordinary acceptation of 'retention of an idea' (cf. Wilson, Vishnu-purâna V, 237) with regard to an analogous passage of Yâgñavalkya (III, 201), which is also quoted by Nand.,

28. According to Nand,, the particle ka is used to include other diseases, love, anxiety or wrath, caused by enemies, and other mental pangs.

29. They are, ignorance, egotism, love, wrath, and dread of temporal suffering (Nand., according to Patañgali). The particle ka, according to Nand., is used in order to imply meditation upon the thousand births which man has to pass through, as stated by Yâgñavalkya (III, 64).]

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31. And on (his having to dwell) between urine and fæces;

32. On his having to suffer, (as an embryo,) pain from the cold and hot. (food and drink, which his mother happens to have taken);

33, On the dreadful pain which he has to suffer, at the time of his birth, while the embryo is coming forth from the narrowness of the womb;

34. On his ignorance and his dependency upon his (parents and other) Gurus in childhood;

35. On the manifold anxieties arising from the study of the Veda (and from the other obligations of a student);

36. And (on the anxieties arising) in youth from not obtaining the objects of pleasure, and upon the abode in bell (ordained as punishment) for enjoying them, after they have been obtained unlawfully;

37. On the union with those whom we hate, and the separation from those whom we love;

38. On the fearful agonies of hell;

39. And (on the agonies) that have to be suffered in the passage of the soul through the bodies of animals (and of plants).

40. (And let him reflect thus that) there is no pleasure to be met with in this never-ceasing passage of the soul through mundane existence;

41. '(And that) even what is called pleasure, on account of the absence of pain, is of a transient nature;

42. (And that) he who is unable to enjoy such pleasures (from sickness or some such cause), or who is unable to procure them (from poverty), suffers severe pangs.

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43. He must recognise this human frame to consist of seven elements. blood, flesh,

44. Those elements are, adeps, scrum of flesh, bone, marrow, and semen.

45. It is covered with skin.

46. And it has a nasty smell.

47. It is the receptacle of (the above-named) impure substances (adeps and the rest).

48. Though surrounded by a hundred pleasures, it is subject to change.

49. Though carefully supported (by elixirs and the like), it is subject to destruction.

50. It is the stay of carnal desire, wrath, greed, folly, pride, and selfishness.

51. It consists of earth, water, fire, air, and ether.

52. it is provided with bone, tubular vessels (carrying bile and phlegm through the body), tubes (conducting the vital airs), and sinews.

53. It is endowed with the quality of ragas (passion).

54. It is covered with six skins.

55. It is kept together by three hundred and sixty bones.

56. They are distributed (as follows):

57. The teeth together with their receptacles are sixty-four in number.

[46. The particle ka, according to Nand., refers to the fact that the human body is defiled by the touch of impure objects.

48. 'The meaning is that, though food and drink and other sensual enjoyments abound, they may cause pain as well as pleasure by producing phlegm, &c.' (Nand.)

51. 'Earth,' i.e. the flesh and bone, &c.; 'water,' i.e. the blood; 'fire,' i. e. the digestive faculty, the eyesight, &c.; 'air,' i. e. the five vital airs; 'ether,' i. e. the space enclosed by the airs, in the mouth, in the belly, &c. (Nand.)]

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58. There are twenty nails.

59. There are as many bones to the hands and feet (one at the root of each finger and toe).

60. There are sixty joints to the fingers and toes.

61. There are two (bones) to the two heels.

62. There are four to the ancles. {sic}

63. There are four to the elbows.

64. There are two to the shanks.

65. There are two to the knees and two to the cheeks.

66. (There are two) to the thighs and (two) to the shoulders.

67. (There are two) to the lower part of the temples, (two) to the palate, and (two) to the hips.

68. There is one bone to the organs of generation.

69. The backbone consists of forty-five (bones).

70. The neck consists of fifteen (bones).

71. The collar-bone consists of one (bone on each side).

72. The jaw likewise.

73. There are two (bones) at its root.

74. There are two (bones) to the forehead, (two) to the eyes, and (two) to the cheeks.,

75. The nose has one bone, the nose-bone.

76. The ribs together with the joints called 'arbuda,' and with the joints called 'sthânaka,' consist of seventy-two (bones).

77. The breast contains seventeen bones.

[76. 'There are thirteen ribs to each flank, which makes in all twenty-six ribs. There are twenty joints to them in the breast, called "arbuda," and twenty-six joints in the back, called "sthânaka." which makes a total of seventy-two bones.' (Nand.)]

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78. There are two temporal bones.

79. The head has four skull-bones. Thus (the bones have been enumerated).

80. There are in this human frame seven hundred tubular vessels (carrying bile and phlegm through the body, or arteries).

81. Of sinews, there are nine hundred.

82. Of tubes (conducting the vital airs, or nerves), there are two hundred.

83. Of muscles, there are five hundred.

84. Of tubular vessels (or arteries), the branches of the smaller tubular vessels, there are twenty-nine Lakshas (two millions nine hundred thousand) and nine hundred and fifty-six.

85. Of hair-holes, of the hair of the beard and of the head, there are three hundred thousand.

86. Of sensitive parts of the body, there are one hundred and seven.

87. Of joints, there are two hundred.

89. Of (atoms of) hairs (of the body), there are fifty-four Kotis (or five hundred and forty millions) and sixty-seven Lakshas (making in all five hundred and forty-six millions and seven hundred thousand).

89. The navel, the principle of vital action (which dwells in the heart), the anus, semen, blood, the temples, the head, the throat, and the heart are the seats of the vital airs.

90. The two arms, the two legs, the belly, and the bead are the six limbs.

91. Adeps, marrow, the left lung, the navel, the right lung, the liver, the spleen, the small cavity of the heart, the kidneys, the bladder, the rectum, the stomach, the heart, the large cavity (intestine), the

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anus, the belly, and the two bowels in it (are the inner parts of the body).

92. The pupils of the eye, the eyelashes[1], the outer parts of the cars, the ears themselves, the tragus of each ear, the cheeks, the eyebrows, the temples, the gums, the lips, the cavities of the loins, the two groins, the scrotum, the two kidneys and breasts of females, which are composed of phlegm, the uvula, the hindparts, the arms, the shanks, the thighs, the fleshy parts of the shanks and thighs, the palate, the two bones (or muscles) at the upper end of the bladder, the chin, the soft palate, and[2] the nape of the neck: these are the 'places' (of vital energy) in the body.

93. Sound, tangibility, form or colour, savour, and odour are the (five) objects of sense.

94. Nose, eye, skin, tongue, and ear are the (five) organs of perception.

95. Hands, feet, anus, parts of generation, and tongue are the (five) organs of action.

96. Mind, intellect, the individual Self, and the indiscrete' are 'that which exceeds the senses.'

97. This human frame, O Earth, is called 'field.' He who knows (how to enter and how to leave) it is denominated, by those conversant with the

[92. 1 Others interpret akshikûte, 'the eyelashes,' by 'the joints between the eyes and the nose.' (Nand.) See also Böhtlingk's new. Dictionary.--2 The use of the particle ka implies, according to Nand., that the feet, hands, and other limbs mentioned in an analogous passage of Yâgñavalkya (III, 99) have also to be included in this enumeration.

96. 1 Nand. interprets avyaktam, 'the indiscrete,' by pradhânam, 'the chief one.' Both terms are in the. Sânkhya system of philosophy synonyms of prakriti, 'that which evolves or produces everything else.']

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subject, 'the knower of the field' (i.e. Self or Soul).

98. Know me, O illustrious one, to be the Self of all fields (whether born from the womb, or arisen from an egg, or from sweat, or from a germ or shoot). Those striving after final emancipation must constantly seek to understand the 'field' and to obtain a knowledge of the knower of the field.
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